The Dajjal (Antichrist) and the Return of Jesus: A Research

Oleh: thadu

May 6, 2010

The Dajjal (Antichrist) and the Return of Jesus in the light of evidence; a summary of  and a response to the book ‘The Dajjal and the Return of Jesus’ by Yusuf ibn Abdullah ibn Yusuf al-Wabil

“There has been no affliction, nor will there be until the hour is established, greater than that of the Dajjal.” Ahmed [3/292]

Masih Vs Masih

The Word Masih is applied to someone who is either very truthful or to someone who is a misguiding habitual liar. Thus, al-Masih Isa ibn Maryam is the very truthful, while al-Masih al-Dajjal is the misguiding habitual liar. So Allah has creates two messiahs, both are in complete contrast of the other.

Isa ibn Maryam is the Masih of guidance, who healed the blind, the lepers, and gave life to the dead by Allah’s permission. And the false messiah will subject mankind to trail and tribulations, by means of the signs that he will be given such as bringing down rain, reviving the earth with vegetation and other miracles besides these. (a-Wabil, 2009, pp. 13, 14)

The usage of the word ‘miracles’ by the author amazes me; as this word ‘miracles’ have a specific definition in Islam. It is acts that humans can by no means achieve that are granted to the prophets of Allah as a sign that their prophet hood is true. For instance, the Holy Quran that is bestowed upon the Islamic ummah via Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) is certainly the miracle of the miracles.

Therefore, a sign that prophets are blessed with, by no means is applicable for a devil such as the Dajjal. In fact, Dajjal’s powers and capabilities could not be referred to as a miracle, and in a later part of this document, I would explain what it might in reality be.


The Meaning of Dajjal

The Dajjal is described as one who mixes and confuses truth with falsehood, which lies habitually and also who comes with miraculous feats. Furthermore, the word Dajjal has become synonymous with the one-eyed lying devil that is mentioned in the words of the Prophet (PBUH).  (a-Wabil, 2009, pp. 15, 16)

The Descriptions of Dajjal and the Narrations Relating Them

The Believers amongst the people will be able to recognize the Dajjal as per the descriptions which are revealed by the Prophet (PBUH). These descriptions will distinguish him from other people and he will only be able to deceive the ignorant. (a-Wabil, 2009, p. 17)

From Abdulla ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with), who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: “Whilst I was sleeping, I saw myself performing Tawaf around Ka’bah, when I saw a dark man with straight hair, standing between two other men, with water dripping from his head. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They said, ‘The son of Maryam’.

Then I turned and saw a ruddy-complexioned man, well built, with curly hair, blind in his right eye, with his eye looking like a floating grape.


I asked, ‘Who is this?’

They said, ‘This is Dajjal.’ The person who looks most like him is Ibnu Qatan.””

In another narration it is stated “He will be a young man with very thick curly hair, with his eye floating. It is as if he looks like Abdul Uzza ibn Qatan.” And in another, “…As for the false masih of misguidance, then certainly he will be one-eyed, with a wide forehead and broad upper chest and he will be hunchbacked.”

Also, “…and between his eyes will be written Kafir.”, “This will be read by every believer, literate or illiterate.” (a-Wabil, 2009, pp. 17 – 23)

Is Dajjal really a person like we imagine? A man that is odd with all sorts of magical wisdom and powers with the word Kafir written on his forehead? Or could it be a person that is scientifically well equipped? And by the words ‘this will be read by every believer, literate or illiterate’. Could this mean that a believer will be able to identify who the Dajjal is as clearly as if it was written on his face? Or does it really mean that even illiterate people will somehow start reading/understanding Arabic words even if that particular person never knew the Arabic characters and letters? The actual meaning of this hadith could very well be that the believers would understand from the actions of Dajjal that he in fact is the Dajjal that is been mentioned in the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) and might not necessarily mean that the word ‘Kafir’ is written in between his eyes. Allah knows best!


Prohibited Lands for the Dajjal and his Followers

The hadith of Fathimah bint Qays, “…I shall acquaint you about myself. Indeed I am the Masih al Dajjal; Soon it will be permitted for me to leave this place and I will emerge and travel the earth in forty days, not leaving a village/town except that I enter it, besides Makkah and Tayyibah. For they will be forbidden for me to enter. Every time I try to enter either of them, I will be met by an angel bearing an unsheathed sword preventing me from entering them: And verily every path leading to it will have angels guarding them” (a-Wabil, 2009, pp. 75, 76)

Several of the Sheikhs, based on this hadith, explain Dajjal as a person who will travel at a very high speed. Yes, indeed, a person who would travel the world in forty days will have to fly or swim very fast! Is Dajjal a person carrying flowing rivers in his one hand and a burning fire in his other hand? I doubt! And this interpretation by these sheikhs is illogical and extremely outdated. We aren’t riding camels and living in deserts anymore! We know that with today’s technological advancements to travel the world in forty days does not need to have any extra powers or miraculous feats. And also these sheikhs somehow forget the hadith that describes the mentioned forty days, which will be explained later in this document. And even years back educated people do not expect it as an impossibility; the story of Passé partout and his journey around the world in 80 days is a sheer evidence.

In the book, the author writes, “The majority of the followers of the Dajjal will be from among the Jews, the non-Arabs, Persians and Turks, and a mixture of common people, predominantly Bedouins and women.” (a-Wabil, 2009, p. 77)

In this statement by the author two things caught my eyes. ‘Non-Arabs and Women’. I could not find a reason or any evidence from the hadiths mentioned by the author in this chapter that a majority of non-Arabs will be followers of Dajjal. And this I only see as a pure discrimination. Dajjal isn’t about Arabs and Non-Arabs, it is about believers and non-believers! And the words by the author, “As for women, then their state is more severe than that of the Bedouins, because they are quickly influenced and a lot of ignorance is found in them.” (a-Wabil, 2009, p. 79) Proves that the author is for some reason against women! Allah created humans (that includes men and women) and raised their stature above all other creations. Thus, the usage of words such as ignorant in referring to Allah’s finest creation is a sheer mockery to Allah and His creations! In support of what the author has mentioned regarding women, once again he has shown no evidence from Quran or Sunnah! It is clearly stated in hadith that the Dajjal is a test for Believers. It is not a test for men and women, or not a test of intelligent vs. ignorant. Thus, whether a man or a woman, as long as the person is a believer he/she would be able to identify the Dajjal. And following him or leaving him is merely based on the faith of the person, and not the gender!


And regarding his main followers been Jews, this is very much believable based on evidence and how the world is moving right now, even at this very moment. How the world powers are protecting Israel, the talks about The New World Order, the 9/11 event, Satanism etc adds to the possibility that it is at the lands of Israel the Dajjal would be revealed.

The Trials and Tribulations of the Dajjal

“The trail of the Dajjal will be the greatest trail and tribulation; from the time when Allah created Adam until the Hour establishes. This will be because of the great miraculous feats that Allah will create with him, which will astonish the minds and perplex the intelligent ones.” (a-Wabil, 2009, p. 81)

Here the author has once again mentioned that what the Dajjal will show to the people would be miracles. It perhaps is based on the hadiths below.

The Prophet (PBUH) said when questioned regarding Dajjals duration in the world, “Forty days; one day like a yea, one day like a month, one day like a  week, and the rest of the days like your days.” (a-Wabil, 2009, p. 83)

From these words of the Prophet (PBUH) we can clearly see that the forty days of Dajjal is not 24 Hour 40 days. Rather it adds up to:

One day like a year, which means that the first day of his forty days on the earth would be as lengthy as a year, which is 360 days approximately.

One day like a month, which means that a second day of his forty days would be equivalent to a month, which is 30 days.

One day like a week; this makes a third day equivalent to 7 days.

And the rest of the days like your day’s leaves37 more days.

With this calculation, the days for Dajjal on this earth sums approximately up to a 434 days.


As mentioned earlier, because it is mentioned that the Dajjal will travel the world in forty days, some sheikhs widen their eyes, forget the technologies, forget the above hadith, and try to convince that Dajjal will fly at very high speed covering all the countries with in forty days! But in reality it is approximately 434 days and to travel the world in this duration does not require any miraculous feats as assumed by some sheikhs! Allah knows best.

And the Prophet (PBUH) continues, “(Dajjal would travel) Like the clouds when they are driven by the wind. He will come to some people and call them, and they will believe in him and respond to him. Then he will command the sky to rain, and the earth to produce vegetation and their cattle will return back to them in the evening, with their humps very high, and their udders full of milk, and their flanks stretched.

Then he will come to another people and will call them, but they will reject him. So he will leave them and they will be stricken with famine, left with no wealth in their hands. He will pass by ruins and will say, ‘Bring forth your treasure!’ – And the treasure will follow him like a swarm of bees. Then he will call a man overflowing in youth, and will strike him with a sword and cut him in two, then the distance of an archer from his target. Then he will call him, and the young man will come forward smiling, with his face shining. ” (a-Wabil, 2009, pp. 83, 84)

Reading the above hadith, some people might get the feeling that the Dajjal is some sort of magical person who will point a finger towards the sky and command to it rain, and the sky would rain, or perhaps he would do some magic with his wand and a cow would come to life from death! Or like in Aladdin he would be travelling on a magic carpet at the speed of light or something! Or he would say some spells and all the vegetation and bestowments from Allah would vanish!

These thoughts are in fact crazy thoughts as I see them. We know that several of the things mentioned in hadiths and even in the Quran sometimes have indirect meanings. For instance the revelations on finger tips been different for each person, and about the skin been replaced over and over again have more scientific meanings to it than just the literal meanings.


If we consider today’s scientific innovations and creations, what mentioned in the above hadith, does not necessarily requires a magic wand and miraculous powers!

Technologically it is possible to clear the clouds. Likewise, with this been possible it would also be possible to gather clouds to a location. Hence, could it be these technologies that the Dajjal would use to ‘amaze’ people? Could be, yes? We know that by giving medicine to chickens we are able to get several thousand eggs a day. The process been made faster and quicker with the use of medical innovations, likewise, in the time of Dajjal maybe he’d carry a few tricks up his sleeve to full the udders of cows with milk, ‘snap’, just like that! Who knows?

What I am trying to elaborate here is that the Dajjal does not necessarily require being a person that is odd, huge, with a hell on one hand and with rivers flowing on his other hand! These sorts of ideologies and assumptions make Islam less convincible to human mind. During this era of science and technology, we need to think more positive and in logical manners to understand the world, understand the prophecies, and to understand what is been revealed upon us by the Almighty and His Prophet (PBUH).



Who is the evil Dajjal (the "anti-Christ")?
by Mohammed Ali Ibn Zubair Ali

Note: Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam) has exhorted the regular recital of Suratul Kahf which will most certainly save one from the Evils of Dajjal.

Hadhrat Imraan bin Husain (R.A.) relates that, "I heard Rasulullah (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saying: "Since the birth of Adam (A.S.) till the advent of Qiyamah there is no fitnah (evil, test) much greater that of Dajjal."

Hadhrat Huzaifah (R.A.) says, Dajjal will be blind in his left eye. He will have very thick hair on his body and he will also have his own type of Jannat (Heaven) and Jahannam (Hell) with him: Although his Jannat will appear as Jannat, in reality it will be Jahannam and likewise though his Jahannam will appear to be Jahannam, in reality it will be Jannat.
(Hadith: Muslim)

Imraan bin Husain (R.A.) says Rasulullah (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "Those who hear about Dajjal should stay far from him. By Allah! A person will approach him thinking him to be a Believer, but on seeing his amazing feats he will become his follower."

Ubadah bin Saamit (R.A.) once said, "I have explained Dajjal to you but I fear that you might not have understood. Maseeh Dajjal will be short, and his legs will be crooked. The hair on his head will be extremely twisted. He will have one eye (with which he can see, and this is the protruding eye about which other ahadeeth inform us) while his other eye will be totally flat. It will neither be deep (in its socket) nor protruding.

If you still have any doubt regarding him then remember that your Sustainer (Rabb) is not one-eyed. (Because Dajjal will eventually claim to be Allah). In a lengthy Hadith narrated by Abu Saeed (R.A.), Rasulullah (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said: "Dajjal will come but it will be prohibited and impossible for him to enter Madina. He will set up camp in a barren land outside Madina. One person who will be the best of persons will confront him by saying: "I bear witness that you are the very Dajjal about whom Rasulullah (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has informed us."

Dajjal will say to his followers, "If I kill this person and then revive him, you people will still doubt me?"


They will reply, "No."

He will then kill this person, (according to another narration he will split this person in two) and thereafter revive him. This person will say, "I am totally convinced more than ever before that you definitely are Dajjal."

Dajjal will attempt to kill this person again but his efforts will now be in vain.

(According to a hadith, after this incident, Dajjal will not be able to harm anyone.)

Hadhrat Anas (R.A.) says that Rasulullah (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "Dajjal will come and finally reach the outskirts of Madina. There will be three tremors. At that time, all the disbelievers and hypocrites will flee (from Madina).

In this way Madina Munawwarah will be purified of all the evil hypocrites.

Hadhrat Asma bint Yazeed (R.A.) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) once came to my house and there he spoke about Dajjal. He said that before the emergence of Dajjal there will be three spells of drought. In one year the skies will withold one third of its rains, causing the earth to withold one third of its produce. In the second year the skies will withold two thirds of its rains, causing the earth to withold two thirds of its produce. In the third year, the skies will withold all its water and there will be no crops that year. All animals, be they hooved or toothed, will die as a result. The greatest evil of Dajjall will be to approach anyone and ask him: "If I bring your camel back to life, will you then believe that I am your Rabb?"

This person will reply, "Most certainly."

Thereafter Shaytaan (from the many Shayateen who will always accompany Dajjal) will appear before this person in the form of his camel with a fat hump and fully laden udders.

Likewise Dajjal will appear before another person whose father and brother have long passed away and ask him, "If I bring your father and brother back to life will you believe that I am your Rabb?"

This person will reply, "Why not?"

Shaytaan will once again take on the appearance of his brother and father…

Hadhrat Mughira ibn Shu’ba (R.A.) says that, "No one asked Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam) about Dajjal as much as myself. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam) said to me, "How can he possibly harm you?"

I said: "People are saying that he will have with him a mountain of bread (provisions) and a river of water."

Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam) said: "In the sight of Allah he is much more disgraced than that. (i.e. Allah knows full well that in reality Dajjal has nothing with him, and all that which appears to be with him is but deception). (Bukhari and Muslim).

seven-headed-beast (1)

Other Ahadeeth regarding Dajjal inform us that:

He will emerge between Shaam and Iraq, and his emergence will become known when he is in Isfahaan at a place called Yahudea.
The Yahudis (Jews) of Isfahaan will be his main followers.
Apart from having mainly Yahudi followers, he will have a great number of women followers as well.
He will have with him fire and water, but in reality the fire will be cold water while that what appears to be cold water will in reality be a blazing fire.
Those who obey him will enter "his Jannat" while those who disobey him will enter "his Jahannam."
There will be a thick fingernail-like object in his left eye.
The letters "Kaa" "Faa" "Raa" will appear on his forehead and will be deciphered by all Mu’mineen regardless of them being literate or not.
He will have a wheatish complexion.
He will travel at great speeds and his means of conveyance will be a gigantic mule. It is said that he will play beautiful music which will attract the music lovers.
Dajjal will lay claim to prophethood.
He will then lay claim to Divinity.
He will perform unusual feats.
He will travel the entire world. He will send down rains upon those who believe in him, which in turn will cause good crops to grow, trees to bear fruit and cattle to grow fat.
He will cause drought to those who disbelieve in him, resulting in starvation and hardship for them.
During those trying times the Mu’mineen will satiate their hunger through the recitation of Subhanallah and La’ilaha Ilallahu.
The hidden treasures will spill forth at his command. He will stay on this Earth for a period of forty days; the length of the first day will be one year, the second day will be equal to one month, the third day will be equal to a week and the remaining days will be normal.
He will be unable to enter Makkah because the Malaikah will be guarding the Holy City and nor will he be able to enter Madina because there will be Malaikah guarding each of the seven entrances to Madina; From Madina he will proceed towards Shaam where Imaam Mahdi will be stationed.
Finally Isa (A.S.) will descend from the heavens and pursue him and eventually kill him at present day Lydda (Baad Lud).

from: "Signs of Qiyamah"
by Mohammed Ali Ibn Zubair Ali



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Antichrist (disambiguation).

Antichrist and the devil. From the Deeds of the Antichrist fresco by Luca Signorelli, c. 1501

File:Apocalypse vasnetsov.jpg

The term or title antichrist, according to some Christians‘ interpretation of various biblical eschatological passages, refers to an "end time" leader who fulfills Biblical prophecies concerning an adversary of Christ, while resembling him in a deceptive manner. The antichrist will seemingly provide for the needs of the people but deny the ultimate salvation. "Antichrist" is the English translation of the original Koine Greek ἀντίχριστος, pronounced än-tē’-khrē-stos. It is made up of two root words, αντί + Χριστός (anti + Christos). "Αντί" can mean not only “against” and “opposite of”, but also “in place of",[1] "Χριστός", translated "Christ", is Greek for the Hebrew "Messiah" meaning "anointed," and refers to Jesus of Nazareth[2] within Christian theology. The term "antichrist" appears five times in 1 John and 2 John of the New Testament — once in plural form and four times in the singular.[3] The Apostle Paul’s Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, in particular the 2nd chapter, summarizes the nature, work, coming, and revelation of the "Man of Sin" – a passage often regarded as referring to same person as the antichrist of 1 and 2 John.

Biblical references

New Testament

The words antichrist and antichrists appear five times in the First and Second Epistle of John.[4][5][6][7] The word is not capitalized in most English translations of the Bible, including the original King James Version. 1 John chapter 2 refers to many antichrists present at the time while warning of one Antichrist that is coming.[8] The "many antichrists" belong to the same spirit as that of the one Antichrist.[6][8] John wrote that such antichrists deny "that Jesus is the Christ", "the Father and the Son", and would "not confess Jesus came in the flesh.": a probable reference to the Gnostic claim that Jesus was not human, but only a spirit.

Related terms

Many commentators, both ancient and modern, identify the Man of Sin in 2 Thessalonians chapter 2 as the Antichrist, even though they vary greatly in who they view the Antichrist to be.[9] Paul provides greater detail than found in John’s letters.[10] He uses the term "Man of Sin" (sometimes translated son of perdition or man of lawlessness) to describe what John identifies as the Antichrist.[11]

Paul writes that this Man of Sin will possess a number of characteristics. These include "sitting in the temple", opposing himself against anything that is worshiped, claiming divine authority,[12] working all kinds of counterfeit miracles and signs,[13] and doing all kinds of evil.[14] Paul notes that "the mystery of lawlessness"[15] (though not the Man of Sin himself) was working in secret already during his day and will continue to function until being destroyed on the Last Day.[16] His identity is to be revealed after that which is restraining him is removed.[10][16]

The term is also often applied to prophecies regarding a "Little horn" power in Daniel 7.[17] Daniel 9:27 mentions an "abomination that causes desolations" setting itself up in a "wing" or a "pinnacle" of the temple.[18] Some scholars interpret this as referring to the Antichrist.[19] Some commentators also view the verses prior to this as referring to the Antichrist.[20] Jesus references the abomination from Daniel 9:27, 11:31,[21] and 12:11[22] in Matthew 24:15[23] and Mark 13:14[24] when he warns about the destruction of Jerusalem. Daniel 11:36-37[25] speaks of a self exalting king, considered by some to be the Antichrist.[26]

Antiochus Epiphanes attempted to replace worship of Yahweh with veneration of himself, and was referred to in the Daniel 8:23-25 prophecy.[27] His command to worship false gods and desecration of the temple was seen by Jerome as prefiguring the Antichrist.[28]

Several American evangelical and fundamentalist theologians, including Cyrus Scofield, have identified the Antichrist as being in league with (or the same as) several figures in the Book of Revelation including the Dragon, the Beast, the False Prophet, and the Whore of Babylon.[29]

Early Church

Polycarp (ca. 69 – ca. 155) warned the Philippians that everyone that preached false doctrine was an antichrist.[30]

Irenaeus (2nd century AD – c. 202) held that Rome, the fourth prophetic kingdom, would end in a tenfold partition. The ten divisions of the empire are the "ten horns" of Daniel 7 and the "ten horns" in Revelation 17. A "little horn," which is to supplant three of Rome’s ten divisions, is also the still future "eighth" in Revelation.[31][32]

He identified the Antichrist with Paul’s Man of Sin, Daniel’s Little Horn, and John’s Beast of Revelation 13.[33] He sought to apply other expressions to Antichrist, such as "the abomination of desolation," mentioned by Christ (Matt. 24:15) and the "king of a most fierce countenance," in Gabriel’s explanation of the Little Horn of Daniel 8.[34][35]

Under the notion that the Antichrist, as a single individual, might be of Jewish origin, he fancies that the mention of "Dan," in Jeremiah 8:16, and the omission of that name from those tribes listed in Revelation 7, might indicate Antichrist’s tribe.[36] He also speculated that it was “very probable” the Antichrist might be called Lateinos, which is Greek for “Latin Man”.[37]

Tertullian (ca.160 – ca.220 AD) held that the Roman Empire was the restraining force written about by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7-8. The fall of Rome and the disintegration of the ten provinces of the Roman Empire into ten kingdoms were to make way for the Antichrist.

‘For that day shall not come, unless indeed there first come a falling away,’ he [Paul] means indeed of this present empire, ‘and that man of sin be revealed,’ that is to say, Antichrist, ‘the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God or religion; so that he sitteth in the temple of God, affirming that he is God. Remember ye not, that when I was with you, I used to tell you these things? And now ye know what detaineth, that he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work; only he who now hinders must hinder, until he be taken out of the way.’ What obstacles is there but the Roman state, the falling away of which, by being scattered into the ten kingdoms, shall introduce Antichrist upon (its own ruins)? And then shall be revealed the wicked one, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming: even him whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish.’[38]

Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170-c. 236) held that the Antichrist would come from the tribe of Dan and would rebuild the Jewish temple in order to reign from it. He identified the Antichrist with the Beast out of the Earth from the book of Revelation.

By the beast, then, coming up out of the earth, he means the kingdom of Antichrist; and by the two horns he means him and the false prophet after him. And in speaking of “the horns being like a lamb,” he means that he will make himself like the Son of God, and set himself forward as king. And the terms, “he spake like a dragon,” mean that he is a deceiver, and not truthful.[39]

Origen (185–254) refuted Celsus‘s view of the Antichrist. Origen utilized Scriptural citations from Daniel, Paul, and the Gospels. He argued:

Where is the absurdity, then, in holding that there exist among men, so to speak, two extremes– the one of virtue, and the other of its opposite; so that the perfection of virtue dwells in the man who realizes the ideal given in Jesus, from whom there flowed to the human race so great a conversion, and healing, and amelioration, while the opposite extreme is in the man who embodies the notion of him that is named Antichrist?… one of these extremes, and the best of the two, should be styled the Son of God, on account of His pre-eminence; and the other, who is diametrically opposite, be termed the son of the wicked demon, and of Satan, and of the devil. And, in the next place, since evil is specially characterized by its diffusion, and attains its greatest height when it simulates the appearance of the good, for that reason are signs, and marvels, and lying miracles found to accompany evil, through the cooperation of its father the devil.[40]


Post-Nicene Christianity

Athanasius (c. 293 – 373), writes that Arius of Alexandria is to be associated with the Antichrist, saying, “And ever since [the Council of Nicaea] has Arius’s error been reckoned for a heresy more than ordinary, being known as Christ’s foe, and harbinger of Antichrist.”[41]

John Chrysostom (c. 347–407) warned against speculations and old wives’ tales about the Antichrist, saying, “Let us not therefore enquire into these things”. He preached that by knowing Paul’s description of the Antichrist in 2 Thessalonians Christians would avoid deception.[42]

Jerome (c. 347-420) warned that those substituting false interpretations for the actual meaning of Scripture belonged to the “synagogue of the Antichrist”.[43] “He that is not of Christ is of Antichrist,” he wrote to Pope Damasus I.[44] He believed that “the mystery of iniquity” written about by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 was already in action when “every one chatters about his views.”[45] To Jerome, the power restraining this mystery of iniquity was the Roman Empire, but as it fell this restraining force was removed. He warned a noble woman of Gaul:

“He that letteth is taken out of the way, and yet we do not realize that Antichrist is near. Yes, Antichrist is near whom the Lord Jesus Christ “shall consume with the spirit of his mouth.” “Woe unto them,” he cries, “that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days.”… Savage tribes in countless numbers have overrun run all parts of Gaul. The whole country between the Alps and the Pyrenees, between the Rhine and the Ocean, has been laid waste by hordes of Quadi,Vandals, Sarmatians, Alans, Gepids, Herules, Saxons, Burgundians, Allemanni, and—alas! for the commonweal!– even Pannonians.[46]

In his Commentary on Daniel, he noted, “Let us not follow the opinion of some commentators and suppose him to be either the Devil or some demon, but rather, one of the human race, in whom Satan will wholly take up his residence in bodily form.” [47]Instead of rebuilding the Jewish Temple to reign from, Jerome thought the Antichrist sat in God’s Temple inasmuch as he made “himself out to be like God.” [47] He refuted Porphyry’s idea that the “little horn” mentioned in Daniel chapter 7 was Antiochus Epiphanes by noting that the “little horn” is defeated by an eternal, universal ruler, right before the final judgment.[47] Instead, he advocated that the “little horn” was the Antichrist:

We should therefore concur with the traditional interpretation of all the commentators of the Christian Church, that at the end of the world, when the Roman Empire is to be destroyed, there shall be ten kings who will partition the Roman world amongst themselves. Then an insignificant eleventh king will arise, who will overcome three of the ten kings… after they have been slain, the seven other kings also will bow their necks to the victor.[47]

Circa 380, an apocalyptic pseudo-prophecy falsely attributed to the Tiburtine Sibyl describes Constantine as victorious over Gog and Magog. Later on, it predicts:

When the Roman empire shall have ceased, then the Antichrist will be openly revealed and will sit in the House of the Lord in Jerusalem. While he is reigning, two very famous men, Elijah and Enoch, will go forth to announce the coming of the Lord. Antichrist will kill them and after three days they will be raised up by the Lord. Then there will be a great persecution, such as has not been before nor shall be thereafter. The Lord will shorten those days for the sake of the elect, and the Antichrist will be slain by the power of God through Michael the Archangel on the Mount of Olives.[48]

Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430) wrote “it is uncertain in what temple [the Antichrist] shall sit, whether in that ruin of the temple which was built by Solomon, or in the Church.”[49]

Pope Gregory I wrote in A.D. 597, “I say with confidence that whoever calls or desires to call himself ‘universal priest’ in self-exaltation of himself is a precursor of the Antichrist.”[50]

Archbishop Arnulf of Rheims accused Pope John XV in A.D. 991:

Are any bold enough to maintain that the priests of the Lord all over the world are to take their law from monsters of guilt like these—men branded with ignominy, illiterate men, and ignorant alike of things human and divine? If, holy fathers, we are bound to weigh in the balance the lives, the morals, and the attainments of the humblest candidate for the priestly office, how much more ought we to look to the fitness of him who aspires to be the Lord and Master of all priests! Yet how would it fare with us, if it should happen that the man the most deficient in all these virtues, unworthy of the lowest place in the priesthood, should be chosen to fill the highest place of all? What would you say of such a one, when you see him sitting upon the throne glittering in purple and gold? Must he not be the "Antichrist, sitting in the temple of God and showing himself as God"?[51]

Pre-Reformation Western Christianity

Pope Gregory VII (c. 1015 or 29 – 1085), struggled against, in his own words, "a robber of temples, a perjurer against the Holy Roman Church, notorious throughout the whole Roman world for the basest of crimes, namely, Wilbert, plunderer of the holy church of Ravenna, Antichrist, and archeritic."[52]

Cardinal Benno, on the opposite side of the Investiture Controversy, wrote long descriptions of abuses committed by Gregory VII, including necromancy, torture of a former friend upon a bed of nails, commissioning an attempted assassination, executions without trials, unjust excommunication, doubting the Real Presence in the Eucharist, and even burning it.[53] Benno held that Gregory VII was “either a member of Antichrist, or Antichrist himself.”[54]

Eberhard II von Truchsees, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg in 1241 at the Council of Regensburg denounced Pope Gregory IX as "that man of perdition, whom they call Antichrist, who in his extravagant boasting says, I am God, I cannot err."[55] He argued that the ten kingdoms that the Antichrist is involved with[56] were the "Turks, Greeks, Egyptians, Africans, Spaniards, French, English, Germans, Sicilians, and Italians who now occupy the provinces of Rome."[57] He held that the papacy was the "little horn" of Daniel 7:8:[58]

A little horn has grown up with eyes and mouth speaking great things, which is reducing three of these kingdoms–i.e. Sicily, Italy, and Germany–to subserviency, is persecuting the people of Christ and the saints of God with intolerable opposition, is confounding things human and divine, and is attempting things unutterable, execrable.[57]


Protestant reformers

 Antichrist (historicism)

Many Protestant reformers, including Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Knox, and Cotton Mather, identified the Roman Papacy as the Antichrist.[citation needed] The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume "Magdeburg Centuries" to discredit the papacy and identify the pope as the Antichrist. The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue notes,

In calling the pope the "antichrist," the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but even saints had called the bishop of Rome the "antichrist" when they wished to castigate his abuse of power.[59]

William Tyndale, English reformer, held that while the Roman Catholic Empire of that age was the empire of Antichrist, any religious organization that distorted the doctrine of the Old and New Testaments showed the work of Antichrist. In his treatise The Parable of the Wicked Mammon, he expressly rejected the established Church teaching that looked to the future for an Antichrist to rise up, and he taught that Antichrist is a present spiritual force that will be with us until the end of the age under different religious disguises from time to time.[60] Tyndale’s translation of 2 Thessalonians, chapter 2, concerning the "man of sin" reflected his understanding, but was significantly amended by later revisers, including the King James Bible committee,[61] which amendments tended to support a future Antichrist.

vision4 (1)

Old Believers

After the reforms of Patriarch Nikon to the Russian Orthodox Church of 1652, a large number of Old Believers held that czar Peter the Great was the Antichrist[62] because of his treatment of the Orthodox Church, namely subordinating the church to the state, requiring clergymen to conform to the standards of all Russian civilians (shaved beards, being fluent in French), and requiring them to pay state taxes.


The view of Futurism, a product of the Counter-Reformation, was advanced beginning in the 16th century in response to the identification of the Papacy as Antichrist. Francisco Ribera, a Jesuit priest, developed this theory in In Sacrum Beati Ioannis Apostoli, & Evangelistiae Apocalypsin Commentarij, his 1585 treatise on the Apocalypse of John. St. Bellarmine codified this view, giving in full the Catholic theory set forth by the Greek and Latin Fathers, of a personal Antichrist to come just before the end of the world and to be accepted by the Jews and enthroned in the temple at Jerusalem — thus endeavoring to dispose of the exposition which saw Antichrist in the pope. Most premillennial dispensationalists now accept Bellarmine’s interpretation in modified form.[citation needed] Widespread Protestant identification of the Papacy as the Antichrist persisted until the early 1900s when the Scofield Reference Bible was published by Cyrus Scofield. This commentary promoted Futurism, causing a decline in the Protestant identification of the Papacy as Antichrist.

Some Futurists hold that sometime prior to the expected return of Jesus, there will be a period of "great tribulation"[63] during which the Antichrist, indwelt and controlled by Satan, will attempt to win supporters with false peace, supernatural signs. He will silence all that defy him by refusing to "receive his mark" on their right hands or forehead. This "mark" will be required to legally partake in the end-time economic system.[64] Some Futurists believe that the Antichrist will be assassinated half way through the Tribulation, being revived and indwelt by Satan. The Antichrist will continue on for three and a half years following this "deadly wound".[65]


Book of Mormon

In Mormonism, the term anti-Christ refers to those who deny the divinity of Jesus Christ, deny the Gospel, and oppose his faith. "It is a word used by John to describe one who would assume the guise of Christ, but in reality would be opposed to Christ (1 John 2: 18, 22; 1 John 4: 3-6; 2 John 1: 7)." In a broader sense Mormons believe that the anti-Christ, "is anyone or anything that counterfeits the true gospel or plan of salvation and that openly or secretly is set up in opposition to Christ. The great antichrist is Lucifer, but he has many assistants both as spirit beings and as mortals." (Book of Mormon: Jacob 7: 1-23, Alma 1: 2-16, Alma 30: 6-60)

In Islam

 Masih ad-Dajjal

Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: الدّجّال‎, literally "The Deceiving Messiah"), is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear pretending to be The Messiah, Jesus at a time in the future, before Yawm al-Qiyamah (The Day of Resurrection, Judgment Day). It is also believed by Muslims that Jesus will return at the time of the Dajjal and Jesus will be the one to eventually defeat the Dajjal.

Prophet Muhammad said: "I warn you against {antichrist} and every prophet warned his nation against him. But I am telling you something that no prophet has told his nation before me that he will be one eyed and Allah is not one eyed" {Sahih Bukhari}


In the Alice A. Bailey material, Theosophist Alice A. Bailey asserts that World War II was a cosmic conflict between good and evil. The Masters of the Wisdom, representing the Forces of Light, were on the side of the Allies; the Dark Forces were on the side of the Axis. According to Bailey, Adolf Hitler was possessed by the Dark Forces.[66] With the defeat of the axis by the allies in 1945, the stage was set for the appearance of Maitreya to inaugurate the New Age. Alice A. Bailey’s follower Benjamin Cremeclaims to be the one called to prepare the way for this to happen, and that it is possible that it could happen because Adolf Hitler was the Anti-Christ and he was defeated in World War II.


Modern scholars’ view

Some[who?] modern biblical scholars[citation needed], as well as western esotericists believe that the Anti-Christ is a metaphor for the ongoing battle between Good and Evil within ourselves, wherein the evil deceptive force of the Anti-Christ is our own "lower selves", which seems to deceive humankind into thinking that their lives, are happy as they are, and spread this "false peace". This ends when humankind realizes that they can ascend to a higher state beyond their inner evil, to their "inner god".

Other scholars believe that the Antichrist could have been a metaphor for the Roman Emperor Nero, other Roman Emperors who severely persecuted Christians, or even Christian heretics.[67]

See also


  1. ^ See Strong’s Bible Dictionary: αντί Related terms as noted by the Catholic Encyclopedia include: antibasileus-a king who fills an interregnum; antistrategos-a propraetor; anthoupatos-a proconsul; antitheos-in Homer,one resembling a god in power and beauty, in other works it stands for a hostile god
  2. ^ See Strong’s Bible Dictionary: χριστος
  3. ^ Strong’s G500 "Word Search Results for "antichristos (Strong’s 500) Strong’s antichristos (Strong’s 500)"". The Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
  4. ^ 1 John 2:18
  5. ^ 1 John 2:22
  6. ^ a b 1 John 4:3
  7. ^ 2 John 1:7
  8. ^ a b A Scriptural and Historical Survey of the Doctrine of the Antichrist by John Brug, p. 1
  9. ^ Schink, W.F. "The Scriptural Doctrine of the Antichrist." Our Great Heritage: Vol. 3 Ed. Lange, Lyle and Albrecht, Jerome G. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing house, 1991. p. 572.
  10. ^ a b A Scriptural and Historical Survey of the Doctrine of the Antichrist by John Brug, p. 2
  11. ^ 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12
  12. ^ 2 Thessalonians 2:4
  13. ^ 2 Thessalonians 2:9
  14. ^ 2 Thessalonians 2:10
  15. ^ Greek = "musterion anomias"
  16. ^ a b 2 Thessalonians 2:7-8
  17. ^ "Daniel 7 (King James Version)". Retrieved 2007-11-27. For an example of one commentator that interprets Daniel 7 as referring to the Antichrist, see Kretzmann in his Popular Commentary on Daniel 7
  18. ^ 9:27
  19. ^ For example, Gawrisch in his Eschatological Prophecies and Current Misinterpretations, p. 14
  20. ^ For example, Kretzmann in his Popular Commentary, on Daniel 9
  21. ^ Daniel 11:31
  22. ^ 12:11
  23. ^ 24:15
  24. ^ Mark 13:14, see footnotes in Dr. Beck’s An American Translation 4th ed. Leader Publishing: New Haven, Mo., 2000.
  25. ^ 11:36-37
  26. ^ For example, Gawrisch in his Eschatological Prophecies and Current Misinterpretations, pp. 14 and 37. Also see Walter H. Roehrs and Martin H Franzmann, joint author, Concordia Self-Study Comentary, electronic ed. (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1998, c1979). 586.
  27. ^ Daniel 8:23-25 (NIV) and Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, Daniel 8
  28. ^ See Jerome’s Commentary on Daniel
  29. ^ See footnotes in Revelation 7 and 13 in the Scofield Reference Bible, 1917
  30. ^ Polycap’s Letter to the Philippians, paragraph 7
  31. ^ "”Against Heresies” Book 5 Chapter 25". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  32. ^ "”Against Heresies” Book 5 Chapter 26". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  33. ^ Article on the Antichrist: Signs of the Man of Sin – The Antichrist, by Frank Barnswick
  34. ^ "”Against Heresies” Book 5 Chapter 28". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  35. ^ "”Against Heresies” Book 5 Chapter 25, sec. 2-4". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  36. ^ "”Against Heresies” Book 5 Chapter 25, sec. 3". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  37. ^ Against Heresies, Book 5, Chapter 30
  38. ^ "On the Resurrection, chp 24". 2005-06-01. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  39. ^ Hippolytus’s Treatise on Christ and Antichrist, part 2
  40. ^ Origen 1872, p. 386
  41. ^ from Athanasius’ "Four Discourses"
  42. ^ Chrysostom Homily 1 on the 2nd Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Thessalonians
  43. ^ Jerome 1893b, p. 334
  44. ^ Jerome 1893, p. 19
  45. ^ Jerome 1893c, p. 449
  46. ^ Jerome 1893d, pp. 236-7
  47. ^ a b c d Jerome 1958
  48. ^ "Latin Tiburtine Sibyl". Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  49. ^ City of God, Book 20 chapter 19, cited in Brug’s A Scriptural and Historical Survey of the Doctrine of the Antichrist
  50. ^ quote from McGinn, Bernard, Visions of the End. Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages, New York: Columbia University, 1979. p. 64,.found in Brug’s A Scriptural and Historical Survey of the Doctrine of the Antichrist
  51. ^ Schaff & Schley Schaff 1885, p. 291
  52. ^ See The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII trans. Emerton, Ephraim. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990., p. 162.
  53. ^ From long quotations in Foxe 1583, p. 121
  54. ^ quoted by David M. Whitford, The Papal Antichrist: Martin Luther and the Underappreciated Influence of Lorenzo Valla, Renaissance Quarterly, 61:26–52, Spring 2008
  55. ^ The Methodist Review Vol. XLIII, No. 3, p. 305.
  56. ^ See Daniel 7:23-25, Revelation 13:1-2, and Revelation 17:3-18
  57. ^ a b Article on "Antichrist" from Smith and Fuller, A Dictionary of the Bible, 1893, p. 147
  58. ^ Daniel 7:8
  59. ^ See Building Unity, edited by Burgess and Gross
  60. ^ Tyndale, William, Parable of the Wicked Mammon, c. 1526, (facsimile copy of later printing, no ISBN number, Benediction Classics, 2008)at pages 4-5
  61. ^ See "Tyndale’s Doctrine of Antichrist and His Translation of 2 Thessalonians 2", R. Davis, New Matthew Bible Project. (A shorter version of this article was also published in the Tyndale Society Journal No. 36, Spring 2009, under the title Tyndale, the Church, and the Doctrine of Antichrist)
  62. ^ "Peter I, czar of Russia". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
  63. ^ "Matthew 24:21 (King James Version)". Retrieved 2007-12-03.
  64. ^ "Revelation 13:16-17 (King James Version)". Retrieved 2007-12-03.
  65. ^ Pink, Arthur W. (1923). "The Antichrist". pp. Chapter 6, The Career of the Antichrist. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  66. ^ Bailey, Alice A. The Externalisation of the Hierarchy New York:1957 Lucis Publishing Co. See under “Hitler” in index
  67. ^ White, L. Michael. "The Antichrist: A Historical Puzzle". Frontline (PBS). Retrieved May 16, 2010.



Further reading

External links

Categories: Christian eschatology | Christian terms

Masih ad-Dajjal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: المسيح الدجّال‎ al-Masīḥ ad-Daǧǧāl, Arabic for "the false messiah") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear pretending to be Masih (i.e. the Messiah) at a time in the future, beforeYawm al-Qiyamah (Judgment Day), directly comparable to the figures of the Antichrist and Armilus in Christian and Jewish eschatology, respectively.


Daǧǧāl is a common Arabic word, with the meaning "deceiving", used in the sense of "false prophet". Al-Masīḥ ad-Daǧǧāl with the definite article, refers to "the deceiving Messiah", a specific end-of times deceiver.

The term is a literal rendition of the Classical Syriac term for "Antichrist", Mšīḥā Daggālā, used in the Syriac Peshitta.[citation needed]


Hadith attributed to Muhammad give many signs of the appearance of the Dajjal, and exhorted his followers to recite the first and last ten verses of Sura Al-Kahf, as protection from the trials and mischief of the Dajjal. It is said that he will have right eye damaged and the left will be working because knowledge acquired through the right eye can be nūrī (means that pertaining to light) and through the left nārī (that pertaining to fire). It is also said that he will have the word kafir (nonbeliever) on his forehead.

The belief is based around the events prior to the Day of Judgment around the Second Coming of Isa (Jesus), when Ad-Daǧǧāl who is blind in his right eye, shall gather an army of those he has deceived and lead them in a war against Jesus, who shall be accompanied by an army of the righteous.

He will appear somewhere between Syria and Iraq, at which time Prophet Isa (known as Jesus in Christianity) will return and the Mahdi will come, the Dajjal will travel the whole world preaching his falsehood but will be unable to enter Mecca or Medina.[1]



The name given in the hadith to certain religious impostors who shall appear in the world; a term equivalent to the Christian use of the word Antichrist. According to hadith, Muhammad is said to have prophesized that the Masikh ad-Dajjal would be the last of a series of thirty Dajjal or "deceivers" (false prophets).[2]

A couple of hadith describe the Dajjal as follows:

  • Muhammad is reported to have said: Allah is not one eyed while Anti-christ, Dajjal is blind but one eye will be covered by thick film and the other will be protruding like a bulging out grape.
  • Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar: "Allah’s Apostle said. ‘While I was sleeping, I saw myself (in a dream) performing Tawaf around the Ka’ba. Behold, I saw a reddish-white man with lank hair, and water was dropping from his head. I asked, "Who is this?’ They(angel jibreel) replied, ‘The son of Mary.’ Then I turned my face to see another man with a huge body, red complexion and curly hair and blind in one eye. His eye looked like a protruding out grape. They said (to me), He is Ad-Dajjal.’ The Prophet added, ‘The man he resembled most is Ibn Qatan, a man from the tribe of Khuza’a.’" (Translation of Bukhari ,book 88,volume 9,number 242)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Umar narrated: Once Allah’s Apostle stood amongst the people, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and then mentioned the Dajjal saying, "l warn you against him (i.e. the Dajjal) and there was no prophet but warned his nation against him. No doubt, Noah warned his nation against him but I tell you about him something of which no prophet told his nation before me. You should know that he is one-eyed, and Allah is not one-eyed."[3]
  • Muhammad told his companions: "Every Messenger of Allah did warn his nation about the trials of Dajjal. Allah, however, delayed Dajjal’s birth and did not let him appear until now. Be aware! he will claim to be God and try to create doubts in your minds. Have a firm belief, the one-eyed creature cannot be your Lord. He will come out riding on a ‘donkey’, which will have a distance of one mile between its two ears. He will claim to have come with the gifts of paradise and arsenal of hell."[4]
  • Ali was reported to have said: "His right eye will be punctured, and his left eye would be raised to his forehead and will be sparkling like a star. Only the believers will be able to read the word ‘Kufr’ [disbelief], inscribed in bold letters, on his forehead. There will be big mountains of smoke at both front and backsides of his caravan. People will anticipate food within those mountains, during the severe famine. He will be riding on a huge white coloured ‘donkey’ who will cover a mile in a single stride. All rivers, falling in his way, will become dry and he will call upon people in aloud voice, "O my friends come to me! I am your lord who has made your limbs and given you sustenance.[5]


Signs of his coming

The following signs are ascribed to Ali in the forthcoming of Dajjal:[5]

  • People will stop offering the prayers
  • Dishonesty will be the way of life
  • Falsehood will become a virtue
  • People will mortgage their faith for worldly gains
  • Usury and bribery will become legitimate
  • Imbeciles would rule over the wise
  • Blood of innocents would be shed
  • Pride will be taken on acts of oppression
  • The rulers will be corrupt
  • The scholars will be hypocrites
  • Adultery will be rampant
  • The liars and treacherous will be respected
  • There will be acute famine at the time
  • There will be no shame amongst people
  • Children would challenge their mothers
  • Youngsters would perform marital relationship with their mothers
  • Many people would worship Satan
  • there would be no respect for elder people
Defeat and death
Sunni beliefs

As before, through the medium of the Hadith, the event of Isa’s (Jesus Christ) return and all that follows has been accurately recorded. He will descend on Mount Afeeq, on the white Eastern Minaret of Damascus. He will descend from the heavens with his hands resting on the shoulders of two angels[6]. His cheeks will be flat and his hair straight. When he lowers his head it will seem as if water is flowing from his hair, when he raises his head, it will appear as though his hair is beaded with silvery pearls[7]. He will descend during the time of Fajr and the leader of the Muslims will address him thus, ‘O`Prophet of Allah, lead the prayer.’

Isa will decline with the words, ‘The virtue of this nation that follows Islam is that they lead each other.’ Implying that he will pray behind the imam (leader of the Muslims) as the deen of Allah was completed after revelation of Qura’n and Muhammad being the last prophet of Allah[8].

After the prayer, Isa will prepare himself to do battle and shall take up a spear. An army shall return from a campaign launched before the arrival of Isa. Isa shall set out in pursuit of Dajjal. All those who embraced the evil of Dajjal shall perish even as the breath of Isa touches them. The breath of Isa shall precede him as far as the eye can see. Dajjal will be captured at Lud. The Dark Messiah shall begin to melt, as salt dissolves in water. The spear of Isa shall plunge into Dajjal’s chest, ending his dreaded reign[9]. The followers of Dajjal will be rooted out, for even the trees and rocks will speak out against them. Jesus will break the cross and kill pig (the animal), which will be an indication that his teaching did not include legitimacy of these two. Then all battles shall cease and the world will know an age of peace. Then truly the sheep will lie in the shadow of the wolf without fear. The rule of Jesus will be just and all shall flock to him to enter the folds of the one true religion, Islam.


Shī‘ah beliefs

Twelver Shī‘ah believe that Dajjal will be killed by Muhammad al-Mahdi.[10][11]

See also


  1. ^ Volume 3, Book 30, Number 104
  2. ^ Patric Hughes. "A Dictionary of Islam" pg 64
  3. ^ Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 55 Volume 4, Number 553
  4. ^ Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 103.
  5. ^ a b Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 104.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 105.
  11. ^ al-Qarashi, Allama Baqir Sharif (2006). The Life of Imam al-Mahdi Peace Be Upon Him. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 343.

External links

Categories: Islamic eschatology | Apocalypticists