Category: NEW WORLD ORDER


Winchester Model 1894

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Winchester Model 1894

Winchester Model 1894.jpg

Type
Lever-actionhunting rifle

Place of origin
United States

Production history

Designer
John Browning

Designed
1894

Produced
1894–2006, 2011–

Number built
7,500,000+

Specifications

Weight
6.8 lb (3.1 kg)

Length
37.8 in (960 mm)

Barrel length
20 in (510 mm)



Cartridge
.30-30 Winchester; also available in numerous other cartridges

Action
Lever-action

Muzzle velocity
2,490 ft/s (759 m/s)

Feed system
6- or 7-round internal
tube magazine

Sights
Leaf rear sight, barleycorn-type front sight

Winchester Model 1894 (also known as Winchester .30-30 rifle, Winchester 94, Win 94,, .30-30 Winchester, or simply .30-30) is a lever-action rifle which became one of the most famous and popular hunting rifles. It was designed byJohn Browning in 1894 to chamber rounds loaded with smokeless powder, and was produced by Winchester Repeating Arms Company through 1980 and then by U.S. Repeating Arms under the Winchester brand until they ceased to manufacture rifles in 2006. The rifles are back in production today, being made by the Miroku company of Japan and imported into the United States by the Browning Arms company of Morgan, Utah.

The Model 1894 has been referred to as the “ultimate lever-action design” by firearms historians such as RL Wilson and Hal Herring. The Model 1894 is the rifle credited with the name “Winchester” being used to refer to all rifles of this type and was the first commercial sporting rifle to sell over 7,000,000 units.[1]

The Winchester Model 1894 was the first commercial repeating rifle built to be used with smokeless powder. The 1894 was originally chambered to fire 2 metallic black powder cartridges, the .32-40 Winchester and .38-55 Winchester. In 1895 Winchester went to a different steel composition for rifle manufacturing that could handle higher pressure rounds and offered the rifle in .25-35 Winchester and .30-30 Winchester. The .30-30 Winchester, or .30WCF (Winchester Centerfire), is the cartridge that has become synonymous with the Model 1894.[2]

It was the first sporting rifle to sell over 7,000,000 units. The millionth Model 1894 was given to President Calvin Coolidgein 1927, the 1½ millionth rifle to President Harry S. Truman on May 8, 1948 and the two millionth unit was given to President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953.[3]

Variants of the Model 94 over its long history included the Winchester Model 55, produced from 1924 through 1932 in a 24-inch (610 mm) barrel, and the Winchester Model 64, produced from 1933 through 1957 in 20, 24, and 26-inch (660 mm) barrel lengths. (Note: The model number 55 was used twice by Winchester, first as a Model 94 variant introduced in 1924, and, later, as a short-lived single-shot/semi-automatic hybrid .22-caliber rifle that self-cocked the hammer each time it was fired).[4]

In mid-1964, the manufacturing of the 94 was changed in order to make the firearm less expensive to produce. Generally referred to as “pre-64″ models, these earlier versions command a premium price over post-change rifles.[5] The limited number of early-1964 production models produced prior to the changeover are considered quite desirable, as they are considered by many to represent the ending of an era.[1]

The Winchester 1894’s design allowed the cycling of longer cartridges than the Winchester 1892 carbines could permit. When the lever is pulled down, it brings the bottom of the receiver with it, opening up more space and allowing a longer cartridge to feed without making the receiver longer. The mechanism is complex but very reliable. Complete stripping of the action is a multi-stage task that must be accomplished in precise sequence. However it is rarely necessary to completely strip the action. The largest cartridge that the 1894 action can accommodate is the .450 Marlin, which was chambered in some custom rifles and the short-lived Timber Carbine on a beefed-up 1894 “big bore” receiver.[6]

Decades after the Winchester 1892 was phased out, the Winchester 1894 Models were manufactured in typical revolver calibers such as .38 Special/.357 Magnum, .44 Special/.44 Magnum, .45 Colt (or .45 Long Colt), .38-40 Winchester, and .44-40 Winchester. Typically, the tube magazine is able to hold 9 to 13 rounds of the previously mentioned handgun calibers. The magazine capacity depends on the length of the barrel, as the tube magazine (located below the barrel) typically covers the entire length of the barrel.[7]

Handgun calibers are preferred by modern day Cowboy Action Shooters as it allows one type of ammunition for both rifle and handgun. A typical combination would be an 1873 Colt (Colt Peacemaker or clone) and a Winchester 1894 capable of shooting the same type of ammunition. The 1894 action, designed for smokeless rifle rounds, is much stronger than the action of the Winchesters (Models 1866, 1873, 1876) that were based on Benjamin Henry‘s toggle-link system, and can easily handle modern high-pressure pistol cartridges such as .44 Magnum.

In 1984, the Model 94XTR angle eject rifle and carbine chambered in 7-30 Waters (an improved .30-30 case necked down to a 7mm bullet), was introduced.[8] In 2003, the rifle was offered in .410 shotgun and named the Model 9410.[9]

The Winchester 1894 holds the record for best-selling high-powered rifle in U.S. history.[10]

U.S. production ceased in 2006, at the time there were 14 versions of the Model 94 in the Winchester catalog. In 2010 Winchester Repeating Arms reintroduced the model 94 in two Limited Edition models to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Oliver F. Winchester’s birth in New England in 1810.[11]

Criticisms

In 1964, to save money on production costs, Winchester began machining certain small parts for the Model 94 as opposed to forging them. The use of hollow roll-pins replaced solid ones. Many users felt these attempts cheapened the rifle and would only use rifles made before 1964 (pre ’64).[5]

One of the drawbacks of the Model 1894 action in relation to its main competitors, such as the Marlin Model 336, is that the Winchester ejects cartridges from the top of thereceiver and over the user’s shoulder rather than to the side. A top-ejecting firearm cannot mount a scope on top of the receiver, but instead must mount it either forward on the barrel or offset to the side, degrading the usefulness and availability of a scope.[12] Winchester alleviated this issue with angular ejection implemented in the early 1980s, which ejects shells at an angle between the original Winchester design and the Marlin’s, thus allowing receiver mounted scopes.[12] Ironically, in the 21st century, forward scope mounts have become increasingly popular due to Jeff Cooper’sscout rifle concept (e.g., Steyr, Ruger, and Savage offer them), as well as the military (for combat) and civilian (for competition) use of red dot sights.

The mid 1990s brought a change from the long-used half-cock notch safety to a cross-bolt safety like the aforementioned Marlins. Many longtime users, however, prefer the original half-cock notch safety design over the newer cross-bolt “lawyer” safety. The last Winchester 94s to leave the New Haven factory before production ceased in 2006 had tang-mounted safeties.[13]

A-Z Catalogue Shamanic Ethnobotanicals Entheogen Plant List

Botanical Name
Common Name

Acacia
Acacia

Achillea millefolium
Yarrow

Acorus calamus
Calamus/Sweet Flag

Adansonia digitata
Baobab Tree

Adonidia merrillii
Christmas Palm

Albizia julibrissin
Silk Tree

Althaea officinalis
Marshmallow

Amanita muscaria
Fly Agaric

Amanita pantherina
Panther Amanita

Amomi cardamom
Cardamon

Angelica sinensis
Dong Quai

Arctium lappa
Burdock Root

Areca catechu
Betel Nuts

Argemone mexicana
Prickly Poppy

Argyreia nervosa
Hawaiian Baby Woodrose

Arnica montana
Arnica

Artemisia absinthium
Wormwood

Artemisia afra
African Wormwood

Artemisia vulgaris
Mugwort

Astragalus membranaceus
Huang Qi

Atropa belladonna
Deadly Nightshade

Banisteriopsis caapi
Ayahuasca Vine

Barosma betulina
Buchu Leaf

Bee Pollen
Bee Pollen

Brugmansia
Tree Datura

Brunfelsia
Brunfelsia

Calea zacatechichi
Dream Herb

Canavalia rosea
Bay Bean

Cannabae Resinous Herbal Hash
Cannabae Resinous Herbal Hash

Cassia alata
Candelabra Bush

Centella asiatica
Gotu Kola

Chamaelirium luteum
False Unicorn

Chorisia speciosa
Silk Floss Tree

Chrysanthemum morifolium
Chrysanthemum

Cimicifuga racemosa
Black Cohosh

Cnicus benedictus
Blessed Thistle

Coriandrum sativum
Coriander

Corynanthe yohimbe
Yohimbe

Datura
Datura

Delosperma bosseranum
Ice Plant

Desmanthus illinoensis
Bundleflower

Dioscorea dregeana
Wild Yam

Diplopterys cabrerana
Chaliponga

Echinacea
Echinacea

Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus

Entada rheedii
African Dream Herb

Ephedra sinica
Ma Huang

Ephedra viridis
Mormon’s Tea

Equisetum arvense
Horsetail

Erythrina mulungu
Mulungu

Escholtzia californica
California Poppy

Eucalyptus globulus
Eucalyptus

Foeniculum vulgare
Fennel

Glycyrrhiza glabra
Licorice Root

Gnaphalium obtusifolium
Cherokee Tobacco

Heimia salicifolia
Sinicuichi

Helichrysum odoratissimum
Imphepho

Hoodia gordonii
Hoodia

Houttuynia cordata
Vap Ca

Humulus lupulus
Hops

Hyoscyamus niger
Henbane

Hypericum perforatum
St. John’s Wort

Ilex guayusa
Guayusa

Iochroma fuchsioids
Sorcerer’s Tree

Ipomoea arborescens
Palo des Muertes

Ipomoea carnea
Morning Glory Bush

Ipomoea tricolor
Morning Glory

Juniperus communis
Juniper Berries

Khaya nyasica
Mululu Tree

Lactuca virosa
Opium Lettuce

Lagochilus inebrians
Inebriating Mint

Lawsonia inermis
Henna

Ledum palustre
Wild Rosemary

Leonotis leonurus
Wild Dagga

Leonotis nepetifolia
Klip Dagga

Leonurus sibiricus
Motherwort

Lepidium meyenii
Maca

Lespedeza bicolor
Lespedeza bicolor

Linum usitatissimum
Flax Seed

Lonchocarpus violaceus
Balche Tree

Lophophora williamsii
Peyote

Lycopus virginicus
Bugleweed

Macropiper excelsum
Maori Kava

Mahonia aquifolium
Oregon Grape

Matricaria chamomila
Chamomile

Medicago sativa
Alfalfa

Medivine Blend
Medivine Blend

Mimosa hostilis
Jurema

Mitragyna speciosa
Kratom

Mucuna pruriens
Cowitch

Nelumbo nucifera
Sacred Lotus

Nepeta cataria
Catnip

Nicotiana
Nicotiana

Nymphaea ampla
White Lotus

Nymphaea caerulea
Blue Lotus

Panax ginseng
Ginseng

Papaver somniferum
Opium Poppy

Passiflora incarnata
Passion Flower

Pedicularis densiflora
Indian Warrior

Peganum harmala
Syrian Rue

Pimpinella anisum
Anise

Piper methysticum
Kava Kava

Polygonum multiflorum
Fo-ti

Psychotria nervosa
Wild Coffee

Psychotria viridis
Chacruna

Ptychopetalum olacoides
Muira Puama

Rhamnus purshiana
Cascara Sagrada

Rhodiola rosea
Golden Root

Ricinus communis
Castor Bean

Rivea (aka Turbina) corymbosa
Ololiuqui

Salix alba
White Willow Bark

Salvia divinorum
Diviner’s Sage

Sceletium tortuosum
Kanna

Scutellaria lateriflora
Skullcap

Sida cordifolia
Bala

Silene Capensis
Xhosa Dream Herb

Silene capensis
Xhosa Dream Herb

Silybum marianum
Milk Thistle

Solandra maxima
Golden Chalice Vine

Sophora secundiflora
Mescal Bean

Stachys officinalis
Wood Betony

Sterculia foetida
Oil Nut

Stevia rebaudiana
Stevia

Stipa robusta
Sleepy Grass

Tabernanthe Iboga
Iboga

Tanacetum parthenium
Feverfew

Tarchonanthus camphoratus
Bushman’s Tobacco

Terminalia catappa
Indian Almond

Trichocereus Cacti
Trichocereus Cacti

Trichocereus pachanoi
San Pedro

Turnera aphrodisiaca
Damiana

Turnera diffusa
Damiana

Vaccinium myrtillus
Bilberry

Virola spp
Epena

Voacanga africana
Voacanga

Withania somnifera
Ashwagandha

Yerba Mate
Yerba Mate

31 Hells Angels released from jail over time concerns – CTV News.

LEOnid ELENIN is it code for Constellation LEO  Extinction Level Event Nibiru Is Near
You decide 

Elenin Nibiru? Danger Alert:
Sept Oct Nov 2011

http://alternativenewsreport.net/comet-elenin-c2010-x1/

Amateur astronomers are studying the
path of approaching Comet Elenin. The 3rd week in October is a
significant period where accelerated earth changes could take place
as Earth passes through the tail of Comet Elenin.

Copyright 2011-3011 Alternative NewsReport, All Rights Reserved.

Comet Elenin / NibiruUpdate for June-July
2011:

Controversy continues to rage concerning whether Comet Elenin is
actually the rogue brown dwarf sun, a celestial body which has long been prophesied:
Planet X aka Nibiru. There can be no doubt that something is
pulling on the earth as it passes by in the heavens. 2011 has
brought a heart wrenching new deluge of weather calamities and
natural disasters. These
events are now occurring on a scale that could only be described as
“biblical.”









Meanwhile fundamentalist Christendom is of no help, offering up their
own form of derangement in response to the
mounting catastrophic earth changes tragedies which are now ripping
across the globe.
 While traveling this past week I was
stunned to actually see huge billboards erected along the side of
the highway which stated: “World Will End on Judgment Day, May 21st
2011.” I was speeding by on May 22nd of course, and nothing of the
sort had happened. I read later that the southern California nutcase preacher who started
all this end of the
world
 panic has now caught on to the actual science and
astronomy which is connected to Comet Elenin’s closest pass to
earth. In an effort, I presume, to save face, he has now set a new
“end of the world” date for October 21st 2011 instead.

Take a number buddy. The citizen journalist community is way
ahead of you in speculating out loud and wondering what else might
befall planet
earth
 this autumn as Comet Elenin makes her closest fly
by.

If earth changes continue to escalate at the rate at which they
are now taking place, the governments of the world could be
bankrupted by the effort to render aid and assistance to local
regions which have been devastated, some regions multiple times.
With the global economy already teetering on collapse, the outlook
is not good. I am leaning decidedly in the direction of the rural
survivalist, and so is everyone else I know. Here are the newest
videos in which various youtubers spin their tales of what might happen
this fall:

















Earlier this spring I wrote:

Study the path of Comet Elenin as it crosses the earth’s orbit
in the third week of October. This is the danger zone for
SEVERE earth
changes
 and possibly heavymeteor showers. I plan to be off the coast and
I am advising others to be off the coastlines also. Here is the
video and my earlier article on comet Elenin.







Watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LM_41wPzTA4

Update on Comet Elenin Spring
2011:







See also http://altnewsreport.wordpress.com/2011/04/05/elenin-biblecodes/

Amateur Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin apparently discovered
a newheavenly bodyComet Elenin,
aka [ C/2010-X1 ], which has been named
after him, on an 18″ diameter reflecting telescope. Or did he? There’s an
apparent international news blackout on this recent
astronomy discovery.

Other amateur astronomers wonder why, and are now
weighing in with their opinions. At least one video states the
comet will be visible to the naked eye by August of 2011. Adding to
the uncertainty is the fact that the actual closest distance
that Comet Elenin will pass by the earth is being re-calculated
frequently, and gets smaller with each re-calculation.

Earth may pass through the debris tail of Elenin,
and if the comet is dragging any substantial mass of such debris in
its tail, our world would possibly be in for quite a pummeling from
the debris field. If this takes place, it will fall during the
month of October 2011, right around the 18th.

I’m sure by now many are openly speculating as to whether Comet
Elenin isNibiru. I’m still perusing citizen journalist
videos on this topic. Below are a few of those.

As of January 27th 2011 comet Elenin was still well outside
our solar
system
‘s enormous outer Oort
Cloud
. Are there any accurate predictions available regarding
what might happen as the comet passes through the Oort
Cloud
, dispersing and disrupting the orbits of billions of
asteroids and sending them tumbling toward the inner solar system, pulled by
the Sun‘s immense gravity?

One video below shows Earth passing through
the tail of Comet Elenin in November of 2011.

I am now on a “news quest” for more information on Comet Elenin
and I’d like to know why American media has little  to say about
this discovery. Below are some recent discoveries:

2.15.2011 Update on a related discovery:
Astronomers Hunt for New Planet in the Oort Cloud Which May Be Four
Times Larger Than Jupiter

See also: The Vatican’s Planet X Nibiru Sculpture: What Does
the Vatican Know About Nibiru?

Related Articles

*************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

C2010 X1
(Elenin) Leonid Elenin is Elite Code for LEO Extinction Level Event
Nibiru Is Near

by Greg Freeman
Smith
 on Monday, June 27, 2011 at 11:33pm

C2010 X1 (Elenin) Leonid Elenin is Elite Code for LEO
Extinction Level Event Nibiru Is Near

The timeline below tracks the movement of the ELEnin dwarf star
in our solar system through 2011 using the NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory Data for their ELEnin Comet Psyop (link) .

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=elenin%3Borb%3D1%3Bcov%3D1%3Blog%3D0%3Bcad%3D1#cad

==============

Diagram#1

diagram 1

2010

February 27 2010 First Alingnment
Chili Earthquke 8.8 & Earth axis shifted 3 Inches

Feb 27 2010

September 4 2010  Christ Church New
Zealand Earthquake 7.2

 

Sep 04 2010

2011

March 2 Dwarf star breaks through ecliptic
plane for earth change symptoms to gradually
increase. 2.261 AU from Earth.

March 2 2010

March 11 Saturn, Dwarf Star, Earth, Sun,
Mars, Jupiter and Uranus are in alignment creating gravity trench
for volcano/earthquake/tidal events to escalate. First
Alignment. 2.1 AU from Earth. Japan
Fukushima Earthquake 9.0 -Tsunami

March 11 2011

June 27 Dwarf Star crosses Mars
orbit. 1.789 AU from Earth.

June 27 2011

Diagram #2

diagram 2

July 7 Saturn, Dwarf Star and Sun are in
alignment where Saturn should show signs of the dwarf star assuming
polarity control. 1.74 AU from
Earth. Saturn Diagram.

July 7 2011

Aug 3 Dwarf Star crosses Earth orbit and
Earth reaches Dwarf Star perigee orbit angle
position. 1.489 AU from Earth.

Aug 3 2011

Aug 18 Dwarf Star crosses Venus
orbit. 1.155 AU from Earth.

aug 18 2011

Sept 11  Dwarf Star reaches perigee
position at Mercury orbit. 0.708 AU from
Earth.

Sep 11 2011

Sept 19 Dwarf Star equidistant from Sun
And Earth. 0.523 AU from Earth.

Sep 19 2011

Sept 26 Dwarf Star passes between Sun and
Earth for second alignment for anticipated Geological Pole Shift
Event. Second Alignment. 0.396 AU from
Earth.

Sep 26 2011

Diagram #3

diagram 3

Oct 2 Dwarf Star at Venus
orbit. 0.316 AU from Earth.

oct 2 2011

Oct 17 Dwarf Star at Earth orbit and
nearest position. 0.232 AU from Earth
21.57 million miles.

oct 17 2011

Nov 05 Earth crosses Elenin orbit Asteroid
Impact possible on Earth

Nov 5 2011

Nov 17 Dwarf Star crosses Mars
orbit. 0.503 AU from Earth.

Nov 17 2011

Nov 23 Dwarf Star, Earth and Sun alignment
for Pole Shift Reversal Event. Third Alignment 0.59
AU
 from Earth.

Nov23 2011

2012

Jun 19  Dwarf Star, Earth and Sun
alignment possible Earthquakes, Volcanoes

Jun 19 2012

Dec 27  Dwarf Star, Earth and Sun
alignment possible Earthquakes, Volcanoe

Dec 27 2012

The Dwarf Star will finally be farther from the Earth than the
Sun on Feb 29, 2012 marking 163 days from Sept. 19, 2011 that Dwarf
Star is nearer our planet than the Sun.

======================

A dwarf star between Jupiter and Sun mass is approaching Earth
from @ 10h 38m 24.48s +7 00′ 49.68″ (link) coordinates at 100,000
miles per hour covering 2.4 million miles each day from the Leo
Constellation moving towards 44 Leo to break through the ecliptic
plane on March 2, 2011. The dwarf star with a planetary object
(Planet X) and multiple moons (pic is currently on an inbound
trajectory between Jupiter orbit and Mars orbit to reach Mars orbit
on June 25, 2011.

The dwarf star being currently tracked by NASA as the Psyop
Leonid ELEnin Comet that came into alignment with Sun and Earth at
the first of three alignments on March 11, 2011; which is what all
the false flag psyop disinformation is calling the pole shift. The
dwarf star was still too far away (2.1 AU) to assume polarity
control of the Earth from the Sun. This March 11 alignment
coincides with the February 27, 2010 ELE/Earth/Sun alignment that
shifted earth aquifers and shifted Earth axis 3 inches with the 8.8
Chile Quake. The magnetic poles of our planet are not shifting, but
are ‘migrating’ from the approach of the dwarf star mini solar
system and the powerful magnetic field and polarity entering our
inner solar system; which has been going on since 2004. The dynamic
gravitational Tug-of-War between the Sun, Earth and Dwarf Star is
enhanced by the near-alignment of seven planetary/solar bodies at
this alignment shown in the first diagram above and demonstrated by
a red alignment line depicting extreme gravitational force. These
orbiting objects are connected to the Sun by magnetic portals
(link), which the Earth passed through on 2/27/2010 and 3/11/2011
that connects the dwarf star to the Sun. The next major event for
Dwarf Star is June 27, 2011, when the dwarf star crosses the Mars
orbit. Then on July 7, 2011 the ELEnin dwarf star passes between
the Sun and Saturn orbiting above the ecliptic plane, which should
reveal some evidence that the dwarf star is attempting to gain
polarity control over the ringed planet.

Diagram 2 starts at August 3, 2011 when the dwarf star crosses
Earth orbit to then cross Venus orbit on August 21, 2011. Then we
see the ELEnin dwarf star reach perigee position nearest the Sun on
September 11, 2011 exactly ten years from the 9/11 attacks (What
Really Happened, when the dwarf star begins the 3600-year orbit
once again. September 26, 2011 marks the day of the next alignment,
when the dwarf star is only 0.396 AU from Earth (36.8 million
miles); when the dwarf star is expected to gain polarity control
over the Earth and cause the Geological Pole Shift. This marks the
time when the Earth will  bow to the dwarf star’s awesome
magnetic field/polarity, so the northern hemisphere experiences
many days of darkness; while the southern hemisphere is drawn
nearer the Sun. There are 14 days between the dwarf star reaching
perigee position and this alignment with the Earth and Sun being
equidistant to the dwarf star on the 7th day (Sept. 18).

October 2 is the day that the ELEnin dwarf star crosses Venus
orbit again to begin trekking in the direction of Earth. Our planet
is still being pulled towards the Sun, but by this time we are also
being pulled forward into the massive dwarf star gravity well. Two
weeks go by (Oct. 17) and the dwarf star crosses the Earth orbit
line to pass directly in front of our planet at just 21.57 million
miles away, which is the nearest point in our encounter. The dwarf
star crosses the Mars orbit line on November 14, 2011 on way to the
third alignment on November 22 where the Earth passes directly
between the two once again like on March 11. This marks the time of
the Geological Pole Shift Reversal that tips the Earth back to near
the current position, as the Sun regains polarity control from the
dwarf star racing away from the inner solar system.

Related videos:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qi7wpEIGU0I

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcJzLBcDdzM

Related links:

http://poleshift.ning.com/

http://poleshift.ning.com/forum/topics/last-trimester-event-timeline

http://www.usmessageboard.com/conspiracy-theories/76652-surviving-the-economic-collapse-2009-a.html

http://dprogram.net/2008/05/21/as-america-collapses-us-government-secret-plans-revealed/

***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

I am presenting rock solid
information; it does not get any better when NASA is your source.
What you are about to read and see is happening. Last night,
looking at a NASA
mathematical model of comet Elenin
, I found out that a large
celestial body has already penetrated the solar system and is on
course for a near and possibly horrific encounter with the earth in
the fall of 2011. What we do not know is the size and mass of comet
Elenin though I have no doubt that it is known by the
authorities.
Elenin is presently being tracked
as it goes through the asteroid belt on its way into the inner
solar system. I am truly sorry to have to be the bearer of such
grave and threatening news but the source, NASA, is impeccable. We
have an incoming mass (what might possibly be a neutron star)
coming in and it will do a hard turn around the sun like any comet
would, crossing and coming in between Mercury and Venus before
starting its journey back out. On its way out it will cross our
bow, meaning it will pass very close to the earth and the earth
will pass behind it, plowing into its tail.

In the video below you will see
this explained graphically. What you will see with mathematical
precision is that every time this celestial body comes into
alignment with the earth and sun we have a huge earthquake
. The
last three alignments produced the Japanese 9.0 quake, the one in
New Zealand and before that the one in Chile. On March 11th Elenin
was much farther out. When the next alignment happens it will be
devastatingly close. The main point to understand is that
if Elenin was just a normal comet it would not have the mass to
generate a gravity pull that would affect the earth when the earth
swings around into alignment.
David Morrison, Astrobiology
Senior Scientist at NASA, in an official communication on March 1st
acknowledged no threat from Elenin. Ten days later Elenin came into
alignment with the earth and the sun . . . and Japan was almost
destroyed.
Morrison confirmed that Elenin’s
perihelion (closest to the sun) is in early September 2011 at a
distance from the sun of 40-45 million miles. He said it will be
closest to the earth on about October 16, at a distance of about 21
million miles, but he believes there is no reason to think Elenin
is any different from a normal comet. I wonder if he changed his
mind after March 11th. He dismisses everything alarming as pure
fiction.
This is the real deal though—that
alignment did happen as we can clearly see from the NASA
simulation. Now we have to live with increasing radiation spreading
around the northern hemisphere. We know how easy it is for people
in authority to cover up information and lie with a straight face.
The Japanese government admitted it kept in
secret
 at least 5000 radiation measurements and
assessments after the nuclear event that struck the Fukushima
Daiichi NPP in March. This was done in order to not induce
panic in the population
, a representative of the staff dealing
with the nuclear emergency told ITAR-TASS.
We have to acknowledge and accept
that there is a danger and a possibility that part of our
civilization and the people in it will be lost. This is not a time
to deny anything or a time to hold back the tears. I hope to God I
am wrong but the evidence cannot be dismissed casually, though of
course it will be. One picture is worth a thousand words and NASA
has given us visible proof to suggest Elenin is playing a role in
events down here on our planet even from a long distance. It is not
a time for fear; rather it is a time for love and cooperation in
the context of preparation on all levels for what is to come.
There is a history to Elenin that
has been visible for years but now she is upon us and there is
nothing we can do but prepare and pray—and love like we have never
loved before. We have to acknowledge and accept that there is a
danger and there is a possibility that part of our civilization and
the people in it will be lost. The below video displays what has
been known by NASA for decades.
The whole solar system seems to
be heating up, the sun is
becoming active and earth-changing events are
becoming more frequent and intense with beyond-worst-case-scenario
climate changes hitting around the globe. We have increasing
geo-activity, volcanoes, earthquakes, rogue tides, sinking islands,
magnetic pole migration, mass animal deaths, huge unexplained
whirlpools in the Atlantic and so much more it would make anyone’s
head spin.
We were tipped off to something
unusual happening when Greenland experienced sunrise two
days early
, which was a strong sign that something was off with
Earth’s orbit. On January 25th I said:

There is a lot of information (except in the
mainstream press) about 2012 and the end of the Mayan Calendar that
many are obsessing over but there is more than enough in 2011 to
worry about and act on. Last week I was knocked off my chair with
the report from the Arctic Circle in Greenland that the sun came
back over the horizon two days early.
That’s no small occurrence, is not something easy to make up, is
not being reported as expected in the mainstream press, and only
wild and stupid theories like global warming (since we really have
rapid cooling) are being blamed for the event.

Next Few Months
August 3, 2011 marks
the time that the earth passes through the brown
dwarf perigeeposition, while the brown dwarf is
crossing the earth orbit location. About two weeks pass and on
August 18 the brown dwarf crosses the Venus orbit some 67 million
miles from the sun. Then 24 days pass to when the brown dwarf
reaches the nearest point to the sun at 44.73 million
miles. September 25, 2011 marks the time that the
earth passes through the second conjunction with the sun, brown
dwarf, Mercury, Saturn and Uranus in line for another gravitational
alignment.
This video from the top of a
mountain in Japan seems to have caught Elenin on camera.
October 2 is the day that the
brown dwarf crosses Venus’ orbit again to begin trekking in the
direction of earth. Two weeks go by and the brown dwarf crosses the
earth orbit line to pass directly in front of our planet at just
22.3 million miles away, which is the nearest point in our
encounter. The brown dwarf crosses the Mars orbit line on November
14, 2011 on the way to the third conjunction on November
22
 where the earth once again passes directly between the
two like on March 15.
Conclusion
An approaching brown dwarf star
answers a lot of questions about what is happening all around us
that others simply cannot begin to answer. No one really knows what
will happen in the fall of this year as this incoming celestial
body gets between us and the sun and then rebounds out again and
heading directly into earth’s neighborhood. One person has
speculated that it could rip our moon loose. It could hit us if its
flight plan is changed by hitting an asteroid in the next few days.
That could be possible if it really were a comet, but if it is a
neutron star with a large mass, nothing will deflect its ordained
path.
If we are lucky, nothing will
happen but humanity is not looking or feeling lucky these
days.
What seems likely is what most of
the ancient cultures and religions remember—huge floods that pass
the world over. The only way the world can have a global flood is
if there is some event like an asteroid impact, polar shift, or a
very dense object passing close by earth that causes a massive
tsunami tide. The gravitational pull would grab the water
and pull it over the land on a massive scale, much like the moon
does today on a smaller scale in the form of tides.
***************************************************************************************************************************

Comet Elenin Under “Intelligent Control” Headed
to Earth?

Written
By COSMOS TV ONLINE on Monday, April 11, 2011 | 10:27 PM

A chilling report prepared for President Medvedev by
Minister Serdyukov of the Russian Defense Ministry on the building
of an additional 5,000 underground “bomb` shelters in Moscow warns
that even though progress is being made, the appearance of the new
Comet Elenin in our Solar System means additional resources ” will
have to be added immediately ” as the 2012 timeline for completion
may not be soon enough “. 

Sparking the fears of Minister Serdyukov, he says in this report,
is that based upon the new orbit calculations for Comet Elenin, it
appears in all likelihood ” that this celestial object is under
some type of intelligent control ” and will approach our Earth much
closer ” than originally thought this coming fall season.

Comet Elenin was discovered by Doctor-Scientist Leonid Elenin on 10
December 2010 from his research facility in Lyubertsy utilizing
images acquired from the 18-inch (45-cm) telescope at the ISON-NM
Observatory near Mayhill, New Mexico and confirmed by
Doctor-Scientists Aleksei Sergeyev and Artem Novichenko from the
Maidanak Observatory in Uzbekistan.

Doctor-Scientist
Leonid Elenin.

Upon its discovery Comet Elenin was traveling very near the
ecliptic plane at more than 4 Astronomical Units (375 million
miles) from the Sun and headed inbound towards it. Its original
perihelion [point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid or comet where
it is nearest to the Sun] was calculated to occur well inside
Earth`s orbit at about 0.45 Astronomical Units (42 million miles)
from the Sun to occur on or about 5 September 2011 making it
visible to the naked eye in the pre-dawn skies in the Constellation
of Leo.

Most ominous in Minister Serdyukov`s report is his assertion that
Comet Elenin appears to be in direct contact with the mysterious
Jupiter-sized planet discovered beyond the orbit of Pluto that is,
also, headed inbound towards our Sun.

As to those visitors from other
planets ” referred to by Minister Hellyer we can further glean from
the memo sent to President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) by his
Army Chief of Staff George Marshall (1880-1959)  about what is
now referred to as The Battle of Los Angeles where American Forces
fired upon a UFO fleet shortly after their countries entrance into
World War II.
American scientists Daniel Whitmire and John
Matese from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette have named
this mysterious planet Tyche, but as we had previously stated in
our 18 February report, Russian Leader Confirms To Pope New Planet
Arrival In 2012 “, the ancient peoples of our Earth new it by other
names as well. 

Interesting to note about Comet Elenin is that even though the
American space agency NASA has said Because of the possibility that
the comet`s orbit slightly deviate from, there is no guarantee that
Earth will be missed “, they have, also, in contradiction, stated
that “Comet Elenin will come nowhere near the Earth. At its closest
(on 10 September 2011) it will be more than 25 million km from our
planet. “

To the identity of those extraterrestrial forces controlling Comet
Elenin our world had been forewarned about by the former Canadian
Defense Minister, Paul Hellyer, who stated about them: Decades ago,
visitors from other planets warned us about where we were headed
and offered to help. But instead we, or at least some of us,
interpreted their visits as a threat, and decided to shoot first
and ask questions after.

Los Angeles Alert: Are You In Danger of Foreclosure?

Lower Your Rate & Principal

Stop Foreclosure. Do You Qualify?

From the United States initial firing upon these UFO`s in The
Battle of Los Angeles they continued to appear over both the
European and Pacific Theaters of Operation during World War II and
were dubbed as Foo Fighters by the US Army Air Forces 415th Night
Fighter Squadron.

The most famous modern historical account of these UFO/Foo Fighters
occurred in the summer of 1947 when at least one of them was shot
down, or crashed near the Roswell Army Air Field in New Mexico
which was home to the US Army Air Forces 509th Bomb Group that
dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and is
known today as the Roswell Incident.

Though initially reported to the American public by their
government that a flying saucer ” had, indeed, been captured, the
US Military almost immediately contradicted themselves by denying
what just 24-yours earlier they had admitted.

Most important to note about the Roswell Incident, however, was
that its investigation was headed by the first US Air Force
Secretary, and close personal friend of then President Harry Truman
(1884-1972), Stuart Symington (1901-1988) who reported his findings
to the first US Defense Secretary James Forrestal
(1892-1949).

Throughout 1948, and into 1949, Secretary`s Forrestal and Symington
repeated clashed leading President Truman to replace Forrestal on
28 March 1949. Within two months (22 May 1949) Forrestal was
reported dead by suicide after having jumped out the window of
Bethesda Naval Hospital where he had been forcibly
detained.

More interesting, however, is the report of the last meeting
between Forrestal and Symington on the Roswell Incident, and as, in
part, we can read:

Forrestal accused Clark of having the FBI shadow him, which Clark
denied, but which according to all of Forrestal`s biographers could
well have been true. Forrestal finally left office in a formal
ceremony on March 28th, his last public appearance.

What followed after the ceremony remains mysterious. There is
something I would like to talk to you about, ” Symington told
Forrestal, and accompanied him privately during the ride back to
the Pentagon. What Symington said is not known, but Forrestal
emerged from the ride deeply upset, even traumatized, upon arrival
at his office. Friends of Forrestal implied that Symington said
something that shattered Forrestal`s last remaining defenses. “
When someone entered Forrestal`s office several hours later, the
former Secretary of Defense did not notice. Instead, he sat rigidly
at his desk, staring at the bare wall, incoherent, repeating the
sentence, you are a loyal fellow, ” for several hours. “

As we have attempted to detail in many recent reports, including
Greenland Sunrise Shocks World As Superstorms Pound Planet “,
Poisonous Space Clouds Slamming Into Earth Cause Mass Bird And Fish
Deaths “, New Superstorms Warned Have “Doomed` World Food
Production ” and Pole Shift Blamed For Russian Air Disaster,
Closure Of US Airport “, the greatest fears Forrestal had after
Symington`s final Roswell report was given to him are, indeed
coming true in our times today.

Though the masses of the American people are still not being told
the truth about the dire state of our world, the same cannot be
said about their elite masters, who according to new evidence
gathered by independent researchers are building for themselves
vast underground bunkers to protect themselves when the times of
trouble come.

One such company building these underground survival bunkers for
the US elite is the American Reassurance Communities (ARC), and who
describe their efforts as follows:

Each ARC Bunker Complex consists of a 300,000 sq ft subterranean
self-contained community survival shelter complex designed to
accommodate 2500 people for up to 60 months in military grade
bunkers complete with schools, medical/dental, greenhouses,
theater, recreation, everything needed for a large group of people
to live in a safe, comfortable environment and survive almost any
disaster.

ARC Bunkers are manufactured to withstand a direct nuclear hit, EMP
(electro-magnetic pulse) attacks, biological attacks, hurricanes,
tornados, volcanos, earthquakes, floods, solar flares, meteorites,
and ground assaults. “

For anyone thinking they can order such protection for themselves
(even allowing that they have the hundreds of thousands of dollars
it would cost) an ARC spokesman said in a recently released
conversation (listen to audio here) that it would take over a year
for them to be able to build anything because of the tremendous
backorders they are now filling due to what he says is because
everyone is freaked out about something “. And this is aside from
the US government`s recent purchase of over $1 Billion in survival
food to protect America`s leaders.

To what those in the knowing are so freaked about ” it is in our
knowing too, but is, also, so complex and shrouded in shadows as to
make it nearly indecipherable to all but the most informed, and
which, most assuredly, the masses of people today aren`t even close
to.

The complete story, and the knowledge you have a right to know, is
only going to be gained by yourself as those who rule over you will
tell you nothing, even to the point of disparaging those, like us,
who believe not only in your right to know the truth, but how
simple it can really be to protect yourself and your families from
the many horrors yet to come.

This report, therefore, like all the others before it, is but
another puzzle piece ” to be put into place so that when added to
the many others to come will show you the shattering truth being
kept from you.

The great German romantic writer Jean Paul Richter (1763-1825) once
said, A timid person is frightened before a danger, a coward during
the time, and a courageous person afterward. ” And these are,
indeed, the times one has to choose which they are, we hope you are
courageous, they will be the only ones to survive.

Posted by EU Times

****************************************************************************************

Is Comet Elenin causing
Earthquakes, Planet Nibiru? (Updated)

My Final View:

There are thousands of rocks flying around our solar system,
unlikely to have been put there by anyone or anything… except by
the remnants of the making of our solar system and by collisions
over thousands of years.

Nibiru may exist, it may not. Some have argued for and
others against.

The only fact is that of course there is a possibility of other
planets existing as part of our solar system that we have not found
yet, and anyone who says otherwise must live in a bucket! but
no-one has found any additional planets yet which can be considered
to be the ancient Nibiru.

Tyche is still only speculation.

This is simply something that must be accepted for the
moment. Observations will continue and perhaps in the future I have
no doubt that we will discover new things about our solar
system.

However for now, we must step away from the religious,
philosophical and fanciful to simply look at the facts to hand.

Three simple facts:

1. Comet Elenin is a comet.

2. Comets can alter course, effected by gravity, dark matter,
etc

3. Comets tails are mainly small particles created by the solar
winds and have no affect on our planet.

Possibilities suggested (a theory):

1. Certain Comets can contribute to earthquakes, increasing their
magnitude

Other thoughts that have no fact, based on ancient
interpretations of writings and various opinions:

1. Comet Elenin is a power source for an approaching alien
force

2. Comet Elenin will strike the planet and destroy most life

3. All Governments and NASA are covering up what Comet Elenin
really is

4. Google and other big organisations are aware of this coming
threat

5. Comet Elenin is the prelude to a devastating event scheduled for
2012

So remember the truth is important, no matter how
strange, but the truth has to be based on fact. Obviously the truth
changes as we understand more, therefore it is important to remain
open minded and allow your opinions to grow and change
too.


Latest Comet Elenin Image

3rd May 2011



Zoomed in


Source: http://sydneystargazers.com


http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=life07f-20&o=1&p=8&l=bpl&asins=0756659329&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&m=amazon&lc1=0000FF&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr

The tug of celestial bodies is real, it’s what is
creating volcanism on the moon Io of Jupiter,
among other moons that shouldn’t be as warm as they are by their
distance from the sun.

Jupiter’s moon Io

There are volcanoes found on other planets and
satellites, although most of them are not active. The only
celestial bodies with active volcanoes are the Earth, Jupiter’s
moon Io, Neptune’s satellite Triton, and Saturn’s moon Enceladus.
Io is the most volcanically active place in the Solar System.
Scientists believe that there are currently more than 400 active
volcanoes on the satellite. The large amount of volcanic activity
on the moon is due to the satellite’s eccentric orbit which causes
tidal heating. Tidal heating is where one celestial object
is heated by the effect of the gravitational pull of another
celestial body
.

Therefore, this shows that a celestial body with a big enough pull
can cause the tectonic plates of a planet/moon to converge and
diverge, so it is possible that if Comet Elenin is having enough of
a tug on earth it could cause our planets core to react to this
pull. it cannot be easily dismissed.


Update: http://lifetimeandus.blogspot.com/2011/04/comet-elenin.html


Update 25th April 2011:

Is the approaching “Comet Elenin” or Brown Dwarf causing more
extreme events to happen, bad weather patterns across the earth,
earthquakes, etc.
Yellowstone Super Volcano stirring
US battered by 240 storms as tornadoes hit [2011]
2011 Floods in Brisbane Video 1


2011 Floods in Brisbane Video 2


Toowoomba floods 2011

 




Comet Elenin or Brown Star Nibiru

On January 2008 the above photo was taken by the American
Admundsen-Scott SouthPole Station (SPT) telescope in Antarctica.
The photos were shown the followingcoordinates: 5h 53m 27s, -6 10
’58 ”, could this be a glimpse at Nibiru?

The following videos suggest that the recently discovered Comet
Elenin bares a remarkable resemblance to the Brown Dwarf Star
Nibiru. However, once again it is down to belief, but it is
compelling and thought provoking.
Video Case 1: Flight Path

Video Case 2: Flight Path

 

Video Case 3: Earthquakes

NOTE: In the above video 1 it is suggested in
the 3 alignments that as the comet/brown dwarf gets
closer the alleged effect increases:

February 27, 2010 Chile earthquake 8.8 (Direct
alignment)
(6.0AU) 
Sun/Earth/Elenin
September
3, 2010 New Zealand earthquake 7.1 (Alignment behind Sun, seems to
in fact decrease the effect)
(6.2AU) 
Earth/Sun/Elenin

March 11, 2011 Japan earthquake 9.0 (Direct
alignment)
 (2.1AU) Sun/Earth/Elenin

FUTURE DATES: 

September 26th 2011
(0.3AU) 
Sun/Earth/Elenin

November 24th 2011
(0.6AU)
 Sun/Elenin/Earth

There were many other earthquakes throughout this
period, so the odds are an alignment would have taken place on a
day an earthquake took place.

However, when in direct alignment, between the Sun
and Elenin, the magnitude was higher when compared to earthquakes
on other days, this of course could be a coincidence. Next
alignment September 26th 2011 (0.3AU) however the
alignment is Sun/Earth/
Elenin, I think if there is
any effect it is when the earth is between the Sun and Elenin which
will happen next on November 24th 2011 (0.6AU), we will
see what will happen, if anything…….

It was recently reported that the star Betelgeuse may go supernova
at any moment, and may be seen around the year 2012.

If we go conspiracy theory, is this an attempt at
disinformation, to nicely  explain the appearance of Nibiru?
Nibiru is described as a Brown Dwarf Star, like the star Betelgeuse
may glow a bright red colour, and coincidentally they are both
located in the constellation Orion. This would be
a convenient way to explain away Nibiru, just a
theory…
DEC 12th 2010 notice the twin tail, as Nibiru is depicted
by the Sumerians.

Additional:

The following seems a little extreme but it is
another opinion and makes some interesting points

Comet Elenin, Earth, and the Sun were in exact alignment last year
on February 27th. That is when the Chile Earthquake happened, and
Earth’s axis shifted. This year, the same alignment happens March
11-15, and the comet is much closer.

Comet Elenin coming near earth around march 15. Is this the cause
of japans 8.9 quake?

On March 8th this woman predicted a quake
on March 11th
Video 1

Video 2

********************************************************************************************************

ELENIN meet HONDA!

By endtimeswatcher

Rate This


On December 10, 2010, Leonid Elenin, an amateur astronomer from
Lubertsy City, in Russia, discovered Comet C/2010 XI, a comet now
universally known as Elenin. He spotted the Comet while reviewing a
four-minute footage from ISON-NB Observatory (International
Scientific Optical Netword’s Robotic Observatory) in New Mexico.
After this he recorded the find in NEO (Near Earth Objects)
Configuration Page.


It was analyzed which depicted its perihelion (closest orbital
distance to the sun) was 8.8 AU (Astronomical Unit =l a.u equals
149,598,000 kilometers) from us. But, a recalculation of its
orbital path one month later revealed this had significantly shrank
to a projected 0.15-0.24 a.u. Although still relatively safe, this
is not conclusive due to this all being conjectured.

Based upon these projections, Elenin would be visible to
land-based observation beginning from mid-August in this year of
2011, especially considering the tail is expected to blaze brightly
as its metallic content scatters the Sun’s rays, deflected off the
Moon.

Now, you would think this kind of event would be splattered on
every media form available and known worldwide at this point,
right? But, the hard truth is that many people do not know of this,
nor have the press covered the event on a wide scale.

Conspiracy theorists speculate that this is actually a cover for
the real deal: an ago old brown dwarf, a sister sun for our Sol-a
moving, planetary-size mass of collapsing clouds with three moons
that orbits is in a 3,600 year orbit around the galaxy. It has been
referred to NIBIRU (D23K9) by some, and NASA’s seemingly reluctant
to dispel the notions has only served to increase the rumor mill to
almost a breaking point.

Some even speculate that the governments of this world have given
this title to this comet due to ELE in the beginning of the title
Elenin denotes the actual revelation which means EXTINCTION LEVEL
EVENT! But as stated, this is speculative.


Some theorize that Elenin/Nibiru will approach Earth and take
control of Earth’s polarity away from the Sun, and the
gravitational balance has increasingly caused many reactions and
the closer it becomes, the more fierce the reaction within the
Earth’s core and surface until it will lead to global catastrophe.
This also could cause a shift in Earth’s magnetic pole, which has
already begun as well. Example: Chile and also Japan’s quakes has
moved the Earth’s axis and also shortened our day.


Matthew 24:21-23 (King James Version)

21For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the
beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.

22And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh
be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days shall be
shortened.

23Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there;
believe it not.

Mark 13:20 (King James Version)

20And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh
should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom he hath chosen, he
hath shortened the days.


AND THEN, THERE WERE
TWO

Comet Honda

Otherwise known as Comet 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova is projected
to reach its aphelion in mid-August 2011, as well. With an
estimated proximity to earth being 0.06 A.U, or approximately 9
million kilometers, the closest since Comet D/1770 LI (Lexell) in
1770 and C/1983 HI (IRAS-Araki-Alcock) in 1983.


The Comet Honda was first discovered on December 3, 1948 by
Minoru Honda, an amateur astronomer from Japan. It’s elliptical,
five year orbit commencing from Ophiuchus constellation at the
Galactic Equator, with its perihelion of ).58 A.U, which will occur
on September 30, 2011. The Comet Honda is believed to be the
diameter of 1.6 km, which is significantly larger that both Lexell,
and the IRAS.

Quite interesting is the aspect that 45P/Honda is actually
forecasted to cross paths of Comet Elenin approximately around
October 8, 2011.


ELENIN AND THE MAYA

The fundamentals of the Mayan calendar and sky charting were
‘borrowed’ from the Olmec civilization which started their
stargazing around 680 B.C. They refined this system to assist them
in crop plating, and other mundane aspects. But, eventually they
created their own calendars, and closely watched the movements of
the stars and planets as they marched across the sky.

The most popular calendar was the Tzolkin, which consists of
eighteen 20 day months (Uinals), wherein each of these twenty days
maintain a symbolic significance. The eighteen months total to 360
days, which they called a Tun year. The combination of the Tuns is
19 years, eight months, and 15 days, or a Katun. A Baktun equals 20
Katuns, or 394 years and 4 months.


Now, theirteen Baktans is one complete Great Cycle, or 1,872.000
days, which is approximately 5,125 years; the equivalent of one
Mayan Great Cycle. And considering the Mayan folklore told of the
universe being created on August 11, 3114 B.C, it stands to reason
that the end of the cycle will happen at the exact time of
1,872,000 days later, which falles on 11:11 GMT, December 21,
2012.

Now how they came to this conclusion of a Great Cycle was the
wobbling of the stars in the sky, because the night sky is
accompanied by wobbles that correspond with the solstices of the
Earth and Sun. The wobbles are caused by a minor realignment of our
planet along its axis as the gravitational forces and dark energy
exerts its influence on our planet. A concise calculation reveals
our movement and the Sun’s in relation to the Galactic Equator,
which results in the Sun’s path across the elliptical skyline and
the Galactic Equator. This intersection occurs every 5,125 years
and considering the Mayans had no scientific calculator, this was a
great feat in counting.


The cataclysmic extinction level event that the Mayans
prophesized began its Armageddon on December 21, 2012, and although
this projected date seems correct, one must account for the
corrections made to the Gregorian calendar which would result in a
missing day of every century which rounded up was 365 days, 5
hours, 48 minutes, 45.25 seconds to 3651/4 in the Julian calendar
that was used before the Gregorian, which shifted the disappearance
of a period of 14 days!


In addition, Pope Gregory, authorized the conversion to the
Julian in 1582, which shifted the calendar by 11 days, ending the
calendar leap from March 4, 1582 to March 15, the next day. In
actuality the new calendar year was losing 30 seconds from the
solar cycle annually, and add this to the fact that the Julian
Calendar, adopted by Julius Caesar in the 8th Century made a leap
of 67 days to sync with the solar cycle, and upon his death, there
was confusions with the methodology involved, with the changes of
leap year ever 3 instead of every 4 years.

So recalculating the Great Cycle in its entirety against the modern
calendar, taking into account the faults and adjustments, the
prophesized date would be….OCTOBER 28, 2011—-within weeks of the
ELENIN event!


ELENIN AND THE HOPI

The Hopis prophecy actually ties into the Mayan concept-the Great
Cycle. And this is their prophecy according to White Feather of the
Bear Clan told to Reverend David Young in 1948.

The Fourth World shall end soon, and
the Fifth World will begin. This the
elders everywhere know. The Signs over many years have been
fulfilled, and so few are left.”

“This is the First Sign: We are told of the
coming of the white-skinned men, like Pahana, but not living like
Pahana men who took the land that was not theirs. And men who
struck their own enemies.”

“This is the Second Sign: Our lands will see
the coming of spinning wheels filled with voices. In his youth, my
father saw this prophecy come true with his eyes-the white men
bringing their families in wagons across the prairies.”

“This is the Third Sign: A strange beast like
a buffalo but with great long horns, will overrun the land in large
numbers. These White Feather saw with his eyes-the coming of the
white men’s cattle.”

“This is the Fourth Sign: The land will be
crossed by snakes of iron?”

“This is the Fifth Sign: The land shall be
criss-crossed by a giant spider’s web.”

“This is the Sixth Sign: The land shall be
criss-crossed with rivers of stone that make pictures in the
sun.”

“This is the Seventh Sign: You will hear of
the sea turning black, and many living things dying because of
it.”

“This is the Eight Sign: You will see many
youths, who wear their hair long like my people, come and join the
tribal nations, to learn their ways and wisdom.”

“And this is the Ninth and Last Sign: You
will hear of a dwelling-place in the heavens, above the earth, that
shall fall with a great crash. It will appear as a blue star. Very
soon after this, the ceremonies of my people will cease.


“These are the Signs that the great destruction is coming. The
world shall rock to and fro. The white man will battle against
other people in their lands–with those who possess the first light
of wisdom. There will be many columns of smoke and fire such as
White Feather has seen the white man make in the deserts not far
from here. Only those which come will cause disease and a great
dying. Many of my people, understanding the prophecies, shall be
safe. Those who stay and live on the places of my people also shall
be safe. Then there will be much to rebuild. And soon–very soon
afterward–Pahana will return. He shall bring with him the dawn of
the Fifth World. He shall plant the seeds of his wisdom in their
hearts. Even now the seeds are being planted. These shall smooth
the way to the Emergence into the fifth World”


A major Hopi prophecy concerning the end times involves two
brothers who became separated. The red skinned brother remained at
the Four Corners, while the white brother traveled east, toward the
rising sun. The white brother, or “Pahana,” was
given a mission to someday return to help his younger brother bring
about Purification, or a form of apocalypse, at which time the
world’s evildoers would be destroyed and real peace and brotherhood
would be established everywhere. Three legendary symbols are the
Sun (Creator) symbol, the Moha symbol (swastika),
and the Red (walking the Red Road Spiritual Path)symbol.

Upon researching this subject it seems
the Hopi and
the Azteclegends with their story of
the Qeutzalcoatl, and other legends of
Central America are intimately connected. The prophesized figures
of each culture seems to coincide with the others.

The return of the Lost White Brother of the Hopi and were said to
return from the East and this is why they are buried facing the
East.

 


LETS
CONSIDER:
 

Okay…I have research enough subjects in these last few years that
tie into one another and here we have it again!

An ancient Hopi prophecy states, “When the Blue
Star Kachina makes its appearance in the heavens, the Fifth World
will emerge”. The Blue Star is Sirius. And soon, very soon
afterward, Pahana (Christ) will return.

It is in my opinion that these events are all connected to
theASCENDED MASTERS.


In SHARE INTERNATIONAL-Benjamin Crème has stated in numerous
accounts that Maitreya is coming with the BLUE
STAR
. Now, he has stated that on several occasions we have
witnessed this BLUE STAR. What is one of these TWO comets are one
in the same as this BLUE STAR.

Perhaps more ominous though will be that these two comets have
formed an X, or cross, directly under the
Earth over the south pole. The Mayans look to this
time period as the return of Quetzalcoatl, also known as
Jesus
.


ANOTHER similarity is the SWASTIKA!!

The swastika has been used in many cultures from many races around
the world from ancient times until this very day. It has different
meanings for different cultures but they are seem to worship
it.


It’s amazing how this symbol is even from of course the Germans,
to the Trojans, Greece, Ireland, Asia, Rome, China, Egypt,
Phoenicians, Hittites, Sumerians, Kassi, Indians, and even the
American Indians, such as the Hopi, and across Central Americas.
AMAZING! What, or should I ask WHO began this…THE SKY
GODS
, perhaps?

Be the first to like this post.

10 Responses to “ELENIN meet HONDA!”

  1. Les Says:Finally, a thorough document not filled with fear but of history
    culture and presence. I have never believed in one religion one
    theory having the right answer but a combination of wisdom’s being
    spelled out or placed side by side for anyone to choose their
    path.

    • kaijusan Says:Les, this is obviously not about religion anymore but of
      obedience to the Living God and Creator. Man has turned from His
      truth and commands for living. We have disobeyed and deserve the
      same punishment of the fallen beings. I hope you are not
      disregarding the authority of Christ as son in flesh but God in
      Spirit. Christ did not claim to be a brother of an angel (satan)
      but God in the flesh. It is obvious that history has been diluted
      and many things ommited during our times of ‘enlightenment’. The
      real buisness at hand of humans called by God is not to bathe in
      theory but share the message of Salvation through Christ Jesus who
      has paid the penalty for our transgressions against the Creator.
      When God revealed Himself to me the first time, I could see the
      lights of the war. I was frightened, ‘aliens’ I thought, but the
      Lord told me that it was not my concern. The focus is here on the
      ground, human to human as the invisible forces attack us to try and
      stop what the Creator has commanded us to do. Let the wars in the
      sky be fought by those in the sky. Let the war down here be fought
      by those down here. If I am wrong then the Lord will discipline me.
      His word is alive and brimming with the amazing interweaved
      tapestry of God’s divine knowledge for us and prophecy. He speaks
      to us through the pages written by those He Himself has inspired.
      Any other teaching is of the devil. Scripture interprets scripture.
      I hope not to offend but to humbly offer other ideas.
*****************************************************************************************
Comet
Elenin
On December 10 2010 using a remotely operated 18 inch
telescope situated in pod 3 at New Mexico Skies observatory in
Mayhill New Mexico United States, Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin
discovered what is now known as comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin).
 Before that, it was an unknown mountain size chunk of ice
and sand drifting for eons through the outer reaches of our solar
system.Firstly, congratulations to Mr. Elenin on the discovery!
 Only a handful of comets are discovered each year and so to
have your name on a comet is a rare event worth
congratulating.  Leonid Elenin has a site dedicated to astronomy that
also covers the science of comet Elenin.  The area of his
site covering comet Elenin is here.  His
site is written in Russian of course, but most of it is translated
to English, and for those areas that are not translated you can
useGoogle
translator
 to get a fairly decent translation.In the java applet below we see comet
Elenin diagrammatically represented in our solar system with its
position shown for today’s date. Try playing with the various
controls, namely, use the upper and lower scroll bars to rotate the
view. Also, use the animation controls to animate the movements of
the solar system bodies forward or backward in
time. 

 

Comet Elenin is a new comet, but also, comet
Elenin is classified as what as known as a new comet. To explain
the meaning of that, there are three types of comets, new comets,
long period comets and periodic comets. Periodic comets orbit the
sun on orbits less than 200 years such as Halley’s comet, which
arrives at the inner solar system every 75.32 years while long
period comets orbit on orbits longer than 200 years.Â
Whereas, comet Elenin, a new comet, is a comet that is entering the
solar system for the first time. It is hypothesized that new comets
come from a supposed area called the Oort cloud that resides about
50,000 times the distance from the earth to the sun. The distance
from the earth to the sun is a measurement known as an astronomical
unit. An astronomical unit is abbreviated AU. So the hypothetical
Oort cloud is proposed to be 50,000 AU from the sun.
Being that comet Elenin is a new comet entering the inner solar
system for the first time, it will be dimmer than periodic comets
usually are as they head toward the sun.  However, new comets
will brighten up once they get very near to perihelion at about the
same level of brightness of periodic comets and even brighter in
most cases.ÂThe perihelion
is the time when a comet is closest to the
sun.  
There is another rare
term for comets that I didn’t mention and that is great
comets.  Most of the comets of the past that have been termed
as great comets were exceptionally bright and put on an amazing
show, ergo the term great comet.  And most of those were new
comets.  New comets tend to light up brighter that periodic
or long term comets because concentrated sunlight is heating them
up for the very first time.  Comet Elenin will brighten, but
we don’t actually know how bright it will get since comets of the
past have done strange things when it comes to brightness.Â
Comets in the past that we have expected to be bright enough to see
with the unaided eye, like we expect comet Elenin to be, have at
times became disappointingly dim, whereas comets that we thought
would be nothing special have suddenly lit up beautifully. Â
  
Comet Elenin is very nearly coming in on the plane of the ecliptic.
The plane of the ecliptic refers to the orbital plane of the
earth.

In the above diagram, our sun would be represented by the yellow
sphere in the center, the earth by the small blue sphere and the
red line would represent the orbit of the earth around the
sun.  And so, the grid would be the plane of the
ecliptic.  Or, to explain it in words, think of a disc shape
and imagine the earth moving around the circumference of this disc
and imagine the flat surface of the disc as the plane and imagine
this plane extending throughout the solar system.  This plane
is what’s known as the plane of the ecliptic.  All of the
planets orbit the sun very close to this plane and therefore the
entire solar system is shaped like a giant disc. Comet Elenin is
coming in very close to this plane and that means that it will be
moving through the asteroid belt. The asteroid belt is an area
between Mars and Jupiter that is populated by hundreds of thousands
of asteroids.

In the above diagram asteroids are represented
as blue dots.  This is a diagrammatic view representing what
would be seen if you were hovering above the North Pole of the sun
and looking down.  As you can see, comet Elenin started to
enter into the main region of the asteroid belt on March
4th.

It is possible for comet Elenin to actually run into an asteroid,
however this would be a very rare event because the asteroids are
spread out over a huge area.  There will be gravitational
protuberances of its orbit though by the various asteroids it will
come close to as it travels through this region.

The size of comet Elenin has not yet been determined.Â
For now, take a look at the list below of comets from the past that
we have determined the size for.  If I had to guess, being
that it was first spotted at 4.3 AU from the sun and that it is a
new comet, which tend to be dimmer inbound for the first time, it’s
most likely going to be on the large side, say, at least 15 km in
diameter based on an equivalent sphere.

COMET  DIAMETERÂ
KM
C/1995 O1 (HALE-BOPP) 60
29P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 1 30.8
109P/SWIFT-TUTTLE 26
28P/NEUJMIN 1 21.4
C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS) 13.6
C/1991 L3 (LEVY) 11.6
1P/HALLEY 11
65P/GUNN 10.8
10P/TEMPEL 2 10.6
99P/KOWAL 1 10.2
C/1983 H1
(IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK)
9.2
117P/HELIN-ROMAN-ALU 1 9
49P/AREND-RIGAUX 8.48
32P/COMAS SOLA 8.4
151P/HELIN 8.4
77P/LONGMORE 8.2
90P/GEHRELS 1 7.8
30P/REINMUTH 1 7.8
53P/VAN BIESBROECK 6.66
96P/MACHHOLZ 1 6.4
184P/LOVAS 2 6.2
31P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 2 6.2
9P/TEMPEL 1 6
137P/SHOEMAKER-LEVY 2 5.8
48P/JOHNSON 5.74
101P/CHERNYKH 5.6
47P/ASHBROOK-JACKSON 5.6
98P/TAKAMIZAWA 5.4
7P/PONS-WINNECKE 5.2

I’ll add more to the above regarding the
actual science of comet Elenin as the data comes in over the coming
months. In the meanwhile, lets talk about some of the other
interesting things about it. Things like cataclysm. On my iGoogle
page I have a gadget that monitors twitter in real time for
anything being said about comet Elenin. From watching that over the
last few months, combined with another monitor I have which is a
Google search monitor, I know that everyone wants to know about how
comet Elenin relates to possible cataclysmic events for earth. So
lets talk about that.

 


 

Can comet Elenin cause harm to
earth?

 

Yes, it is possible, but not probable. I’ll
present some scenarios here where cataclysmic events could
occur.  In addition, I’ll tell everyone about a surprise I
have that relates to this comet.

 


The most obvious question is, can comet Elenin
or any part of it hit the earth? Well, if you have played around
with the orbital applet above, then you may have seen that it does
come close, but the closeness that you see in the orbital diagram
is in reality a distance barely imaginable. Currently, at the time
of this writing, comet Elenin misses earth by 0.232 AU. That
translates to 21,565,820 miles. And so, in terms of distances on
earth, that would be the equivalent of taking a trip around earths
equator 862 times! And another way to look at it is that it is the
mean distance from the earth to the moon times 90!


 

So comet Elenin will miss us by quite a ways.
The thing about space is, it’s big. Space is so big that you can
hardly even think about it. As an example, lets say you tossed a
ping pong ball in the middle of the pacific ocean. What are the
odds that an ocean going ship of any kind will run into that ping
pong ball any time soon? Next to impossible, right? Maybe in 100
thousand years a ship might happen upon it, but not any time soon.
And that is the way space is but on an even larger scale. So for
anything out there to hit earth is pretty slim. We do get hit by
stuff every day, but that’s mostly just sand size particles out
there floating around our solar system. In fact, tons of this sand
or meteoroids as they’re called hit the earth every day. Ever see a
shooting star? Well, that’s what that is, just specks of sand
hitting earths upper atmosphere. These specks of sand are traveling
so fast, and the earth is traveling super fast too, that when they
hit us they heat up by friction to white hot and that’s the flash
of light that you see.  Interestingly, at the time when these
meteoroids are lighting up, or in other words, burning up, we
change the name from meteoroid to meteor.  Bigger stuff hits
us too, but this is rare. If you’ve ever seen with your own eyes or
have seen on video what is known as a fireball, then that would be
an example of the bigger items that hit us ranging from the size of
a fist, to say, the size of a microwave oven. These larger sized
objects can sometimes make it all the way to the surface of the
earth without burning up and we change the name once again from
meteor to meteorites for these objects.  And then there are
much bigger items out there whizzing by, but they are far more
rarer than fireballs. So rare that those larger items rarely ever
hit us. The last time something of significant size hit us was an
event known as the Tunguska event that happened in
1908.


 

So, aside from Jupiter and the sun which, with
their immense gravity sucking up anything that gets near them and
consequently getting hit all the time by stuff out there, earth
rarely ever gets hit by anything of significant size. Oh but we
will though! All in good time, all in good time.  Hopefully,
we will be able to see it coming before hand, calculate exactly
where on the earth it will impact and then evacuate the
area.

 


 

But not by comet Elenin. It can hit us, but
the odds are astronomically against this. Things that could happen
to change its orbital trajectory sending it on a collision course
with earth are things like, there may be one or more undiscovered
asteroids out there of sufficient size that get close enough to
perturb it’s trajectory by gravitational attraction. Combined with
the fact that comets have jets of gas that jet out from the surface
of their nucleus and these jets can sometimes alter the trajectory
significantly over long distances.


 


   

Shown in the above is a two frame video
showing jets of gas spewing out from the nucleus of comet Hartley
2. The white speckles are chunks of ice floating along with the
nucleus. These images were just recently taken by the NASA EPOXI
spacecraft.


 

This is nothing really, because the odds of
the orbit of comet Elenin being changed significantly in the
aforementioned ways is next to zero. A more likely scenario for
cataclysm would be related to comet Elenin running into an
uncharted asteroid of significant size. Significant size being at
least 300 feet in mean diameter. Now this would definitely change
the orbital trajectory quite a lot. But for that change to then
cause whatever remained of the comet to hit earth is still going to
be very high odds. It’s the ping pong ball in the pacific ocean
analogy coming into play again. Earth is just too small of a target
when compared to the vastness of space. Another way to think of it
is two persons in the grand canyon each with a high powered rifle
and they are shooting bullets at regular intervals in random
directions in the canyon. Well, what are the odds that one or the
other would be able to shoot down the others bullet? Pretty slim
right? And that’s the way it is with space.

 


 

However, if comet Elenin ran into an asteroid
at least 300 feet in average diameter this would cause a large
portion of, or even the entire comet, to be obliterated and that
would cause a huge debris cloud to form. We know that this would
cause a huge debris cloud because we have done the
experiment.

 


 


 

 

On July 4, 2005 we slammed a 820 pound,
roughly 3 foot by 3 foot block, of solid copper into the nucleus of
comet Tempel 1. The above image shows the nucleus of the comet 67
seconds after the impact. Scientists were surprised by the enormity
of the debris cloud. They had anticipated that they would barely be
able to see anything on the imaging cameras, yet the debris cloud
ended up becoming around a few thousand miles wide overall. In the
above image only a portion of the overall eventual debris cloud is
shown. To make things clear, I should point out that this image and
the above image of comet Hartley 2 are from the same spacecraft. It
started out as the Deep Impact spacecraft but then its name was
changed to the EPOXI spacecraft once the initial Deep Impact
mission was completed. It’s new mission, including taking images of
comet Hartley 2, will be to do experiments regarding extrasolar
planets.

 


 

And so a solid object such as an asteroid at
least 300 feet in diameter would definitely create a huge debris
cloud and if the impact occurred at just the right angle, earth
would definitely run into that debris cloud. And any larger chunks
of the comet nucleus, if numerous enough, would hit us too. This
being analogous to a shotgun effect.

 


 

I think you can imagine the ramifications if
this were to happen. The most amazing aspect would be the resulting
meteor shower. If earth ended up going through the most dense part
of the debris cloud then there would be a meteor shower like
nothing ever before experienced in human history. It would start
off as an ordinary meteor shower and then it would intensify to the
point where the entire sky over most of the earth would light up
brighter than the sun! So in other words, every part of the sky
coming into contact with the debris cloud would be as though
looking at an ark light! It would be so fantastically bright that
you wouldn’t be able to look at it and if you did look you
wouldn’t be able to find the sun in day time within the blazing
light because the meteor dust storm would appear much brighter than
the sun itself. Meanwhile, there would be a tremendous roaring
whistling hissing thundering sound heard all over the entire earth
as individual meteoroids disturbed the atmosphere sonically in
various ways. These events would last for several days as earth
past through the debris cloud.

 


Also, if there were a large number of sizable
chunks of the obliterated comet within the debris cloud then earth
might run into one or more of these during this meteor storm. Large
impacts would result in observers either being instantly vaporized
if too close to the impact site to feeling a magnitude 10 or so
worldwide earthquake. It would most likely strike an ocean and this
would result in a worldwide downwind rainstorm of salt water
combined with nitric acid. The nitric acid being formed by the
intense heat of the impact reacting nitrogen with oxygen. Also too,
the intense heat of each meteoroid of the meteor storm would
generate nitric acid as well. This would contaminate the fresh
waters and kill aquatic life and make the water in some locations
undrinkable, as is the case observed with acid rain. The water
would acquire a bitter sour taste like…. Guess what I’m going to
say. That’s right! Like wormwood! For those not in the know,
wormwood is a plant that has a very bitter taste. This plant is
mentioned in the bible in the book of revelations where the writer
is describing cataclysmic events befalling the earth. I find this
very interesting from a scientific point of view because that’s
exactly what would happen and the author knows about it because in
the distant past of human history it did happen. Can it happen
again with comet Elenin? Yes, but the odds of it happening are so
remote that it would be like hitting a state lottery several times
in a row. So the more appropriate answer is no. But being that it
did happen once, and we have a plethora of evidence of this in the
writings of ancient humans, it makes for a very interesting subject
to talk about in relation to comet Elenin being that the orbital
trajectory of comet Elenin is similar. Similar to what? Similar to
a monster!


The monster is mentioned in various ancient
writings as, Zeus in conjunction with Typhon, Quetzalcoatl the
feathered serpent, Bel in conjunction with the Dragon, Marduk in
conjunction with Tiamat, Vishnu in conjunction with the serpent and
so on. The surprise is, I’ll show that this monster was in fact a
comet that was on a orbital path similar to comet Elenin and that
this comet collided with an asteroid as it approached the earth.
I’ve been working on this hypotheses off and on since 1997 and had
mainly been keeping it to friends, family and myself, but with the
advent of the discovery of comet Elenin and its orbital trajectory
I have decided to make this web site and tell the world about
it.


I’ll talk more about all of this as I write it
out and post it here. There is so much to talk about! I want to
talk about the late Zecharia Sitchin and how Nibiru was actually an
event and not a planet, Immanuel Velikovsky and how
gravitational induced tides occurred WITHOUT a planet getting near
to the earth, the late Tom Van Flandern and how exploding planets
may actually be a possibility, Charles Hapgood and how pole shift
may actually be possible as well and so much more. I am busy doing
numerous other things so I’ll write all this over time, check back
for updates.

************************************************************************************
Down the Rabbit Hole to‘Wonderland’
by Christos LightweaverPREFACE:Wondering where the wave of change is taking humanity?

Is it true that some will awaken to their worst fears

while others will awaken to the greatest
love?


Would you agree that global humanity

is on the threshold of deep
shift?


Watch this YouTube video;

down the ‘rabbit hole’

to ‘Wonderland’.

 

Graphic
depiction of the times, thanks to Susan Seymour Hedke,
author of the Book, ‘The Galactic Center
2012

Some will wonder as they wander down the ‘rabbit hole’,
oblivious to the tsunami of Galactic energies inbound.Others will wonder at the opportunity with this crisis asshift hits the
fan
 and

normalcy bias reaps the whirlwind.

GeoNotes
News / May 11, 2011):  The journey down the ‘rabbit hole’
enters a ‘Wonderland’ of quantum reality whereby the all-connected
universe is unveiled with multi-dimensional gifts of
the Spirit
that matters
… 
Effective Sensory P
erception of a highly intuitive nature.

Of
course, there are laws governing this process;
universal-cosmic laws of a Cosmic
Love
 nature,

Those who
live in the quantum frequencies of fear will experience their worse
fears coming upon them. Likewise, those who live in the quantum
frequencies of cosmic-universal love

will experience a way out of the fear matrix.

“The quantum law of attraction (regarding fear or
love)

can only manifest that quality of energy

as a life experience.”
~ from: ‘The Secret

The
upward-mobile frequencies of love are the best antidote for
immobilizing fear. We all have the opportunity to soar on those
thermals to new heights, or wallow in paradigm
paralysis.


This is the 1st principle of Cosmic Law, the Prime
Directive

of quantum-cosmic law whereby we get what we ask
for

(reaping what we sow), attracting life experiences
thereby.

By this
law of ‘Universal Co-Creation’ in the larger scheme of eternal
progression, up-wising and up-rising is a natural consequence of
the ‘Spirit
that matters
‘ (an attitude, not
aptitude), 
which ultimately
determines one’s altitude… whether we soar
like eagles with an attitude of gratitude, or scratch like turkeys
on bugs of begrudge.

Keep
it 
LIGHT:  “Life’s a
hoot, and then you reboot.”

We are all
participants in this process — the systemic shift in the unified
field of Earth energies as resonates with a profound shift in our
Sun’s energies as are resonant with our entire solar system’s
quantum field as it crosses the Galactic Plane in 2011
resonating with the aligned energies of hundreds of billions of
star systems in our Milky Way Galaxy… as resonates
this
tsunami of photonic
light
 in our atoms, DNA and
the veil of consciousness.

It’s ALL connected in the unified field of cosmic
energy,
the ocean of vibrational actuality we subjugate as
reality.

  And that quantum field is about to reboot, ‘Big
Time’ with
Spontaneous
DNA and a Quantum Shift in Conscience
‘.(an amazing ten
minute YouTube video)

This is
the real-cosmic secret of quantum
shift.  It’s ALL connected to how we observe the connection
between heaven and earth, spirit and matter; as
above
 with the Spirit that matters,so
below
 in the
physical matter-chalice for that Spirit.  As
we become conscious of HOW we are conscious, the pure intention for
conscious evolution naturally self-corrects all
ways.

“Subatomic particles – electrons, for example – move
around inside atoms
in totally surprising and mysterious ways, and best of all, those
tiny particlesactually respond to people who study them!In fact, you can’t observe anything in the subatomic world without
changing it,

proving there are no observers in life, only
participants.”

~ Dr. Natalie Reid, Author
of Five Steps to a Quantum
Life

This is
the heart of the prime directive — the
Constitution of Cosmic Law — whereby pure intention focuses
attention on our evolutionary ascension… from 3-D sensorial
consciousness

to 5-D Unity
Conscience
 of a more enlightened
nature.

“Conscience is the most sacred of all
property.”
~ Chief architect of the U.S. Constitution,
James Madison
When you
go down the rabbit hole, it is 
Unity
Conscience
 at the heart of quantum reality which reveals a
‘Wonderland’ as challenges our ‘normalcy bias‘ simply because we see
differently
… becoming aware of prevailing perceptual ‘BS’
(Belief Systems) of a “3-D” (materialistic) nature which naturally
resists 4-D transformation to “5-D” (
Conscience) with
the Spirit
that matters
.

As we
become more conscious of HOW we are conscious
- both individually and collectively – the natural fulfillment
ofconscious evolution is “Common Sense”
(Unity
Conscience
)
as a quantum shift evolution
revolution 
which will naturally

finish globally what U.S.
Founders began with Common Sense.

Transformation of our
DNA and 
Conscience naturally follows the choices made as the ‘veil’
thins in ‘Wonderland’… and once you go down that ‘rabbit hole’,
there’s no going back to “DUH” (Dumb, Unconscious & Heartless)
without the retro consequences of ‘DUH’.

Humankind is standing
precariously on the edge of its destiny.
It will either rise to a paradigm change or experience declineand possible destruction. This is an unavoidable
confrontation.The options will be presented and
the

choices will be made.”
 -
from Jesus Speaks? Love Without End  by
Glenda Green 
     [Note the final added emphasis
on 'choices will be
made'
...

the final judgment warning (prophecy) of Jonah at Nineveh

which is the veiled warning of inbound "Nibiru',
i.e. "ELENIN"

(acronym
for Extinction Level Event
NINeveh) ~ Christos]

And so it is with
the final
9th wave of the Mayan calendar in 2011
, the end of
the matrix as we have known it.  This is far
more than just the completion of the 25,800 year precession of the
equinoxes as our solar system crossed the Galactic plane. In fact,
the conscientious observation of this quantum shift process — now
morphing the matter matrix of Earth with ‘cosmic fire‘ — makes one a participant in the
judgment process of Universal
Co-Creation
;

each soul will be tested according to their own soul contracts and
choices thereby.

“When you are engaged in absolute Reality and
absolute Unreality, then your vision by Love

can span all dimensions.  But when you are not, beloved, then
your vision is limited,

the senses of the soul are not awakened, and the third eye has no
clear vision.

For, beloved, God does not open the kingdom of heaven
to you unless

he also opens the depths of hell. Understand, then,
beloved,

that those who truly love will not fear the embrace
of

Christ or the challenge of Death and
Hell.”
~ John the
Beloved, June 24, 1990 via E. C. Prophet

As our ‘normalcy bias‘ is increasingly challenged at
an accelerated rate through to October —  at the same time
Galactic Alignment coincides with ‘Elenin inbound‘ — all heaven may break lose
to counter our worst fears if all hell breaks lose.  This
is BIG DRAMA as will sort the wheat from the
chaff… the alchemical process of the Divine
Refiner
 whose Cosmic-Etheric Fire transmutes the ‘lead’ of
‘only human’ consciousness into the ‘gold’ of a
divine 
Conscience –
Unity Conscience‘ as ‘Universal
Co-Creation
‘ with the Spirit that
matters
.


Note
the bottom paragraph — to the right in the above graphic — which
pretty much sums it up

as ‘the test that’s best’ for all souls at
this time:

“As we head towards Oct. 28, 2011 or the Mayan end of
time as we know it,
things will be moving so fast that our mind will not be able to
copebut ourINTUITION will and is the key to our survival.”

Such INTUITION, as emphasized
with the ‘purple
code
‘, is
the prophecy-in-motion towards a
new 
unity of
purpose
… a spirit of ‘repentance
as a humble return to the Spirit that
matters
which collectively saved the people of Nineveh in the
biblical story of Jonah and the whale.

“It is only with the heart that one can see
rightly.
What is essential is invisible to the eye.”~ Antione de
Saint Exupery in 
The
Little Prince

If you watched the YouTube
video recommended in the preface to this article,
and get it…

you’ll know why fearless faith in your latent intuitive
gifts
 will naturally unveil Effective SensoryPerception as
more 
photonic
light
 reboots your DNA as
referenced in the other video linked above on
Spontaneous
DNA
‘.  Connect the dots folks; this
is HUGE.

“What the caterpillar calls the end of the world,the master calls butterfly.”~ Richard Back, from his
book, ‘Illusions’
“Butterfly Man” (crop circle)

As the veil thins at an
accelerated rate through to the end of October, it is better to
believe nothing and either ‘know’ intuitively, or not know… the yea or nay
of that small voice of
Conscience at
the heart of conscious evolution.

Onwards and Upwards,

~ Christos

PS: Keep
in mind that the best cell food for DNA reboot

and transformative potential is this ‘UltraFood.

 

Update 5-15-2011 

New Crop Circle Archetype for Mass Awakening to

Cosmic Law Coordinates for Unity Conscience

This crop circle was reported May 7 at

Hannington, nr Cricklade, Wiltshire, UK

The spherical consciousness framing

the ‘THRee-in-ONE’ (THRONE) of

G.O.D.~  as represents

the holy trinity whereby

is for giving

‘all ways’ and

always.

It is the ONE whole, holistic, healthy
and holy Spirit

of -in-action which fulfills the Great
Law.

It is also the three-in-ONE name and “flame”
(Spirit)

at the heart of the Constitution of Cosmic Law,

framing the 1st principles of ‘Law’ as
‘Language’

for the processes of consciousness governing

conscious evolution along more enlightened

lines which culture the Spirit that
matters
;

: the linear, logical, left-brain ‘logos’ (letter of the law)

framing the ‘Law of the
Angles of G.O.D.’ in terms of

Geometrically Ordered Divinity (framed via ).

 :  the nonlinear, spherical
consciousness of right-brain

      intuition at the heart of
the Spirit of the law known as

the
‘Language of the Angels (our
better divine nature).

   :  The holy trinity’s
synergy of our left-to-right brain gifts

         as
we check and balance the letter and spirit of the
law,

for
giving
 to manifest the holy spirit
of -in-action.

  :  The 4-square ‘gospel’ (good news) as
cross-referenced

integration of pure intention with focused intention on

the centered and connected ‘Capstone Conscience’

of, by and for both individual and collective up-wising

and uprising as conscious
ascent
 to Unity Conscience.

(the one eye)

CopyRound © 2011

Worldwide  Foundation

All “Rights” () Well “Rounded” ()
& “Synergized” ()

with the healthy, holistic and
otherwise holy “whole” ()

in all five archetypal
dimensions
 of universal-cosmic

 ************************************************************************

LEOnid
ELENIN
is it code for Constellation LEO  Extinction
Level Event Nibiru Is Near

You decide

What is the legal definition of a Person?
Man or Fiction?

What%20is%20the%20legal%20definition%20of.pdf

Do you know what you are? Are you a ‘person’? Are you sure?

So you think you are a ‘person’, eh? According to Black’s Law dictionary, ‘a humanbeing is not a person because he is a human being, but because rights and duties have been ascribed to him. Specifically, the person is the legal subject or substance of which rights and duties are attributes. Bouviers Law Dictionary 1856 Edition: PERSON. This word is applied to men, women and children, who are called natural persons. In law, man and person are not exactly-synonymous terms. Any human being is a man, whether he be a member of society or not, whatever may be the rank he holds, or whatever may be his age, sex, &c. A person is a man considered according to the rank he holds in society, with all the rights to which the place he holds entitles him, and the duties which it imposes. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 137.
2. It is also used to denote a corporation which is an artificial person. 1 Bl. Com. 123; 4 Bing. 669; C. 33 Eng. C. L R. 488; Wooddes. Lect. 116; Bac. Us. 57; 1 Mod. 164.
3. But when the word “Persons” is spoken of in legislative acts, natural persons will be intended, unless something appear in the context to show that it applies to artificial persons. 1 Scam. R. 178.
4. Natural persons are divided into males, or men; and females or women. Men are capable of all kinds of engagements and functions, unless by reasons applying to particular individuals. Women cannot be appointed to any public office, nor perform any civil functions, except those which the law specially declares them capable of exercising. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 25.
5. They are also sometimes divided into free persons and slaves. Freemen are those who have preserved their natural liberty, that is to say, who have the right of doing what is not forbidden by the law. A slave is one who is in the power of a master to whom he belongs. Slaves are sometimes ranked not with persons but things. But sometimes they are considered as persons for example, a negro is in contemplation of law a person, so as to be capable of committing a riot in conjunction with white men. 1 Bay, 358. Vide Man.
6. Persons are also divided into citizens, (q. v.) and aliens, (q. v.) when viewed with regard to their political rights. When they are considered in relation to their civil rights, they are living or civilly dead; vide Civil Death; outlaws; and infamous persons.
7. Persons are divided into legitimates and bastards, when examined as to their rights by birth.
8. When viewed in their domestic relations, they are divided into parents and children; hushands and wives; guardians and wards; and masters and servants son, as it is understood in law, see 1 Toull. n. 168; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1890, note.WOW heavy. So not every human being is a person, as was the case in Old England when there were slaves’. You see, you as a human being have certain inalienable human rights. Your person has certain inalienable civil rights. Believe it or not, you are not the one paying taxes, your person is. Its not you that votes, your person does. You don’t get a ticket, your person does. The best way to imagine it is to imagine a human being wearing Pants with his ‘Wallet’ with his ‘Id’ in his pocket. The human being is a ‘man’ or ‘human being’ or a ‘natural person’. ‘The ‘Wallet & ID’s’ represents the ‘legal persons’ or ‘corporations’. The two together is referred to as ‘individual’. (Indivisible duo).If you can understand that so far, you can understand the next as well. You have many’persons’.You can see these person in the form of all the different corporation Identification you have such as 1 Birth Certificate, 2 Drivers License, 3 Social Insurance Number, 4 Medical Id,etc. Now look closely at your name on All those ID’s and notice how it is all in capital letters JOHN DOE This in legal mumbo jumbo is called: Capitis JOHN DOE: Capitis Diminutio Maxima: Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968 The highest or most comprehensive loss of status. This occurred when a man’s condition was changed from one of freedom to one of bondage, when he became a slave. It swept away with it all rights of citizenship and all family rights.John DOE: Capitis Diminutio Media: Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968 A lesser or medium loss of status. This occurred where a man loses his rights of citizenship, but without losing his liberty. It carried away also the family rights.John Doe: Capitis Diminutio Minima: Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968 The lowest or least comprehensive degree of loss of status. This occurred where a man’s family relations alone were changed.It happened upon the arrogation [pride] of a person who had been his own master, (sui juris,) [of his own right, not under any legal disability] or upon the emancipation of one who had been under the patria potestas. [parental authority] It left the rights of liberty and citizenship unaltered. See Inst. 1, 16, pr.; 1, 2, 3; Dig. 4, 5, 11; Mackeld.Rom.Law, 144.They all have the same name, but have different personalities or functions. See, a personis not determined solely by the name, but by the rights and duties ascribed to that person. When you get a traffic ticket, it is almost as if they are creating a person right there solely to deal with that issue. Once dealt with, the person is no longer bound by it. Say you go to vote and on the way you get a ticket. Can the person who got the ticket vote? Can you show them the ticket and use that to secure your right to vote? No you cannot. The two entities, although having the same name, have different sets of rights and duties, and therefore are in fact differentpersons or at least different facets of one.   Now ask yourself, where does it say that you have to have a ‘person’? &c. A person is a man considered according to the rank he holds in society, with all the rights to which the place he holds entitles him, and the duties which it imposes. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 137.  So??? Are you obliged to have one?  In fact You were deceived into associating yourself to that person at a very young age.It was actually when your parents created the person throught registering it and then through there own ignorance of the law abandoned your person by not claiming it back within alloted time usually 48 hrs and then the government then claim it as there chattel property and imposed rights and duty upon it for life… Or so they hope… So If you do have one a ‘person’, can you give it up? A ‘person’  is a man considered according to the rank he holds in society. So Why have they gone to such trouble to hide from us the fact that they act upon our persons? The reason is simple as you can see from above; they need us to be dumb and ignorant for their deception to work. Without ignorance, all the deception in the world won’t help them hold onto their power. The person exists not so they can have power over us, but so we can escape the power they claim if it gets too onerous. If all they can act upon is our person, and we can disassociate from that thing anytime we want, we can be in control. If we are never aware it is there, we are slaves.
Maxims of Law
Maxims of LawMAXIM. An established principle or proposition. Aprinciple of law universally admitted, as being just andconsonant With reason.2. Maxims in law are somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1Bl. Com. 68. They are principles and authorities, and part ofthe general customs or common law of the land; and are of thesame strength as acts of parliament, when the judges havedetermined what is a maxim; which belongs to the judges andnot the jury. Terms do Ley; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, c. 8. Maximsof the law are holden for law, and all other cases that may beapplied to them shall be taken for granted. 1 Inst. 11. 67; 4Rep. See 1 Com. c. 68; Plowd. 27, b.3. The application of the maxim to the case before the court, isgenerally the only difficulty. The true method of making theapplication is to ascertain bow the maxim arose, and to considerwhether the case to which it is applied is of the same character,or whether it is an exception to an apparently general rule.4. The alterations of any of the maxims of the common laware dangerous. 2 Inst. 210. The following are some of the moreimportant maxims.
A l’impossible nul n’est tenu: No one is bound to do what isimpossible. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 601.
Debile fundamentum, fallit opus: Where there is a weak foundation,the work falls. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2068.Derativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva: The power whichis derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.
Est autem vis legem simulans: Violence may also put on the maskof law.
Ex malificio non oritur contractus: A contract cannot arise out ofan act radically wrong and illegal. Broom’s Max. 851.
Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus: False in one thing, false ineverything. 1 Sumn. 356.
Jura sanguinis nullo jure civili dirimi possunt: The right of bloodand kindred cannot be destroyed by any civil law. Dig. 50, 17, 9;Bacon’s Max. Reg. 11.
Lata culpa dolo aequiparatur: Gross negligence is equal to fraud.Lex semper dabit remedium. The law always gives a remedy. 3Bouv. Inst. n. 2411.
Nomina si nescis perit cognitio rerum: If you know not the namesof things, the knowledge of things themselves perishes. Co. Litt.86.
Nomina sunt notae rerum: Names are the notes of things. 11 Co.20.
Non est arctius vinculum inter homines quam jusjurandum: There isno stronger link among men than an oath. Jenk. Cent. 126.
Non faciat malum, ut inde veniat bonum: You are not to do evilthat good may come of it. 11 Co. 74.
Qui bene interrogat, bene docet: He who questions well, learns well.3 Buls. 227.
Qui bene distinguit, bene docet: He who distinguishes well, learnswell. 2 Co. Inst. 470.
Qui tacet consentire videtur: He who is silent appears to consent.Jenk. Cent. 32.
Quod alias bonum et justum est, si per vim vel fraudem petatur, malumet injustum efficitur: What is otherwise good and just, if sought byforce or fraud, becomes bad and unjust. 3 Co. 78.
Quod per me non possum, nec per alium: What I cannot do inperson, I cannot do by proxy. 4 Co. 24.
When the foundation fails, all fails.
The power derived cannot be greater than the source it is derivedfrom’
What I cannot do myself I cannot do byproxy’
“Let he who be decieved be decieved”
WHAT IS MINE CANNOT BE TAKEN AWAY WITHOUT MY CONSENTTHINGS TAKEN BY PIRATES OR ROBBERS DO NOT CHANGE THEIR OWNERSHIP

Words we should all know the Legal definitions too:
ApplicationTo beg, plead, petition, implore, entreat or request.http://www.allwords.com/word-application.html(emphasis added)
Submission(Always voluntary) To agree to another’s will or to leave to another’s discretion. Form of surrender. Implies lawful right to fighthttp://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/submit(emphasis added)
Regarding “application”:
The Bouvier’s Law Dictionary 1856 says nothing interesting about “application”. (“The act of making a request for something”, and other similarly useless statements.) Nor does it have a definition for “apply”. Lets take a look at the etymology of the word. (Etymology: “1398, from Gk. etymologia, from etymon “true sense” (neut. of etymos “true,” related to eteos “true”) + logos “word.”)
Application (etymology)1493, from O.Fr. application, from L. applicationem (nom. applicatio) “a joining to, an attaching oneself to,” noun of action from applicare (see apply).
Apply (etymology)c.1374, from O.Fr. aplier, from L. applicare “to attach to, to devote oneself to,” from ad- “to” + plicare “fold” see ply (v.)). The etymological sense is “to bring things in contact with one another.” Applied (opposed to abstract or theoretical) is from 1656.

Regarding “submission”:
Bouvier’s Law Dictionary has a much more telling definition for this word.
SUBMISSION (Bouvier’s Law)A yielding to authority. A citizen is bound to submit to the laws; a child to his parents; a servant to his master. A victor may enforce, the submission of his enemy.
2. When a captor has taken a prize, and the vanquished have submitted to his authority, the property, as between the belligerents, has been transferred. When there is complete possession on one side, and submission upon the other, the capture is complete. 1 Gallis. R. 532.
And the etymology:
submission (etymology)1411, “act of referring to a third party for judgment or decision,” from O.Fr. submission, from L. submissionem (nom. submissio) “a lowering, sinking, yielding,” from submissus, pp. of submittere “lower, reduce, yield” (see submit). Sense of “humble obedience” is first recorded 1449. Mod.Fr. submission has been replaced by doublet soumission. Submissive “inclined to submit” is recorded from 1586.
submit (etymology)c.1374, “to place (oneself) under the control of another,” from L. submittere “to yield, lower, let down, put under, reduce,” from sub “under” + mittere “let go, send.” Sense of “refer to another for consideration” first recorded 1560.

Abstention
abstention. 1. The act of withholding or keeping back (something or oneself); esp., the withholding of a vote. 2. A federal court’s relinquishment of jurisdiction when necessary to avoid needless conflict with a state’s administration of its own affairs. 3. The legal principle underlying such a relinquishment of jurisdiction. Cf. COMITY; OUR FEDERALISM. [Cases: Federal Courts 41-65. C.J.S. Bankruptcy §§ 16, 40.]
burford abstention. A federal court’s refusal to review a state court’s decision in cases involving a complex regulatory scheme and sensitive areas of state concern. Burford v. Sun Oil Co., 319 U.S. 315, 63 S.Ct. 1098 (1943).
Colorado River abstention. A federal court’s decision to abstain while relevant and parallel state-court proceedings are underway. Colorado River Water Conservation Dist. v. United States, 424 U.S. 800, 96 S.Ct. 1236 (1976).
equitable abstention. A federal court’s refraining from interfering with a state administrative agency’s decision on a local matter when the aggrieved party has adequate relief in the state courts.
permissive abstention. Abstention that a bankruptcy court can, but need not, exercise in a dispute that relates to the bankruptcy estate but that can be litigated, or is being litigated, in another forum. • In deciding whether to abstain, the bankruptcy court must consider (1) the degree to which state law governs the case, (2) the appropriateness of the procedure to be followed in the other forum, (3) the remoteness of the dispute to the issues in the bankruptcy case, and (4) the presence of nondebtor parties in the dispute. 28 USCA § 1334(c)(1). [Cases: Federal Courts 47.5.]Pullman abstention. A federal court’s decision to abstain so that state courts will have an opportunity to settle an underlying state-law question whose resolution may avert the need to decide a federal constitutional question. Railroad Comm’n v. Pullman Co., 312 U.S. 496, 61 S.Ct. 643 (1941). [Cases: Federal Courts 43, 46.]
Thibodaux abstention (tib–doh). A federal court’s decision to abstain so that state courts can decide difficult issues of public importance that, if decided by the federal court, could result in unnecessary friction between state and federal authorities. Louisiana Power & Light Co. v. City of Thibodaux, 360 U.S. 25, 79 S.Ct. 1070 (1959). [Cases: Federal Courts 41, 43.]
Younger abstention. 1. A federal court’s decision not to interfere with an ongoing state criminal proceeding by issuing an injunction or granting declaratory relief, unless the prosecution has been brought in bad faith or merely as harassment. Younger v. Harris, 401 U.S. 37, 91 S.Ct. 746 (1971). — Also termed equitable-restraint doctrine. [Cases: Federal Courts 49, 51, 54.] 2. By extension, a federal court’s decision not to interfere with a state-court civil proceeding used to enforce the criminal law, as to abate an obscene nuisance. See OUR FEDERALISM.
Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 8 (8th ed. 2004)
Acquiescence
acquiescence (ak-wee-es-nts). 1. A person’s tacit or passive acceptance; implied consent to an act.

commercial acquiescence. Patents. Action or inaction by a patentee’s competitor that reflects the competitor’s belief that the patent is valid. • A patent owner may use another person’s actions or inactions, such as taking a license or attempting to design around a patent, as circumstantial evidence of the nonobviousness of a patented invention or of a patent’s validity or enforceability. [Cases: Patents 36.1(1). C.J.S. Patents §§ 98-99.]

2. Int’l law. Passivity and inaction on foreign claims that, according to customary international law, usu. call for protest to assert, preserve, or safeguard rights. • The result is that binding legal effect is given to silence and inaction. Acquiescence, as a principle of substantive law, is grounded in the concepts of good faith and equity.

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 25 (8th ed. 2004)
Adjudication
adjudication (-joo-di-kay-shn), n. 1. The legal process of resolving a dispute; the process of judicially deciding a case. 2. JUDGMENT.
former adjudication. See FORMER ADJUDICATION.3. Scots law. The Court of Session’s transfer of heritable property to a creditor as security for or in satisfaction of a debt, or its vesting title in an entitled claimant.

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 45 (8th ed. 2004)

Consent
consent, n. 1. Agreement, approval, or permission as to some act or purpose, esp. given voluntarily by a competent person; legally effective assent. • Consent is an affirmative defense to assault, battery, and related torts, as well as such torts as defamation, invasion of privacy, conversion, and trespass. Consent may be a defense to a crime if the victim has the capacity to consent and if the consent negates an element of the crime or thwarts the harm that the law seeks to prevent. See Model Penal Code § 2.11.
Quote”The consent [to a contract] is none the less ‘genuine’ and ‘real,’ even though it be induced by fraud, mistake, or duress. Consent may be induced by a mistaken hope of gain or a mistaken estimate of value or by the lie of a third person, and yet there is a contract and we do not doubt the ‘reality of the consent.’ Fraud, mistake, and duress are merely collateral operative facts that co-exist with the expressions of consent and have a very important effect upon the resulting legal relations.” William R. Anson, Principles of the Law of Contract 199 n.1 (Arthur L. Corbin ed., 3d Am. ed. 1919).blank consent. See BLANK CONSENT.express consent. Consent that is clearly and unmistakably stated.implied consent. 1. Consent inferred from one’s conduct rather than from one’s direct expression. — Also termed implied permission. 2. Consent imputed as a result of circumstances that arise, as when a surgeon removing a gallbladder discovers and removes colon cancer.informed consent. 1. A person’s agreement to allow something to happen, made with full knowledge of the risks involved and the alternatives. • For the legal profession, informed consent is defined in Model Rule of Professional Conduct 1.0(e). 2. A patient’s knowing choice about a medical treatment or procedure, made after a physician or other healthcare provider discloses whatever information a reasonably prudent provider in the medical community would give to a patient regarding the risks involved in the proposed treatment or procedure. — Also termed knowing consent. [Cases: Health 906.]knowing consent. See informed consent.voluntary consent. Consent that is given freely and that has not been coerced.2. Parliamentary law. ADOPTION (5). — consent, vb. — consensual, adj.general consent. 1. Adoption without objection, regardless of whether every voter affirmatively approves. 2. See unanimous consent (1).unanimous consent. 1. Adoption with every voter’s approval. 2. See general consent (1). • The terms “general consent” and “unanimous consent” have distinct but interchangeable meanings. Some parliamentary manuals treat them as synonymous; others distinguish them; and still others distinguish them, but in exactly the opposite way.Quote
“Motions that appear to have no opposition because they are relatively unimportant, uncontroversial, or because approval is obvious, permit the chair to say, ‘The motion, without objection, is adopted’ (or agreed to), without putting the motion to a formal vote. General consent implies that no one cared enough to oppose the motion or proposition. Unanimous consent implies that everyone was in agreement. If there is even one objection, the request is denied and the question must be put to a vote for adoption.” Floyd M. Riddick & Miriam H. Butcher, Riddick’s Rules of Procedure 97 (1985).Quote” ‘Unanimous consent’ does not necessarily imply that every member is in favor of the proposed action; it may only mean that the opposition, feeling that it is useless to oppose or discuss the matter, simply acquiesces.” Henry M. Robert, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised § 4, at 52 (10th ed. 2001).

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 1347 (8th ed. 2004)
Liability
liability, n. 1. The quality or state of being legally obligated or accountable; legal responsibility to another or to society, enforceable by civil remedy or criminal punishment <liability for injuries caused by negligence>. — Also termed legal liability; responsibility; subjection. 2. (often pl.) A financial or pecuniary obligation; DEBT <tax liability> <assets and liabilities>.Quote”The term ‘liability’ is one of at least double signification. In one sense it is the synonym of duty, the correlative of right; in this sense it is the opposite of privilege or liberty. If a duty rests upon a party, society is now commanding performance by him and threatening penalties. In a second sense, the term ‘liability’ is the correlative of power and the opposite of immunity. In this case society is not yet commanding performance, but it will so command if the possessor of the power does some operative act. If one has a power, the other has a liability. It would be wise to adopt the second sense exclusively. Accurate legal thinking is difficult when the fundamental terms have shifting senses.” William R. Anson, Principles of the Law of Contract 9 (Arthur L. Corbin ed., 3d Am. ed. 1919).Quote
“Liability or responsibility is the bond of necessity that exists between the wrongdoer and the remedy of the wrong. This vinculum juris is not one of mere duty or obligation; it pertains not to the sphere of ought but to that of must.” John Salmond, Jurisprudence 364 (Glanville L. Williams ed., 10th ed. 1947).absolute liability. See strict liability.accomplice liability. Criminal responsibility of one who acts with another before, during, or (in some jurisdictions) after a crime. See 18 USCA § 2. [Cases: Criminal Law 59. C.J.S. Criminal Law §§ 127, 998.]accrued liability. A debt or obligation that is properly chargeable in a given accounting period but that is not yet paid.alternative liability. Liability arising from the tortious acts of two or more parties — when the plaintiff proves that one of the defendants has caused harm but cannot prove which one caused it — resulting in a shifting of the burden of proof to each defendant. Restatement (Second) of Torts § 433B(3) (1965). [Cases: Products Liability 23; Torts 21. C.J.S. Products Liability §§ 40, 42; Torts §§ 36-38.]civil liability. 1. Liability imposed under the civil, as opposed to the criminal, law. 2. The state of being legally obligated for civil damages.contingent liability. A liability that will occur only if a specific event happens; a liability that depends on the occurrence of a future and uncertain event. • In financial statements, contingent liabilities are usu. stated in footnotes.current liability. A business liability that will be paid or otherwise discharged with current assets or by creating other current liabilities within the next year (or operating cycle). — Also termed short-term debt.derivative liability. Liability for a wrong that a person other than the one wronged has a right to redress. • Examples include liability to a widow in a wrongful-death action and liability to a corporation in a shareholder’s derivative suit.enterprise liability. 1. Liability imposed on each member of an industry responsible for manufacturing a harmful or defective product, allotted by each manufacturer’s market share of the industry. — Also termed industry-wide liability. See market-share liability. [Cases: Products Liability 23.1, 24. C.J.S. Products Liability § 41.] 2. Criminal liability imposed on a business (such as a corporation or partnership) for certain offenses, such as public-welfare offenses or offenses for which the legislature specifically intended to impose criminal sanctions. See Model Penal Code § 2.07. See public-welfare offense under OFFENSE (1).fault liability. Liability based on some degree of blameworthiness. — Also termed fault-based liability. Cf. strict liability.industry-wide liability. See enterprise liability.joint and several liability. Liability that may be apportioned either among two or more parties or to only one or a few select members of the group, at the adversary’s discretion. • Thus, each liable party is individually responsible for the entire obligation, but a paying party may have a right of contribution and indemnity from nonpaying parties. See solidary liability. [Cases: Contracts 181; Negligence 484; Torts 22. C.J.S. Contracts §§ 366, 371; Negligence §§ 154-156; Torts §§ 39-44.]joint liability. Liability shared by two or more parties. [Cases: Negligence 484; Torts 22. C.J.S. Negligence §§ 154-156; Torts §§ 39-44.]liability in solido. See solidary liability.liability without fault. See strict liability.limited liability. Liability restricted by law or contract; esp., the liability of a company’s owners for nothing more than the capital they have invested in the business. [Cases: Corporations 215. C.J.S. Corporations §§ 414, 417, 425, 427.]market-share liability. Liability that is imposed, usu. severally, on each member of an industry, based on each member’s share of the market or respective percentage of the product that is placed on the market. • This theory of liability usu. applies only in the situation in which a plaintiff cannot trace the harmful exposure to a particular product, as when several products contain a fungible substance. For example, it is sometimes applied to a claim that the plaintiff was harmed by exposure to asbestos. See enterprise liability. [Cases: Products Liability 23.1, 24. C.J.S. Products Liability § 41.]official liability. Liability of an officer or receiver for a breach of contract or a tort committed during the officer’s or receiver’s tenure, but not involving any personal liability.penal liability. Liability arising from a proceeding intended at least partly to penalize a wrongdoer. Cf. remedial liability.personal liability. Liability for which one is personally accountable and for which a wronged party can seek satisfaction out of the wrongdoer’s personal assets.premises liability. See PREMISES LIABILITY.primary liability. Liability for which one is directly responsible, as opposed to secondary liability.products liability. See PRODUCTS LIABILITY.remedial liability. Liability arising from a proceeding whose object contains no penal element. • The two types of proceedings giving rise to this liability are specific enforcement and restitution. Cf. penal liability.secondary liability. Liability that does not arise unless the primarily liable party fails to honor its obligation.several liability. Liability that is separate and distinct from another’s liability, so that the plaintiff may bring a separate action against one defendant without joining the other liable parties. [Cases: Negligence 484; Torts 22. C.J.S. Negligence §§ 154-156; Torts §§ 39-44.]shareholder’s liability. 1. The statutory, added, or double liability of a shareholder for a corporation’s debts, despite full payment for the stock. 2. The liability of a shareholder for any unpaid stock listed as fully owned on the stock certificate, usu. occurring either when the shareholder agrees to pay full par value for the stock and obtains the certificate before the stock is paid for, or when partially paid-for stock is intentionally issued by a corporation as fully paid, the consideration for it being entirely fictitious. — Also termed stockholder’s liability. [Cases: Corporations 215, 227. C.J.S. Corporations §§ 414, 417, 425, 427.]solidary liability (sol–dair-ee). Civil law. The liability of any one debtor among two or more joint debtors to pay the entire debt if the creditor so chooses. La. Civ. Code art. 1794. • This is equivalent to joint and several liability in the common law. — Also termed liability in solido. See joint and several liability. [Cases: Negligence 484; Torts 22. C.J.S. Negligence §§ 154-156; Torts §§ 39-44.]statutory liability. Liability that is created by a statute (or regulation) as opposed to common law.stockholder’s liability. See shareholder’s liability.strict liability. Liability that does not depend on actual negligence or intent to harm, but that is based on the breach of an absolute duty to make something safe. • Strict liability most often applies either to ultrahazardous activities or in products-liability cases. — Also termed absolute liability; liability without fault. Cf. fault liability; OUTCOME RESPONSIBILITY. [Cases: Negligence 301-307; Products Liability 5. C.J.S. Negligence §§ 170-179; Products Liability §§ 7-8.]tortious liability. Liability that arises from the breach of a duty that (1) is fixed primarily by the law, (2) is owed to persons generally, and (3) when breached, is redressable by an action for unliquidated damages.vicarious liability (vI-kair-ee-s). Liability that a supervisory party (such as an employer) bears for the actionable conduct of a subordinate or associate (such as an employee) based on the relationship between the two parties. See RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR. [Cases: Master and Servant 300, 315; Negligence 483. C.J.S. Employer-Employee Relationship §§ 181-184, 188-193, 203, 231-235, 242, 244-246, 248, 251-252, 254-255; Negligence §§ 152-153.]Quote
“The vicarious liability of an employer for torts committed by employees should not be confused with the liability an employer has for his own torts. An employer whose employee commits a tort may be liable in his own right for negligence in hiring or supervising the employee. If in my business I hire a truck driver who has a record of drunk driving and on whom one day I detect the smell of bourbon, I (along with my employee) may be held liable for negligence if his driving causes injury. But that is not ‘vicarious’ liability — I am held liable for my own negligence in hiring that employee or letting him drive after I know he has been drinking.” Kenneth S. Abraham, The Forms and Functions of Tort Law 166 (2002).
3. NO-RIGHT.

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 932 (8th ed. 2004)
Debt
debt. 1. Liability on a claim; a specific sum of money due by agreement or otherwise <the debt amounted to $2,500>. 2. The aggregate of all existing claims against a person, entity, or state <the bank denied the loan application after analyzing the applicant’s outstanding debt>. 3. A nonmonetary thing that one person owes another, such as goods or services <her debt was to supply him with 20 international first-class tickets on the airline of his choice>. 4. A common-law writ by which a court adjudicates claims involving fixed sums of money <he brought suit in debt>. — Also termed (in sense 4) writ of debt. [Cases: Debt, Action of 1. C.J.S. Debt, Action Of §§ 1-2, 7-11.]
Quote”The action of debt lies where a party claims the recovery of a debt; that is, a liquidated or certain sum of money due him. The action is based upon contract, but the contract may be implied, either in fact or in law, as well as express; and it may be either a simple contract or a specialty. The most common instances of its use are for debts: (a) Upon unilateral contracts express or implied in fact. (b) Upon quasi-contractual obligations having the force and effect of simple contracts. (c) Upon bonds and covenants under seal. (d) Upon judgments or obligations of record. (e) Upon obligations imposed by statute.” Benjamin J. Shipman, Handbook of Common-Law Pleading § 52, at 132 (Henry Winthrop Ballantine ed., 3d ed. 1923).active debt. Civil law. A debt due to another person.ancestral debt. An ancestor’s debt that an heir can be compelled to pay.antecedent debt. 1. Contracts. An old debt that may serve as consideration for a new promise if the statute of limitations has run on the old debt. See PREEXISTING-DUTY RULE. [Cases: Contracts 67. C.J.S. Contracts §§ 121-122.] 2. Bankruptcy. A debtor’s prepetition obligation that existed before a debtor’s transfer of an interest in property. • For a transfer to be preferential, it must be for or on account of an antecedent debt. See PREFERENTIAL TRANSFER. [Cases: Bankruptcy 2612. C.J.S. Bankruptcy §§ 142-143.]bad debt. A debt that is uncollectible and that may be deductible for tax purposes. [Cases: Internal Revenue 3420. C.J.S. Internal Revenue § 275.]bonded debt. A debt secured by a bond; a business or government debt represented by issued bonds.community debt. A debt that is chargeable to the community of husband and wife. See COMMUNITY PROPERTY. [Cases: Husband and Wife 268.]consumer debt. A debt incurred by someone primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose. [Cases: Bankruptcy 2185, 2254, 2618. C.J.S. Bankruptcy §§ 55, 150, 348.]Quote
“What are ‘consumer’ debts? Section 101(8) defines a consumer debt as follows: ‘consumer debt means debt incurred by an individual primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose.’ The touchstone is the debtor’s use of the money. The nature of the collateral, the business of the creditor and the form of the loan are all irrelevant. A loan of $25,000 from a Credit Union to pay for a child’s education is a consumer debt, but the same loan used to finance the opening of an accounting business is not a consumer debt. This is so irrespective of the nature of the collateral put up for the debt.” David G. Epstein et al., Bankruptcy § 7-45, at 579 (1993).contingent debt. A debt that is not presently fixed but that may become fixed in the future with the occurrence of some event.convertible debt. A debt whose security may be changed by a creditor into another form of security.debt by simple contract. See simple-contract debt.debt by special contract. See special-contract debt.debt by specialty contract. See special-contract debt.debt of record. A debt evidenced by a court record, such as a judgment.desperate debt. 1. Uncollectible debt. 2. A debt taken on by one who is either insolvent or on the verge of insolvency.exigible debt. A liquidated and demandable debt; a matured claim.fixed debt. Generally, a permanent form of debt commonly evidenced by a bond or debenture; long-term debt. — Also termed fixed liability.floating debt. Short-term debt that is continuously renewed to finance the ongoing operations of a business or government.fraudulent debt. A debt created by fraudulent practices.funded debt. 1. A state or municipal debt to be paid out of an accumulation of money or by future taxation. [Cases: Municipal Corporations 951. C.J.S. Municipal Corporations §§ 1704-1705.] 2. Secured long-term corporate debt meant to replace short-term, floating, or unsecured debt.general debt. A governmental body’s debt that is legally payable from general revenues and is backed by the full faith and credit of the governmental body. [Cases: Municipal Corporations 894. C.J.S. Municipal Corporations §§ 1634, 1934.]hypothecary debt. A lien on an estate.individual debt. (usu. pl.) Debt personally owed by a partner, rather than by the partnership. [Cases: Partnership 144. C.J.S. Partnership § 159.]installment debt. A debt that is to be repaid in a series of payments at regular times over a specified period.judgment debt. A debt that is evidenced by a legal judgment or brought about by a successful lawsuit against the debtor.legal debt. A debt recoverable in a court of law.liquidated debt. A debt whose amount has been determined by agreement of the parties or by operation of law.liquid debt. A debt that is due immediately and unconditionally.long-term debt. Generally, a debt that will not come due within the next year.mutual debts. Cross-debts of the same kind and quality between two persons. Cf. SETOFF (2).national debt. See NATIONAL DEBT.nondischargeable debt. A debt (such as one for delinquent taxes) that is not released through bankruptcy. [Cases: Bankruptcy 3341-3362. C.J.S. Bankruptcy §§ 316-336, 344, 348.]passive debt. A debt that, by agreement between the debtor and creditor, is interest-free.preferential debt. A debt that is legally payable before others, such as an employee’s wages.privileged debt. A debt that has priority over other debts if a debtor becomes insolvent; a secured debt.public debt. A debt owed by a municipal, state, or national government. [Cases: Municipal Corporations 869. C.J.S. Municipal Corporations § 1609.]pure debt. See pure obligation under OBLIGATION.secured debt. A debt backed by collateral.short-term debt. Collectively, all debts and other liabilities that are payable within one year. — Also termed current liability.simple-contract debt. A debt that is either oral or written but is not of record and not under seal. — Also termed debt by simple contract.special-contract debt. A debt due, or acknowledged to be due, by an instrument under seal, such as a deed of covenant or sale, a lease reserving rent, or a bond. — Also termed debt by special contract; debt by specialty contract; specialty debt.Quote
“Any contract in short whereby a determinate sum of money becomes due to any person, and is not paid but remains in action merely, is a contract of debt. And, taken in this light, it comprehends a great variety of acquisition; being usually divided into debts of record, debts by special, and debts by simple contract.” 2 William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England 464 (1766).subordinate debt. A debt that is junior or inferior to other types or classes of debt.unliquidated debt. A debt that has not been reduced to a specific amount, and about which there may be a dispute.

Unsecured debt. A debt not supported by collateral or other security.

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 432 (8th ed. 2004)

Signature
signature. 1. A person’s name or mark written by that person or at the person’s direction. — Also termed sign manual. [Cases: Signatures 1-5. C.J.S. Signatures §§ 1-16.] 2. Commercial law. Any name, mark, or writing used with the intention of authenticating a document. UCC §§ 1-201(b)(37), 3-401(b). — Also termed legal signature. [Cases: Sales 29. C.J.S. Sales § 76.]Quote”The signature to a memorandum may be any symbol made or adopted with an intention, actual or apparent, to authenticate the writing as that of the signer.” Restatement (Second) of Contracts § 134 (1979).digital signature. A secure, digital code attached to an electronically transmitted message that uniquely identifies and authenticates the sender. • A digital signature consists of a “hashed” number combined with a number assigned to a document (a private-encryption key). Generating a signature requires the use of private- and public-key-encryption software, and is often activated by a simple command or act, such as clicking on a “place order” icon on a retailer’s website. Digital signatures are esp. important for electronic commerce and are a key component of many electronic message-authentication schemes. Several states have passed legislation recognizing the legality of digital signatures. See E-COMMERCE; KEY ENCRYPTION. [Cases: Signatures 2. C.J.S. Signatures § 14.]electronic signature. An electronic symbol, sound, or process that is either attached to or logically associated with a document (such as a contract or other record) and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the document. • Types of electronic signatures include a typed name at the end of an e-mail, a digital image of a handwritten signature, and the click of an “I accept” button on an e-commerce site. The term electronic signature does not suggest or require the use of encryption, authentication, or identification measures. A document’s integrity (unaltered content), authenticity (sender’s identity), and confidentiality (of the signer’s identity or document’s contents) are not ensured merely because an electronic signature is provided for. [Cases: Signatures 3. C.J.S. Signatures § 12.]facsimile signature. 1. A signature that has been prepared and reproduced by mechanical or photographic means. 2. A signature on a document that has been transmitted by a fascimile machine. See FAX.private signature. Civil law. A signature made on a document (such as a will) that has not been witnessed or notarized. [Cases: Wills 149. C.J.S. Wills § 338.]unauthorized signature. A signature made without actual, implied, or apparent authority. • It includes a forgery. UCC § 1-201(b)(41). [Cases: Banks and Banking 147; Bills and Notes 54, 279. Banks and Banking §§ 415-416; Bills and Notes; Letters of Credit §§ 26-30, 150-151.]
Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 1415 (8th ed. 2004)

Act
act, n. 1. Something done or performed, esp. voluntarily; a deed. — Also termed action.Quote” ‘[A]ct’ or ‘action’ means a bodily movement whether voluntary or involuntary ….” Model Penal Code § 1.13.2. The process of doing or performing; an occurrence that results from a person’s will being exerted on the external world; ACTION (2). — Also termed positive act; act of commission.Quote”The term act is one of ambiguous import, being used in various senses of different degrees of generality. When it is said, however, that an act is one of the essential conditions of liability, we use the term in the widest sense of which it is capable. We mean by it any event which is subject to the control of the human will. Such a definition is, indeed, not ultimate, but it is sufficient for the purpose of the law.” John Salmond, Jurisprudence 367 (Glanville L. Williams ed., 10th ed. 1947).Quote
“The word ‘act’ is used throughout the Restatement of this Subject to denote an external manifestation of the actor’s will and does not include any of its results, even the most direct, immediate, and intended.” Restatement (Second) of Torts § 2 (1965).abstract juridical act. Civil law. A juridical act whose validity may be independent of the existence or lawfulness of the underlying cause. • In some systems, examples include negotiable instruments, debt remission, debt acknowledgment, and the novation of an obligation. See juridical act.act in pais (in pay). [Law French] An act performed out of court, such as a deed made between two parties on the land being transferred. See IN PAIS.act in the law. An act that is intended to create, transfer, or extinguish a right and that is effective in law for that purpose; the exercise of a legal power. — Also termed juristic act; act of the party; legal act.act of hostility. See ACT OF HOSTILITY.act of law. See act of the law.act of omission. See negative act.act of the law. The creation, extinction, or transfer of a right by the operation of the law itself, without any consent on the part of the persons concerned. — Also termed legal act; act of law. Cf. LEGAL ACT.act of the party. See act in the law.administrative act. An act made in a management capacity; esp., an act made outside the actor’s usual field (as when a judge supervises court personnel). • An administrative act is often subject to a greater risk of liability than an act within the actor’s usual field. See IMMUNITY (1).bilateral act. An act that involves the consenting wills of two or more distinct parties, as with a contract, a conveyance, a mortgage, or a lease; AGREEMENT (1).cexternal act. An act involving bodily activity, such as speaking.intentional act. An act resulting from the actor’s will directed to that end. • An act is intentional when it is foreseen and desired by the doer, and this foresight and desire resulted in the act through the operation of the will.internal act. An act of the mind, such as thinking.judicial act. An act involving the exercise of judicial power. — Also termed act of court.Quote
“The distinction between a judicial and a legislative act is well defined. The one determines what the law is, and what the rights of parties are, with reference to transactions already had; the other prescribes what the law shall be in future cases arising under it.” Union Pacific R.R. v. United States, 99 U.S. 700, 721 (1878) (Field, J., dissenting).jural act (joor-l). An act taken in the context of or in furtherance of a society’s legal system. — Also termed jural activity.quote”In order to identify an act as a jural act, it must be the kind of act that would be engaged in by someone who is enforcing a law, determining an infraction of the law, making or changing a law, or settling a dispute.” Martin P. Golding, Philosophy of Law 23 (1975).juridical act. Civil law. A lawful volitional act intended to have legal consequences. Cf. abstract juridical act.juristic act. See act in the law.legal act. See LEGAL ACT.ministerial act. An act performed without the independent exercise of discretion or judgment.• If the act is mandatory, it is also termed a ministerial duty. See ministerial duty under DUTY (2).negative act. The failure to do something that is legally required; a nonoccurrence that involves the breach of a legal duty to take positive action. • This takes the form of either a forbearance or an omission. — Also termed act of omission.negligent act. An act that creates an unreasonable risk of harm to another.predicate act. See PREDICATE ACT.quasi-judicial act. See QUASI-JUDICIAL ACT.tortious act. An act that subjects the actor to liability under the principles of tort law.unilateral act. An act in which there is only one party whose will operates, as in a testamentary disposition, the exercise of a power of appointment, or the voidance of a voidable contract.unintentional act. An act not resulting from the actor’s will toward what actually takes place.verbal act. 1. An act performed through the medium of words, either spoken or written. 2. Evidence. A statement offered to prove the words themselves because of their legal effect (e.g., the terms of a will). • For this purpose, the statement is not considered hearsay.3. The formal product of a legislature or other deliberative body; esp., STATUTE. • For the various types of acts, see the subentries under STATUTE.Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 26 (8th ed. 2004)

Notary Public
notary public (noh-t-ree), n. A person authorized by a state to administer oaths, certify documents, attest to the authenticity of signatures, and perform official acts in commercial matters, such as protesting negotiable instruments. — Often shortened to notary. [Cases: Notaries 1. C.J.S. Notaries § 2.] — Abbr. n.p. Pl. notaries public. — notarize, vb. — notarial, adj.
Quote”A notary public is an officer long known to the civil law, and designated as registrarius, actuarius, or scrivarius.” John Proffatt, A Treatise on the Law Relating to the Office and Duties of Notaries Public § 1, at 1 (John F. Tyler & John J. Stephens eds., 2d ed. 1892).
Quote
“The notary public, or notary, is an official known in nearly all civilized countries. The office is of ancient origin. In Rome, during the republic, it existed, the title being tabelliones forenses, or personae publicae; and there are records of the appointment of notaries by the Frankish kings and the Popes as early as the ninth century. They were chiefly employed in drawing up legal documents; as scribes or scriveners they took minutes and made short drafts of writings, either of a public or a private nature. In modern times their more characteristic duty is to attest the genuineness of any deeds or writings, in order to render the same available as evidence of the facts therein contained.” Benjamin F. Rex, The Notaries’ Manual § 1, at 1-2 (J.H. McMillan ed., 6th ed. 1913).
Quote
“In jurisdictions where the civilian law prevails, such as in the countries of continental Europe, a notary public is a public official who serves as a public witness of facts transacted by private parties … and also serves as impartial legal advisor for the parties involved…. In colonial Louisiana, the notary public had the same rank and dignity as his continental civilian ancestor…. Although notaries still constitute a protected profession in present-day Louisiana, holding office for life provided they renew their bonds periodically in compliance with the governing statute, the importance of their function has diminished over the years to the point that it has been said that a Louisiana notary is no longer a truly civilian notary. Indeed, the trained lawyer is nowadays the Louisiana, and American, counterpart of the continental civilian notary.” Saul Litvinoff, 5 Louisiana Civil Law Treatise: The Law of Obligations 296-97 (2d ed. 2001).
Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 1087 (8th ed. 2004)

A Freeman-on-the-Land, Freeman upon the land, Soveriegn Human Being, Soveriegn Canadian, Awake,  ONENiSMplus other recognised and similar alternatives to the person.

Could (in light of our Society – Community) be collectively referred to as :Free-Thinkers”or”think free’ers” One who peacefully and lawfully exists free of all statutory obligations and restrictions.One who has withdrawn consent to be governed.One who has withdrawn consent to be represented.
One who believes everyone has the right to Life, Liberty, Property and the Persuit of Happiness, so long as they do not impose upon these same rights of others.
“DO NO HARM”.   I don’t think anyone can objects to this being the most basic and simple definition in one phrase that cover all Crime, Fraud, Violence,Rioting,etc.etc.etc. It says it all!!! “DO NO HARM”. Every other Stupid long winded Statute Acts Laws Charter Magna’s Papal Bullsare all just that longtwinded fowl smelling hot air for *** HARM ***
One who believes, one should not harm others or their property (as above) or conduct fraud in their contracts.
One who follows Golden Rules like “Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you”.
One who understands Karma and Karma’s like “What Goes Around Comes Around
One who understands that there is know other human between you and your GOD on this planet that hold’s any power or any kind of authority over One’s self or any other human being’s.Oh!!! Except GOD So in the absence of an signed Affidavit with the wet ink signature of GOD on it giving someone else authority over you.
Freeman can mean: An individual not tied to land under the Medieval feudal system, unlike a villein or serffrom Wikipedia, the free on-line encyclopedia
FREEMAN. One who is in the enjoyment of the right to do whatever he pleases, not forbidden by law. One in the possession of the civil rights enjoyed by, the people generally. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 164. See 6 Watts, 556:Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition
FREEMAN. This word has had various meanings at different stages of history. In the Roman law, it denoted one who was either born free or emancipated, and was t h e opposite of “slave.” In feudal law, it designated an allodial proprietor, as distinguished from a vassal or feudal tenant. (And so in Pennsylvania colonial law. Fry’s Election Case, 71 Pa. 308, 10 Am. Rep. 698.) In old English law, the word described a freeholder or tenant by free services; one who was not a villein. In modern legal phraseology, it is the appellation of a member of a city or borough having the right of suffrage, or a member of any municipal corporation invested with full civic rights. A person in the possession and enjoyment of all the civil and political rights accorded to the people under a free government.A LAW DICTIONARY, BY HENRY CAMPBELL BLACK, M.A. second edition
FREEMAN, primarily one who is free, as opposed to a slave or serf (see Feudalism; Slavery). The term is more specifically applied to one who possesses the freedom of a city, borough or company. Before the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, each English borough admitted freemen according to its own peculiar custom and by-laws. The rights and privileges of a freeman, though varying in different boroughs, generally included the right to vote at a parliamentary election of the borough, and exemption from all tolls and dues. The act of 1835 respected existing usages, and every person who was then an admitted freeman remained one, retaining at the same time all his former rights and privileges. The admission of freemen is now regulated by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882. By section 201 of that act the term “freeman” includes any person of the class whose rights and interests were reserved by the act of 1835 under the name either of freemen or of burgesses. By section 202 no person can be admitted a freeman by gift or by purchase; that is, only birth, servitude or marriage are qualifications. The Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act 1885, however, makes an exception, as by that act the council of every borough may from time to time admit persons of distinction to be honorary freemen of the borough. The town clerk of every borough keeps a list, which is called “the freeman’s roll,” and when any person claims to be admitted a freeman in respect of birth, servitude or marriage, the mayor examines the claim, and if it is established the claimant’s name is enrolled by the town clerk.A person may become a freeman or freewoman of one of the London livery companies by (1) apprenticeship or servitude; (2) patrimony; (3) redemption; (4) gift. This last is purely honorary. The most usual form of acquiring freedom was by serving apprenticeship to a freeman, free both of a company and of the city of London. By an act of common council of 1836 apprenticeship was permitted to freemen of the city who had not taken up the freedom of a company. By an act of common council of 1889 the term of service was reduced from seven years to four years. Freedom by patrimony is always granted to children of a person who has been duly admitted to the freedom. Freedom by redemption or purchase requires the payment of certain entrance fees, which vary with the standing of the coln-, pany. In the Grocers’ Company freedom by redemption does not exist, and in such companies as still have a trade, e.g. the Apothecaries and Stationers, it is limited to members of the trade.See W. C. Hazlitt, The Livery Companies of the City of London (1892).1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica
freemanFREE’MAN, n. [free and man.]1. One who enjoys liberty, or who is not subject to the will of another; one not a slave or vassal.2. One who enjoys or is entitled to a franchise or peculiar privilege; as the freemen of a city or state.Webster’s 1828 Dictionary.
Freeman.1. A person not in slavery or serfdom.2. One who possesses the rights or privileges of a citizen.Answers.com
free·man [ freeman ] (plural free·men [ free'men ])1. man given freedom of place: a man who has been formally given citizenship of a place, together with various special privileges, as an honor. ‘a freeman of the city’2. man not enslaved: a man who is not a slave or serfEncarta® World English Dictionary, North American Edition
freeman• noun 1. a person who has been given the freedom of a city or borough.2. historical a person who is not a slave or serf.Compact Oxford English Dictionary
freeman1. A person not in slavery or serfdom.2. One who possesses the rights or privileges of a citizenThe American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language
Freeman n. 1. City in Missouri (USA), population 480; zip code 64746. 2. City in South Dakota (USA), population 1293; zip code 57029. :lol:freeman n. freemen <‘frEm&n> A person who is not a serf or a slave; [ETYM: AS. freóman; freó free + mann man.]UltraLingua English Dictionary
freemanmale of legal age with the right to vote, own land and practice a trade.free man of colorblack man who was free from birth or later in life.Genealogy.com Glossary
FreemanOrigin: as. Freoman; freofree _ mann man.1. One who enjoys liberty, or who is not subject to the will of another; one not a slave or vassal.2. A member of a corporation, company, or city, possessing certain privileges; a member of a borough, town, or state, who has the right to vote at elections. See Liveryman. Both having been made freemen on the same day. (Addison)Biological Sciences Dictionary, biology on-line.com.org
FREEMAN – in general, a white male over 21 years of age holding full rights of citizenship who is free to ply a trade, own land, and to vote :shock:Genealogical Terms Commonly Used in Genealogical Research, familyresearch.com

USURPATION

USURPATION. Torts. The unlawful assumption of the use of property which be­longs to another; an interruption or the dis­turbing a man in his right and possession. Tomlins.
In public law. The unlawful seizure or assumption of sovereign power; the assump­tion of government or supreme power by force or illegally, in derogation of the consti­tution and of the rights of the lawful ruler.—Usurpation of advowson. An injury which consists in the absolute ouster or dispossession of the patron from the advowson or right of presentation, and which happens when a stran­ger who has no right presents a clerk, and the latter is thereupon admitted and instituted. Brown.—Usurpation of franchise or of­fice. The unjustly intruding upon or exer­cising any office, franchise, or liberty belonging to another.
USURPED POWER. In insurance. An invasion from abroad, or an internal rebel­lion, where armies are drawn up against each other, when the laws are silent, and when the firing of towns becomes unavoida­ble. These words cannot mean the power of a common mob. 2 Marsh. Ins. 791.
USURPER. One who assumes the right of government by force, contrary to and in violation of the constitution of the country.
USURPATIO. Lat In the civil law. The interruption of a usurpation, by some act on the part of the real owner.
COMMOTION. A “civil commotion” isan insurrection of the people for generalpurposes, though it may not amount to re-hellion where there Is a usurped power. 2Marsh. Ins. 793; Boon v. Insurance Co., 40Conn. 584; Grame v. Assur. Soc, 112 U. S.273, 5 Sup. Ct 150, 28 L. Ed. 716; Spruillv. Insurance Co., 46 N. C. 127.

Nisi feceris. The name of a clause com-monly occurring in the old manorial writs, com-manding that, if the lords failed to do justice,the king’s court or officer should do it. By vir-tue of this clause, the king’s court usurped thejurisdiction of the private, manorial, or localcourts.

FEHMGERICHTE. The name given tocertain secret tribunals which flourished inGermany from the end of the twelfth cen-tury to the middle of the sixteenth, usurpingmany of the functions of the governmentswhich were too weak to maintain law andorder, and inspiring dread in all who camewithin their jurisdiction. Enc. Brit. Sucha court existed in Westphalia (though withgreatly diminished powers) until finally sup-pressed in 1811.
When one man invades the possession of an-other, and by force or surprise turns him outof the occupation of his lands, this is termed a”disseisin,” being a deprivation of that actualseisin or corporal possession of the freeholdwhich the tenant Defore enjoyed. In otherwords, a disseisin is said to be when one entersintending to usurp the possession, and to oustanother from the freehold. To constitute anentry a disseisin, there must be an Ouster ofthe freehold, either by taking the profits or byclaiming the inheritance. Brown.
DE Facto
“A government of fact. A government actually exercising power and con­trol in the state, as opposed to the true and lawful government; a government not estab­lished according to the constitution of the state, or not lawfully entitled to recognition or su­premacy, but which has nevertheless supplant­ed or displaced the government “de jure”. A gov­ernment deemed unlawful, or deemed wrongful or unjust, which, nevertheless, receives present­ly habitual obedience from the bulk of the com­munity.”

DE FACTO. In fact, in deed, actually. This phrase is used to characterize an officer, a government, a past action, or a state of af­fairs which exists actually and must be ac­cepted for all practical purposes, but which is illegal or illegitimate. In this sense it is the contrary of de jure, which means right­ful, legitimate, just or constitutional. Thus, an officer, king, or government de facto is one who is in actual possession of the office or supreme power, but by usurpation, or without respect to lawful title; while an of­ficer, king, or governor de jure Is one who has just claim and rightful title to the office or power, but who has never had plenary possession of the same, or is not now in actual possession. 4 Bl. Comm. 77, 78. So a wife de facto is one whose marriage is voidable by decree, as distinguished from a wife de jure, or lawful wife. 4 Kent Comm. 36.But the term Is also frequently used inde­pendently of any distinction from de jure; thus a blockade de facto is a blockade which is actually maintained, as distinguished from a mere paper blockade.As to de facto “Corporation,” “Court,” “Domicile,” “Government,” and “Officer,” see those titles.

Govern­ment de facto. A government of fact. A government actually exercising power and con­trol in the state, as opposed to the true and lawful government; a government not estab­lished according to the constitution of the state, or not lawfully entitled to recognition or su­premacy, but which has nevertheless supplant­ed or displaced the government de jure. A gov­ernment deemed unlawful, or deemed wrongful or unjust, which, nevertheless, receives present­ly habitual obedience from the bulk of the com­munity. Aust. Jur. 324. There are several de­grees of what is called “de facto government.” Such a government, in its highest degree, as­sumes a character very closely resembling that of a lawful government This is when the usurping government expels the regular author­ities from their customary seats and functions, and establishes itself in their place, and so becomes the actual government of a country. The distinguishing characteristic of such a gov­ernment is that adherents to it in war against the government de jure do not incur the pen­alties of treason; and, under certain limita­tions, obligations assumed by it in behalf of the country or otherwise will, in general, be respect­ed by the government de jure when restored.But there is another description of govern­ment, called also by publicists a “government de facto,” but which might, perhaps, be more aptly denominated a “government of paramount force.” Its distinguishing characteristics are (1) that its existence is maintained by active mili­tary power, within the territories, and against the rightful authority, of an established and lawful government; and (2) that, while it ex­ists, it must necessarily be obeyed in civil ihat-ters by private citizens who, by acts of obedi­ence, rendered in submission to such force, do not become responsible, as wrong-doers, for those acts, though not warranted by the laws of the rightful government. Actual governments of this sort are established over districts differ­ing greatly in extent and conditions. They are usually administered directly by military author­ity, but they may be administered, also, by civil authority, supported more or less by military force. Thorington v. Smith, 8 Wall. 8, 9, 19 Li. Ed. 361. The term “de facto,” as descrip­tive of a government, has no well-fixed and def­inite sense. It is, perhaps, most correctly used as signifying a government completely, though only temporarily, established in the place of the lawful or regular government, occupying its capitol, and exercising its power, and which is ultimately overthrown, and the authority of the government de jure re-established. Thomas v. Taylor, 42 Miss. 651, 703, 2 Am. Rep. 625. A government de facto is a government that un­lawfully gets the possession and control of the rightful legal government, and maintains itself there, by force and arms, against the will of such legal government, and claims to exercise the powers thereof. Chisholm v. Coleraan, 43 Ala. 204, 94 Am. Dec. 677. And see further Smith v. Stewart, 21 Da. Ann. 67, 99 Am. Dec. 709; Williams v. Bruffy, 96 U. S. 176, 24 L. Ed. 716; Keppel v. Railroad Co., 14 Fed. Cas. 357

Officer de facto. As distinguish-ed from an officer de jure, this is the designa-tion of one who is in the actual possession andadministration of the office, under some colora-ble or apparent authority, although his title tothe same, whether by election or appointment,is in reality invalid or at least formally ques-tioned. See Norton v. Shelby County, 118 U.S. 425, 6 Sup. Ct. 1121, 30 L. Ed. 78; Statev. Carroll. 38 Conn. 449, 9 Am. Rep. 409; Tren-ton v. McDaniel, 52 N. C. 107; Barlow v. Stan-ford, 82 111. 298; Brown v. Lunt , 37 Me. 423;Gregg Tp. v. Jamison, 55 Pa. 468; Pierce v.Edington, 38 Ark. 150; Plymouth v. Painter,17 Conn. 585, 44 Am. Dec. 574; Prescott v.Hayes, 42 N. H. 56; Jewell v. Gilbert, 64 N.H. 12, 5 Atl. 80, 10 Am. St. Rep. 357; Griffinv. Cunningham, 20 Grat . (Va.) 31 ; Ex parteStrang, 21 Ohio St. 610.

Judge de facto. One who holds and exercises the office of a judge under color of lawful authority and by a title valid on its face, though he has not full right to the office, as where he was appointed under an unconstitu­tional statute, or by an usurper of the appoint­ing power, or has net taken the oath of office. State v. Miller, 111 Mo. 542, 20 S. W. 243; Walcott v. Wells, 21 Nev. 47, 24 Pac. 367, 9 D. R, A. 59, 37 Am. St. Rep. 478; Dredla v. Baache, 60 Neb. 655, 83 N. W. 916; Caldwell v. Barrett, 71 Ark. 310, 74 S. W. 748

De facto court. One established, organized, and exercising its judicial functions under au­thority of a statute apparently valid, though such statute may be in fact unconstitutional and may be afterwards so adjudged; or a court established and acting under the authori­ty of a de facto government. 1 Bl. Judgm. § 173; Burt v. Railroad Co., 31 Minn. 472, 18 N. W. 285.

Corporation de facto. One existing un-der color of law and in pursuance of an ef-fort made in good faith to organize a cor-poration under the statute; an associationof men claiming to be a legally incorporatedcompany, and exercising the powers andfunctions of a corporation, but without ac-tual lawful authority to do so. Foster v.Hare, 26 Tex. Civ. App. 177, 62 S. W. 541;Attorney General v. Stevens, 1 N. J. Eg.. 378,22 Am. Dec. 526; Manufacturing Co. v. Scho-field, 28 Ind. App. 95, 62 N. E. 106; CedarRapids Water Co. v. Cedar Rapids, 118 Iowa,234, 91 N. W. 1081; Johnson v. Okerstrom,70 Minn. 303, 73 N. W. 147; Tulare Irrig.Dist v. Shepard, 185 U. S. 1, 22 Sup. Ot. 531,46 L. Ed. 773; In re Gibbs’ Estate, 157 Pa.59, 27 Atl. 383, 22 L. R. A. 276; Pape v.Bank, 20 Kan. 440, 27 Am. Rep. 183.

De facto contract. One which has pur­ported to pass the property from the owner to another. Bank v. Logan, 74 N. Y. 575; Ed­munds v. Transp. Co., 135 Mass. 283.

EX FACTO. From or in consequence ofa fact or action; actually. Usually appliedto an unlawful or tortious act as the founda-tion of a title, etc. Sometimes used as equiv-alent to “de facto.” Bract, fol. 172.

PERINDE VALERE. A dispensationgranted to a clerk, who, being defective incapacity for a benefice or other ecclesiasticalfunction, is de facto admitted to it. Cowell.|ie: the clerks who sign defacto orders and warrants/summons for the quasi-judge who doesn’t want to take liability|

CITIZEN  Here is the particularly deceptive definition of citizen from Blacks 2nd. Says that a citizen is a member of a jural society, only able to enjoy rights (civil rights) that exist under it’s constitution (not full God-given freedoms) and that the jural society must protect the rights of the citizens, but doesn’t specify that the rights themselves cannot be changed. This fits perfectly with Russ Porisky’s Intro to Your Human Rights lecture where his slide says clearly that the permissible presumptions of parliament state than parliament can pass legislation at any time to allow any other statute to infringe upon the rights of citizens. Most deceptive in this definition is the use of the term “the right to exercise privileges” in place of “rights”. As well as the term “full civil rights” to give the impression that this equals full God-given freedoms.
So basically, citizens don’t have protected rights. But when one thinks about it, it should be this way. People who work for government are the citizens. Not The People. Citizens should not have rights. Only privileges. This is how we box the government in. Government is supposed to work for The People to protect life, liberty and property. So government workers only have privileges in their capacity as a government employee, privileges granted by The People to run the country. So what can we do with members of government who are misbehaving? Remove their privilege to work in government, and they have no right as a government employee to do anything about it.
The system itself seems to be set up perfectly in theory. The problems seems to be only that the BAR (British Accredited Registry) associations have hijacked the Law Societies that make up lawful governments, and have reversed everything so that we are now acting as employees of government through our social insurance numbers and our ‘person’. Therefore, acting through our ‘person’, we only have privileges, not protected rights.

CITIZEN. In general . A member ofa free city or jural society, (civitas,) possess-ing all the rights and privileges which canbe enjoyed by any person under its consti-tution and government , and subject to thecorresponding duties.
In American law. One who, under theconstitution and laws of the United States,or of a particular state, and by virtue ofbirth or naturalization within the jurisdic-tion, is a member of the political community,owing allegiance and being entitled to theenjoyment of full civil rights. U. S. v.Cruikshank, 92 U. S. 542, 23 L. Ed. 588;White v. Clements, 39 Ga. 259; Amy v.Smith, 1 Litt . <Ky.) 331; State v. CountyCourt , 90 Mo. 593, 2 S. W. 788; Minor v.Happersett , 21 Wall . 162, 22 L. Ed. 627; U.S. v. Morris (D. C.) 125 Fed 325.
The term “citizen” has come to us derivedfrom antiquity. It appears to have been usedin the Roman government to designate a per-son who had the freedom of the city, and theright to exercise all political and civil privi-leges of the government. There was also, atRome, a partial citizenship, including civil, butnot political, rights. Complete citizenship em-braced both. Thomasson v. State, 15 Ind. 451.All persons born or naturalized in theUnited States, and subject to the jurisdic-tion thereof, are citizens of the UnitedStates and of the state wherein they reside.Amend. XIV, Const. U. S.
There is in our political system a governmentof each of the several states, and a governmentof the United States. Each is distinct from theothers, and has citizens of its own, who owe itallegiance, and whose rights, within its juris-diction, it must protect. The same person maybe at the same time a citizen of the UnitedStates and a citizen of a state; but his rightsof citizenship under one of these governmentswill be different from those he has under theother. The government of the United States,although it is, within the scope of its powers,supreme and beyond the states, can neithergrant nor secure to its citizens rights or privi-leges which are not expressly or by implicationplaced under its jurisdiction. All that cannotbe so granted or secured are left to the exclu-sive protection of the states. U. S. v. Cruik-shank, 92 U. S. 542, 23 L. Ed. 588.
“Citizen” and “inhabitant” are not synony-mous. One may be a citizen of a state withoutbeing an inhabitant , or an inhabitant withoutbeing a citizen. Quinby v. Duncan, 4 Har .(Del) 383.
“Citizen” is sometimes used as synonymousith “resident;” as- in a statute authorizingfunds to be distributed among the religious so-eties of a township, proportionably to the num-er of their members who are citizens of thetownship. State v. Trustees, 11 Ohio, 24.I n English law. An inhabitant of a city.
Rolle, 138. The representative of a city,parliament . 1 Bl. Comm. 174. It will beperceived that , in the English usage, theword adheres closely to Its original meaning,as shown by its derivation, (civis, a free in-habitant of a city.) When it is designed todesignate an inhabitant of the country, orone amenable to the laws of the nation,”subject” is the word there employed.CITIZENSHIP. The status of being acitizen, (q. v.)

Parliamentc.1290, from O.Fr. parlement (11c.), originally “speaking, talk,” from parler “to speak” (see parley); spelling altered c.1400 to conform with M.L. parliamentum. Anglo-L. parliamentum is attested from 1216. Parliamentarian originally (1644) was a designation of one of the sides in the Eng. Civil War; meaning “one versed in parliamentary procedure” dates from 1834.
Parley (n.)”conference,” especially with an enemy, 1449, from M.Fr. parle, from fem. pp. of O.Fr. parler “to speak,” from L.L. parabolare “to speak (in parables),” from parabola “speech, discourse,” from L. parabola “comparison” (see parable). The verb is 14c., probably a separate borrowing of O.Fr. parler.
Breach of the Peace
Breach of the Peace. The criminal offense of creating a public disturbance or engaging in disorderly conduct, particularly by making an unnecessary or distracting noise. — Also termed breach of peace; disturbing the peace; disturbance of the peace; public disturbance. See disorderly conduct under CONDUCT. [Cases: Breach of the Peace 1-14. C.J.S. Breach of the Peace §§ 2-13; Domestic Abuse and Violence §§ 3, 6.]
Quote”A breach of the peace takes place when either an assault is committed on an individual or public alarm and excitement is caused. Mere annoyance or insult is not enough: thus at common law a householder could not give a man into custody for violently and persistently ringing his door-bell. It is the particular duty of a magistrate or police officer to preserve the peace unbroken; hence if he has reasonable cause to believe that a breach of the peace is imminent he may be justified in committing an assault or effecting an arrest.” R.F.V. Heuston, Salmond on the Law of Torts 131 (17th ed. 1977).
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“The beginning of our criminal justice … was concerned very largely with the problem of keeping the peace. Because of this fact all early indictments included some such phrase as ‘against the peace of the King'; and until recently statutory provisions for simplification, indictments in this country were thought to be incomplete without some such conclusion as ‘against the peace and dignity of the state.’ As a result of this history all indictable offenses are sometimes regarded as deeds which violate the public peace, and hence in a loose sense the term ‘breach of the peace’ is regarded as a synonym for crime.” Rollin M. Perkins & Ronald N. Boyce, Criminal Law 477 (3d ed. 1982).

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 201 (8th ed. 2004)

RIGHTCite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 324 (8th ed. 2004)Right
right, n. 1. That which is proper under law, morality, or ethics <know right from wrong>. 2. Something that is due to a person by just claim, legal guarantee, or moral principle <the right of liberty>. 3. A power, privilege, or immunity secured to a person by law <the right to dispose of one’s estate>. 4. A legally enforceable claim that another will do or will not do a given act; a recognized and protected interest the violation of which is a wrong <a breach of duty that infringes one’s right>. 5. (often pl.) The interest, claim, or ownership that one has in tangible or intangible property <a debtor’s rights in collateral> <publishing rights>. 6. The privilege of corporate shareholders to purchase newly issued securities in amounts proportionate to their holdings. 7. The negotiable certificate granting such a privilege to a corporate shareholder.
Quote”Right is a correlative to duty; where there is no duty there can be no right. But the converse is not necessarily true. There may be duties without rights. In order for a duty to create a right, it must be a duty to act or forbear. Thus, among those duties which have rights corresponding to them do not come the duties, if such there be, which call for an inward state of mind, as distinguished from external acts or forbearances. It is only to acts and forbearances that others have a right. It may be our duty to love our neighbor, but he has no right to our love.” John Chipman Gray, The Nature and Sources of the Law 8-9 (2d ed. 1921).Quote
“[T]he word ‘right’ is one of the most deceptive of pitfalls; it is so easy to slip from a qualified meaning in the premise to an unqualified one in the conclusion. Most rights are qualified.” American Bank & Trust Co. v. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, 256 U.S. 350, 358, 41 S.Ct. 499, 500 (1921) (Holmes, J.).Quote
“[In Hohfeldian terminology,] A is said to have a right that B shall do an act when, if B does not do the act, A can initiate legal proceedings that will result in coercing B. In such a situation B is said to have a duty to do the act. Right and duty are therefore correlatives, since in this sense there can never be a duty without a right.” E. Allen Farnsworth, Contracts § 3.4, at 114 n.3 (3d ed. 1999).absolute right. 1. A right that belongs to every human being, such as the right of personal liberty; a natural right. 2. An unqualified right; specif., a right that cannot be denied or curtailed except under specific conditions <freedom of thought is an absolute right>. • For example, a plaintiff has an absolute right to voluntarily nonsuit a case before it is finally submitted; after final submission, the court has discretion to grant or deny a voluntary nonsuit. Cf. relative right.accessory right. A supplementary right that has been added to the main right that is vested in the same owner. • For example, the right in a security is accessory to the right that is secured; a servitude is accessory to the ownership of the land for whose benefit the servitude exists. Cf. principal right.accrued right. A matured right; a right that is ripe for enforcement (as through litigation).acquired right. A right that a person does not naturally enjoy, but that is instead procured, such as the right to own property.civil right. See CIVIL RIGHT.conditional right. A right that depends on an uncertain event; a right that may or may not exist. • For example, parents have the conditional right to punish their child, the condition being that the punishment must be reasonable.conjugal rights. See CONJUGAL RIGHTS.equitable right. A right cognizable within a court of equity. • If a legal right and an equitable right conflict, the legal right ordinarily prevails over and destroys the equitable right even if the legal right arose after the equitable right. With the merger of law and equity in federal and most state courts, the procedural differences between legal and equitable rights have been largely abolished. Cf. legal right. [Cases: Equity 3. C.J.S. Equity §§ 7, 11-16, 36-37.]expectant right. A right that depends on the continued existence of present conditions until some future event occurs; a contingent right.fundamental right. See FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT.imperfect right. A right that is recognized by the law but is not enforceable. • Examples include time-barred claims and claims exceeding the local limits of a court’s jurisdiction.Quote
“[T]here are certain rights, sometimes called imperfect rights, which the law recognizes but will not enforce directly. Thus a statute-barred debt cannot be recovered in a court of law, but for certain purposes the existence of the debt has legal significance. If the debtor pays the money, he cannot later sue to recover it as money paid without consideration; and the imperfect right has the faculty of becoming perfect if the debtor makes an acknowledgment of the debt from which there can be inferred a promise to pay.” George Whitecross Paton, A Textbook of Jurisprudence 286 (G.W. Paton & David P. Derham eds., 4th ed. 1972).imprescriptible right. A right that cannot be lost to prescription.inalienable right. A right that cannot be transferred or surrendered; esp., a natural right such as the right to own property. — Also termed inherent right.incorporeal right. A right to intangible, rather than tangible, property. • A right to a legal action (a chose in action) is an incorporeal right. See CHOSE IN ACTION.inherent right. See inalienable right.legal right. 1. A right created or recognized by law. 2. A right historically recognized by common-law courts. Cf. equitable right. 3. The capacity of asserting a legally recognized claim against one with a correlative duty to act.natural right. A right that is conceived as part of natural law and that is therefore thought to exist independently of rights created by government or society, such as the right to life, liberty, and property. See NATURAL LAW.negative right. A right entitling a person to have another refrain from doing an act that might harm the person entitled.patent right. A right secured by a patent. [Cases: Patents 1. C.J.S. Patents §§ 1-5, 10-12, 15.]perfect right. A right that is recognized by the law and is fully enforceable.peripheral right. A right that surrounds or springs from another right.personal right. 1. A right that forms part of a person’s legal status or personal condition, as opposed to the person’s estate. 2. See right in personam.political right. The right to participate in the establishment or administration of government, such as the right to vote or the right to hold public office. — Also termed political liberty. [Cases: Constitutional Law 82(8); Elections 1; Officers and Public Employees 18. C.J.S. Constitutional Law §§ 461-462, 612, 614-619, 624-626; Elections §§ 1(1, 10), 2; Officers and Public Employees §§ 21-22.]positive right. A right entitling a person to have another do some act for the benefit of the person entitled.precarious right. A right enjoyed at the pleasure of another; a right that can be revoked at any time.primary right. A right prescribed by the substantive law, such as a right not to be defamed or assaulted. • The enforcement of a primary right is termed specific enforcement.principal right. A right to which has been added a supplementary right in the same owner. Cf. accessory right.private right. A personal right, as opposed to a right of the public or the state. Cf. public right.procedural right. A right that derives from legal or administrative procedure; a right that helps in the protection or enforcement of a substantive right. Cf. substantive right.property right. A right to specific property, whether tangible or intangible. [Cases: Constitutional Law 277. C.J.S. Constitutional Law § 982.]proprietary right. A right that is part of a person’s estate, assets, or property, as opposed to a right arising from the person’s legal status.public right. A right belonging to all citizens and usu. vested in and exercised by a public office or political entity. Cf. private right.real right. 1. Civil law. A right that is connected with a thing rather than a person. • Real rights include ownership, use, habitation, usufruct, predial servitude, pledge, and real mortgage.Quote
“The term ‘real rights’ (jura in re) is an abstraction unknown to classical Roman law. The classical jurists were preoccupied with the availability of remedies rather than the existence of substantive rights, and did not have a generic term to include all ‘rights’ which civilian scholars of following generations classified as ‘real.’ The expression (‘real rights’) was first coined by medieval writers elaborating on the Digest in an effort to explain ancient procedural forms of action in terms of substantive rights.” A.N. Yiannopoulos, Real Rights in Louisiana and Comparative Law, 23 La. L. Rev. 161, 163 (1963).2. JUS IN RE. 3. See right in rem.relative right. A right that arises from and depends on someone else’s right, as distinguished from an absolute right. Cf. absolute right.remedial right. The secondary right to have a remedy that arises when a primary right is broken.restitutory right. A right to restitution.right in personam (in pr-soh-nm). An interest protected solely against specific individuals. — Also termed personal right; jus in personam. See IN PERSONAM.right in rem (in rem). A right exercisable against the world at large. — Also termed real right; jus in rem. See IN REM.Quote
“A right in rem need not relate to a tangible res. Thus a right that one’s reputation should not be unjustifiably attacked is today described as a right in rem, since it is a right that avails against persons generally. This shows how far the conception has developed from the Roman notion of actio in rem, for one who sues to protect his reputation is not asking for judgment for a specific res. It should also be noticed that on breach of a right in rem, a right in personam arises against the aggressor.” George Whitecross Paton, A Textbook of Jurisprudence 300 (G.W. Paton & David P. Derham eds., 4th ed. 1972).secondary right. A right prescribed by procedural law to enforce a substantive right, such as the right to damages for a breach of contract. • The enforcement of a secondary right is variously termed secondary enforcement, remedial enforcement, or sanctional enforcement. — Also termed remedial right; sanctioning right.substantial right. An essential right that potentially affects the outcome of a lawsuit and is capable of legal enforcement and protection, as distinguished from a mere technical or procedural right.substantive right (sb-stn-tiv). A right that can be protected or enforced by law; a right of substance rather than form. Cf. procedural right.vested right. A right that so completely and definitely belongs to a person that it cannot be impaired or taken away without the person’s consent. [Cases: Constitutional Law 92-112. C.J.S. Constitutional Law §§ 228-276.]

RIGHT. As a noun, and taken In an abstract sense, the term means justice, ethical correctness, or consonance with the rules of law or the principles of morals. In this signification it answers to one meaning of the Latin “jus,” and serves to indicate law in the abstract, considered as the foundation of all rights, or the complex of underlying moral principles which impart the character of justice to all positive law, or give it an ethical content.
As a noun, and taken in a concrete sense, a right signifies a power, privilege, faculty, or demand, inherent in one person and incident upon another. “Rights” are defined generally as “powers of free action.” And the primal rights pertaining to men are undoubtedly enjoyed by human beings purely as such, being grounded in personality, and existing antecedently to their recognition by positive law.[/i] But leaving the abstract moral sphere, and giving to the term a juristic content, a “right” is well defined as “a capacity residing in one man of controlling, with the assent and assistance of the state, the actions of others.”[/i] HolL Jur. 69.
The noun substantive “a right” signifies that which jurists denominate a “faculty;” that which resides in a determinate person, by virtue of a given law, and which avails against a person (or answers to a duty lying on a person) other than the person in whom it resides. And the noun substantive “rights” is the plural of the noun substantive “a right.” But the expression “right,” when it is used as an adjective, is equivalent to the adjective “just,” as the adverb “rightly” is equivalent to the adverb “justly.” And, when used as the abstract name corresponding to the adjective “right,” the noun substantive “right” is synonymous with the noun substantive “justice.” Aust. Jur. § 264, note.
In a narrower signification, the word denotes an interest or title in an object of property ; a just and legal claim to hold, use, or enjoy it, or to convey or donate it, as he may please. See Co. Litt. 345a.
The term “right,” in civil society, is defined to mean that which a man is entitled to have, or to do, or to receive from others within the limits prescribed by law. Atchison & N. R. Co. v. Baty, 6 Neb. 40, 29 Am. Rep. 356. That which one person ought to have or receive from another, it being withheld from him, or not in his possession. In this sense, “right” has the force of “claim,” and is properly expressed by the Latin “jus.” Lord Coke considers this to be the proper signification of the word, especially in writs and pleadings, where an estate is turned to a right; as by discontinuance, disseisin, etc. Co. Litt. 345*.
Classification. Rights may be described as perfect or imperfect, according as their action or scope is clear, settled, and determinate, or is vague and unfixed.
Rights are either in personam or in rem. A right in personam is one which imposes an obligation on a definite person. A right in rem is one which imposes an obligation on persons generally; i. e., either on all the world or on all the world except certain determinate persons. Thus, if I am entitled to exclude all persons from a given piece of land, I have a right in rem in respect of that land; and, if there are one or more persons, A., B., and C, whom I am not entitled to exclude from it, my right is still a right in rem. Sweet.
Rights may also be described as either primary or secondary. Primary rights are those which can be created without reference to rights already existing. Secondary rights can only arise for the purpose of protecting or enforcing primary rights. They are either preventive (protective) or remedial (reparative.) Sweet.
Preventive or protective secondary rights exist in order to prevent the infringement or loss of primary rights. They are judicial when they require the assistance of a court of law for their enforcement, and extrajudicial when they are capable of being exercised by the party himself. Remedial or reparative secondary rights are also either judicial or extrajudicial. They may further be divided into (1) rights of restitution or restoration, which entitle the person injured to be replaced in his original position; (2) rights of enforcement which entitle the person injured to the performance of an act by the person bound; and (3) rights of satisfaction or compensation. Id.
With respect to the ownership of external objects of property, rights may be classed as absolute and qualified. An absolute right gives to the person in whom it inheres the uncontrolled dominion over the object at all times and for all purposes. A qualified right gives the possessor a right to the object for certain purposes or under certain circumstances only. Such is the right of a bailee to recover the article bailed when it has been unlawfully taken from him by a stranger.
Rights are also either legal or equitable. The former is the case where the person seeking to enforce the right for his own benefit has the legal title and a remedy at law. The latter are such as are enforceable only in equity; as, at the suit of cestui que trust.
In constitutional law. There is also a classification of rights, with respect to the constitution of civil society. Thus, according to Blackstone, “the rights of persons, considered in their natural capacities, are of two sorts,—absolute and relative; absolute, which are such as appertain and belong to particular men, merely as individuals or single persons; relative, which are incident to them as members of society, and standing in various relations to each other.” 1 Bl. Comm. 123. And see In re Jacobs, 33 Hun (N. Y.) 374; Atchison & N. R. Co. v. Baty, 6 Neb. 37, 29 Am. Rep. 356; Johnson v. Johnson, 32 Ala. 637; People v. Berberrich, 20 Barb. (N. Y.) 224.
Rights are also classified in constitutional law as natural, civil, and political, to which there is sometimes added the class of “personal rights.”
Natural rights are those which grow out of the nature of man and depend upon personality, as distinguished from such as are created by law and depend upon civilized society; or they are those which are plainly assured by natural law (Borden v. State, 11 Ark. 519, 44 Am. Dec. 217); or those which, by fair deduction from the present physical, moral, social, and religious characteristics of man, he must be invested with, and which he ought to have realized for him in a jural society, in order to fulfill the ends to which his nature calls him. 1 Woolsey, Polit Science, p. 26. Such are the rights of life, liberty, privacy, and good reputation. See Black, Const. Law (3d Ed.) 523.
Civil rights are such as belong to every citizen of the state or country, or, in a wider sense, to all its inhabitants, and are not connected with the organization or administration of government. They include the rights of property, marriage, protection by the laws, freedom of contract, trial by jury, etc. See Wlnnett v. Adams, 71 Neb. 817, 99 N. W. 681. Or, as otherwise defined, civil rights are rights appertaining to a person in virtue of his citizenship in a state or community. Rights capable of being enforced or redressed in a civil action. Also a term applied to certain rights secured to citizens of the United States by the thirteenth and fourteenth amendments to the constitution, and by various acts of congress made in pursuance thereof. Iowa v. Railroad Co. (C. C.) 37 Fed. 498, 3 L. R. A. 554; State v. Powers, 51 N. J. Law, 432, 17 Atl. 969; Bowles v. Habermann, 95 N. Y. 247; People v. Washington, 36 Cal. 658; Fletcher v. Tuttle, 151 111. 41, 37 N. E. 683, 25 L. R. A. 143, 42 Am. St Rep. 220; Hronek v. People, 134 111. 139, 24 N. E. 861, 8 L. R. A. 837, 23 Am. St Rep. 652.
Political rights consist in the power to participate, directly or indirectly, in the establishment or administration of government, such as the right of citizenship, that of suffrage, the right to hold public office, and the right of petition. See Black Const Law (3d Ed.) 524; Wlnnett v. Adams, 71 Neb. 817, W N. W. 681.
Personal rights is a term of rather vague import, but generally it may be said to mean the right of personal security, comprising those of life, limb, body, health, reputation, and the right of personal liberty.
As an adjective, the term “right” means just, morally correct, consonant with ethical principles or rules of positive law. It is the opposite of wrong, unjust illegal.
“Right” is used in law, as well as in ethics, as opposed to “wrong.” Thus, a person may acquire a title by wrong.
In old English law. The term denoted an accusation or charge of crime. Fitzh. Nat Brev. 66 F. See, also, Droit; Jus; Recht.
Other compound and descriptive terms. —Base right. • In Scotch law, a subordinate right; the right of a subvassal in the lands held by him. Bell.—Bill of rights. See Bill, 6.—Common right. See Common.— Declaration of rights.
See Bill of Bights,under Bill.—Marital rights. See Marital.—Mere right. In the law of real estate, the mere right of property in land; the right of a proprietor, but without possession or even the right of possession; the abstract right of property.—Patent right. See Patent.— Petition of right. See Petition.—Private rights. Those rights which appertain to a particular individual or individuals, and relate either to the person, or to personal or real property. 1 Chit Gen. Pr. 3.—Real right. In Scotch law. That which entitles him who is vested with it to possess the subject as his own, and, if in the possession of another, to demand from him its actual possession. Real rights affect the subject itself; personal are founded in obligation. Erskine, Inst. 3, 1, 2.—Right heir. See Heir.—Riparian rights. See Riparian.—Vested rights. See VESTEn.And see also the following titles.
RIGHT CLOSE, WRIT OF. An abolished writ which lay for tenants in ancient demesne, and others of a similar nature, to try the right of their lands and tenements in the court of the lord exclusively. 1 Steph. Comm. 224.
RIGHT IN ACTION. This is a phrase frequently used in place of chose in action, and having an identical meaning.
RIGHT IN COURT. See Rectus h» Curia.
RIGHT OF ACTION. The right to bring suit; a legal right to maintain an action, growing out of a given transaction or state of facts and based thereon. Hibbard v. Clark, 56 N. H. 155, 22 Am. Rep. 442; Webster v. County Com’rs, 63 Me. 29.By the old writers, “right of action” is commonly used to denote that a person has lost a right of entry, and has nothing but a right of action left Co. Litt 3636.
RIGHT OF DISCUSSION. In Scotch law. The right which the cautioner (surety) has to insist that the creditor shall do his best to compel the performance of the contract by the principal debtor, before he shall be called upon. 1 Bell, Comm. 347.
RIGHT OF DIVISION. In Scotch law. The right which each of several cautioners (sureties) has to refuse to answer for more than his own share of the debt To entitle the cautioner to this right the other cautioners must be solvent and there must be no words in the bond to exclude it. 1 Bell, Comm. 347.
RIGHT OF ENTRY. A right of entry is the right of taking or resuming possession of land by entering on it in a peaceable manner.
RIGHT OF HABITATION. In Louisiana. The right to occupy another man’s house as a dwelling, without paying rent or other compensation. Civ. Code La. art 623.
RIGHT OF POSSESSION. The right to possession which may reside in one man, while another has the actual possession, being the right to enter and turn out such actual occupant; e. g., the right of a disseisee. An apparent right of possession is one which may be defeated by a better; an actual right of possession, one which will stand the test against all opponents. 2 Bl. Comm. 196.
RIGHT OF PROPERTY. The mere right of property in land; the abstract right which remains to the owner after he has lost the right of possession, and to recover which the writ of right was given. United with possession, and the right of possession, this right constitutes a complete title to lands, tenements, and hereditaments. 2 BL Comm. 19T.
RIGHT OF REDEMPTION. The right to disincumber property or to free it from a claim or lien; specifically, the right (granted by statute only) to free property from the incumbrance of a foreclosure or other judicial sale, or to recover the title passing thereby, by paying what is due, with interest, costs, etc. Not to be confounded with the “equity of redemption,” which exists independently of statute but must be exercised before sale. See Mayer v. Farmers’ Bank, 44 Iowa, 216; Millett v. Mullen, 95 Me. 400, 49 Atl. 871; Case v. Spelter Co., 62 Kan. 69, 61 Pac. 406.
RIGHT OF RELIEF. In Scotch law. The right of a cautioner (surety) to demand reimbursement from the principal debtor when he has been compelled to pay the debt. 1 Bell, Comm. 347.
RIGHT OF REPRESENTATION AND PERFORMANCE. By the acts 3 & 4 Wm.IV. c. 15, and 5 & 6 Vict. c. 45, the author of a play, opera, or musical composition, or his assignee, has the sole right of representing or causing it to be represented in public at any place in the British dominions during the same period as the copyright in the work exists. The right is distinct from the copyright, and requires to be separately registered. Sweet.
RIGHT OF SEARCH. In international law. The right of one vessel, on the high seas, to stop a vessel of another nationality and examine her papers and (in some cases) her cargo. Thus, In time of war, a vessel of either belligerent has the right to search a neutral ship, encountered at sea, to ascertain whether the latter is carrying contraband goods.
RIGHT OF WAY. The right of passage or of way is a servitude imposed by law or by convention, and by virtue of which one has a right to pass on foot, or horseback, orin a vehicle, to drive beasts of burden oi carts, through the estate of another. When this servitude results from the law, the exercise of it is confined to the wants of the person who has it. When it is the result of a contract, its extent and the mode of using it is regulated by the contract. Civ. Cod* La. art 722.”Right of way,” in its strict meaning, is the right of passage over another man’s ground; and in its legal and generally accepted meaning, in reference to a railway, it is a mere easement in the lands of others, obtained by lawful condemnation to public use or by purchase. ii would be using the term in an unusual sense, by applying it to an absolute purchase of the fee-simple of lands to be used for a railway oi any other kind of a way. Williams v. Western Union Ry. Co., 50 Wis. 76, 5 N. W. 482. And see Kripp v. Curtis, 71 Cal. 62, 11 Pac. 879; Johnson v. Lewis, 47 Ark. 66, 2 S. W. 329; Bodfish v. Bodfish, 105 Mass. 317; New Mexico v. United States Trust Co., 172 U. S. 17L 19 Sup. Ct 128, 43 L. Ed. 407; Stuyvesant v. Woodruff, 21 N. J. Law, 136, 57 Am. Dec. 156.
RIGHT PATENT. An obsolete writ which was brought for lands and tenements, and not for an advowson, or common, and lay only for an estate In fee-simple, and not for him who had a lesser estate; as tenant in tail, tenant in frank marriage, or tenant for life. Fitzh. Nat Brev. 1.
RIGHT TO BEGIN. On the hearing or trial of a cause, or the argument of a demurrer, petition, etc, the right to begin Is the right of first addressing the court or jury. The right to begin is frequently of importance, as the counsel who begins has also the right of replying or having the last word after the counsel on the opposite side has addressed the court or jury. Sweet
RIGHT TO REDEEM. The term “right of redemption,” or “right to redeem,” is familiarly used to describe the estate of tbe debtor when under mortgage, to be sold at auction, in contradistinction to an absolute estate, to be set off by appraisement It would be more consonant to the legal character of this interest to call it the “debtor’s estate subject to mortgage.” White v. Whitney, 3 Mete. (Mass.) 86.
RIGHT, WRIT OF. A procedure for the recovery of real property after not more than sixty years’ adverse possession; the highest writ in the law, sometimes called, to distinguish it from others of the droitural class, the “writ of right proper.” Abolished by 3 & 4 Wm. IV. c. 27. 3 Steph. Comm. 392.
RIGHTS OF PERSONS. Rights which concern and are annexed to the persons of men. 1 Bl. Comm. 122.
RIGHTS OF THINGS. Such as a man may acquire over external objects, or things unconnected with his person. 1 BL Comm. 122.
RIGHTS, PETITION OF. See Petition

Person.
.person. 1. A human being. — Also termed natural person.
absent person. Louisiana law. A person who has no representative in the state and whose whereabouts are not known and cannot be ascertained by diligent effort. La. Civ. Code art. 47.
adult disabled person. A child over the age of 18 for whom a parent continues to have a duty of support.
associated person. See ASSOCIATED PERSON.disabled person. A person who has a mental or physical impairment. See DISABILITY.disappeared person. See DISAPPEARED PERSON.interested person. A person having a property right in or claim against a thing, such as a trust or decedent’s estate. • The meaning may expand to include an entity, such as a business that is a creditor of a decedent. — Abbr. IP.
person in loco parentis (in loh-koh p-ren-tis). A person who acts in place of a parent, either temporarily (as a schoolteacher does) or indefinitely (as a stepparent does); a person who has assumed the obligations of a parent without formally adopting the child. See IN LOCO PARENTIS. [Cases: Parent and Child 15. C.J.S. Parent and Child §§ 345-350, 357-358.]person in need of supervision. See child in need of supervision under CHILD. — Abbr. PINS.
person of incidence. The person against whom a right is enforceable; a person who owes a legal duty. • The meaning may expand to include an entity, such as an insurance company.
person of inherence (in-heer-nts). The person in whom a legal right is vested; the owner of a right. • The meaning may expand to include an entity.
person of interest. A person who is the subject of a police investigation but who has not been identified by investigators as being suspected of committing the crime itself.person not deceased. A person who is either living or not yet born.
person of opposite sex sharing living quarters. See POSSLQ.
person with ordinary skill in the art. See PERSON WITH ORDINARY SKILL IN THE ART.
private person. 1. A person who does not hold public office or serve in the military. 2. Civil law. An entity such as a corporation or partnership that is governed by private law.
protected person. 1. A person for whom a conservator has been appointed or other protective order has been made. [Cases: Guardian and Ward 9.5, 17; Mental Health 104. C.J.S. Insane Persons § 111.] 2. Int’l law. A person who is protected by a rule of international law; esp., one who is in the hands of an occupying force during a conflict. • Protected persons are entitled to a standard of treatment (including a prohibition on coercion and corporal punishment) by the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949). 3. English law. An inhabitant of a protectorate of the United Kingdom. • Though not a British subject, such a person is given diplomatic protection by the Crown.

2. The living body of a human being <contraband found on the smuggler’s person>. 3. An entity (such as a corporation) that is recognized by law as having the rights and duties of a human being. • In this sense, the term includes partnerships and other associations, whether incorporated or unincorporated.
Quote”So far as legal theory is concerned, a person is any being whom the law regards as capable of rights and duties. Any being that is so capable is a person, whether a human being or not, and no being that is not so capable is a person, even though he be a man. Persons are the substances of which rights and duties are the attributes. It is only in this respect that persons possess juridical significance, and this is the exclusive point of view from which personality receives legal recognition.” John Salmond, Jurisprudence 318 (Glanville L. Williams ed., 10th ed. 1947).

artificial person. An entity, such as a corporation, created by law and given certain legal rights and duties of a human being; a being, real or imaginary, who for the purpose of legal reasoning is treated more or less as a human being. • An entity is a person for purposes of the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses but is not a citizen for purposes of the Privileges and Immunities Clauses in Article IV, § 2, and in the Fourteenth Amendment. — Also termed fictitious person; juristic person; juridical person; legal person; moral person. Cf. LEGAL ENTITY. [Cases: Corporations 1.1(2). C.J.S. Corporations § 2.]

control person. See CONTROL PERSON.

Fictitious Person. See artificial person.
PERSON. This word is applied to men, women and children, who are called natural persons. In law, man and person are not exactly-synonymous terms. Any human being is a man, whether he be a member of society or not, whatever may be the rank he holds, or whatever may be his age, sex, &c. A person is a man considered according to the rank he holds in society, with all the rights to which the place he holds entitles him, and the duties which it imposes. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 137.
2. It is also used to denote a corporation which is an artificial person. 1 Bl. Com. 123; 4 Bing. 669; C. 33 Eng. C. L R. 488; Wooddes. Lect. 116; Bac. Us. 57; 1 Mod. 164.
3. But when the word “Persons” is spoken of in legislative acts, natural persons will be intended, unless something appear in the context to show that it applies to artificial persons. 1 Scam. R. 178.
4. Natural persons are divided into males, or men; and females or women. Men are capable of all kinds of engagements and functions, unless by reasons applying to particular individuals. Women cannot be appointed to any public office, nor perform any civil functions, except those which the law specially declares them capable of exercising. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 25.
5. They are also sometimes divided into free persons and slaves. Freemen are those who have preserved their natural liberty, that is to say, who have the right of doing what is not forbidden by the law. A slave is one who is in the power of a master to whom he belongs. Slaves are sometimes ranked not with persons but things. But sometimes they are considered as persons for example, a negro is in contemplation of law a person, so as to be capable of committing a riot in conjunction with white men. 1 Bay, 358. Vide Man.
6. Persons are also divided into citizens, (q. v.) and aliens, (q. v.) when viewed with regard to their political rights. When they are considered in relation to their civil rights, they are living or civilly dead; vide Civil Death; outlaws; and infamous persons.
7. Persons are divided into legitimates and bastards, when examined as to their rights by birth.
8. When viewed in their domestic relations, they are divided into parents and children; hushands and wives; guardians and wards; and masters and servants son, as it is understood in law, see 1 Toull. n. 168; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1890, note.
Letter of Intent
letter of intent. A written statement detailing the preliminary understanding of parties who plan to enter into a contract or some other agreement; a noncommittal writing preliminary to a contract. • A letter of intent is not meant to be binding and does not hinder the parties from bargaining with a third party. Businesspeople typically mean not to be bound by a letter of intent, and courts ordinarily do not enforce one; but courts occasionally find that a commitment has been made. — Abbr. LOI. — Also termed memorandum of intent; memorandum of understanding; term sheet; commitment letter. Cf. precontract under CONTRACT. [Cases: Contracts 25. C.J.S. Contracts § 60.]

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 924 (8th ed. 2004)

Notice

notice, n. 1. Legal notification required by law or agreement, or imparted by operation of law as a result of some fact (such as the recording of an instrument); definite legal cognizance, actual or constructive, of an existing right or title <under the lease, the tenant must give the landlord written notice 30 days before vacating the premises>. • A person has notice of a fact or condition if that person (1) has actual knowledge of it; (2) has received information about it; (3) has reason to know about it; (4) knows about a related fact; or (5) is considered as having been able to ascertain it by checking an official filing or recording. [Cases: Constitutional Law 251.6, 309; Notice 1. C.J.S. Constitutional Law §§ 968, 1154, 1165-1166, 1168-1169; Notice §§ 2-3, 9.] 2. The condition of being so notified, whether or not actual awareness exists <all prospective buyers were on notice of the judgment lien>. Cf. KNOWLEDGE. 3. A written or printed announcement <the notice of sale was posted on the courthouse bulletin board>. [Cases: Sales 235; Vendor and Purchaser 225. C.J.S. Sales § 233; Vendor and Purchaser §§ 486-487, 491.]actual notice. Notice given directly to, or received personally by, a party. — Also termed express notice. [Cases: Notice 1.5. C.J.S. Notice § 4.]adequate notice. See due notice.commercial-law notice. Under the UCC, notice of a fact arising either as a result of actual knowledge or notification of the fact, or as a result of circumstances under which a person would have reason to know of the fact. UCC § 1-201(25) (2d ed. 1995). [Cases: Sales 235. C.J.S. Sales § 233.]constructive notice. Notice arising by presumption of law from the existence of facts and circumstances that a party had a duty to take notice of, such as a registered deed or a pending lawsuit; notice presumed by law to have been acquired by a person and thus imputed to that person. — Also termed legal notice. [Cases: Notice 4; Vendor and Purchaser 229. C.J.S. Notice § 7; Vendor and Purchaser § 488.]direct notice. Actual notice of a fact that is brought directly to a party’s attention. — Also termed positive notice.due notice. Sufficient and proper notice that is intended to and likely to reach a particular person or the public; notice that is legally adequate given the particular circumstance. — Also termed adequate notice; legal notice.express notice. Actual knowledge or notice given to a party directly, not arising from any inference, duty, or inquiry. See actual notice. [Cases: Notice 2. C.J.S. Notice §§ 4-5.]fair notice. 1. Sufficient notice apprising a litigant of the opposing party’s claim. 2. The requirement that a pleading adequately apprise the opposing party of a claim. • A pleading must be drafted so that an opposing attorney of reasonable competence would be able to ascertain the nature and basic issues of the controversy and the evidence probably relevant to those issues. 3. FAIR WARNING. [Cases: Federal Civil Procedure 673; Pleading 48. C.J.S. Pleading §§ 116-124, 132-133.]immediate notice. 1. Notice given as soon as possible. 2. More commonly, and esp. on notice of an insurance claim, notice that is reasonable under the circumstances. [Cases: Insurance 3154.]implied notice. Notice that is inferred from facts that a person had a means of knowing and that is thus imputed to that person; actual notice of facts or circumstances that, if properly followed up, would have led to a knowledge of the particular fact in question. — Also termed indirect notice; presumptive notice. [Cases: Notice 3. C.J.S. Notice § 6.]imputed notice. Information attributed to a person whose agent, having received actual notice of the information, has a duty to disclose it to that person. • For example, notice of a hearing may be imputed to a witness because it was actually disclosed to that witness’s attorney of record. [Cases: Principal and Agent 177(1). C.J.S. Agency §§ 433-435, 442-444, 446.]indirect notice. See implied notice.inquiry notice. Notice attributed to a person when the information would lead an ordinarily prudent person to investigate the matter further; esp., the time at which the victim of an alleged securities fraud became aware of facts that would have prompted a reasonable person to investigate. [Cases: Notice 6; Vendor and Purchaser 229. C.J.S. Notice §§ 12-14; Vendor and Purchaser § 488.]judicial notice. See JUDICIAL NOTICE.legal notice. 1. See constructive notice. 2. See due notice.notice by publication. See public notice.personal notice. Oral or written notice, according to the circumstances, given directly to the affected person.positive notice. See direct notice.presumptive notice. See implied notice.public notice. Notice given to the public or persons affected, usu. by publishing in a newspaper of general circulation. • This notice is usu. required, for example, in matters of public concern. — Also termed notice by publication. [Cases: Notice 11. C.J.S. Notice §§ 16, 32.]reasonable notice. Notice that is fairly to be expected or required under the particular circumstances.record notice. Constructive notice of the contents of an instrument, such as a deed or mortgage, that has been properly recorded. [Cases: Vendor and Purchaser 231. C.J.S. Vendor and Purchaser § 496.]short notice. Notice that is inadequate or not timely under the circumstances.4. Intellectual property. A formal sign attached to an item that embodies or reproduces an intellectual-property right. • Notice of patent is made by placing the word “patent” (or its abbreviation, “pat.”) and the item’s patent number on an item made by a patentee or licensee. There are three statutory notice forms for U.S. trademark and servicemark registration. The most common is the symbol with the letter R (®) but “Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off.” or “Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office” affords the same legal protection. A copyright notice also takes several forms. The first part may be the symbol with the letter C in a circle (©), or the word “Copr.” or “Copyright.” It must be followed by the copyright owner’s name and the year that the work was first published. Informal signs, such as “Brand,” “TM,” “Trademark,” “SM,” and “Service Mark,” adjacent to words or other symbols considered to be protectable marks are not legal notices of exclusive rights. 5. Parliamentary law. A meeting’s published call. See call of a meeting under CALL (1). 6. Parliamentary law. A formal statement that certain business may come before a meeting, usu. made at an earlier meeting or published with the call of the meeting that will consider the business, and made as a prerequisite to the business’s consideration. See call of a meeting under CALL (1). — Also termed previous notice.

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 1090 (8th ed. 2004)

Employee

employee. A person who works in the service of another person (the employer) under an express or implied contract of hire, under which the employer has the right to control the details of work performance. — Also spelled employe. Cf. AGENT (1); INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR. [Cases: Master and Servant 1. C.J.S. Apprentices §§ 2, 11; Employer-Employee Relationship §§ 2-3, 6-12.]borrowed employee. An employee whose services are, with the employee’s consent, lent to another employer who temporarily assumes control over the employee’s work. • Under the doctrine of respondeat superior, the borrowing employer is vicariously liable for the employee’s acts. But the employer may also be entitled to assert immunity under workers’-compensation laws. — Also termed borrowed servant; loaned employee; loaned servant; employee pro hac vice; special employee. See RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR. [Cases: Master and Servant 301(4); Workers' Compensation 202. C.J.S. Employer-Employee Relationship §§ 197-200; Workmen's Compensation § 122.]probationary employee. A recently hired employee whose ability and performance are being evaluated during a trial period of employment.statutory employee. Workers’ compensation. An employee who is covered, or required to be covered, by the employer’s workers’-compensation insurance and who therefore has no independent tort claim against the employer for unintentional injuries suffered on the job. See statutory employer under EMPLOYER. [Cases: Workers' Compensation 187. C.J.S. Workmen's Compensation §§ 121, 132.]

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 564 (8th ed. 2004)

Violation
violation, n. 1. An infraction or breach of the law; a transgression. See INFRACTION. 2. The act of breaking or dishonoring the law; the contravention of a right or duty. 3. Rape; ravishment. 4. Under the Model Penal Code, a public-welfare offense. • In this sense, a violation is not a crime. See Model Penal Code § 1.04(5). — violate, vb. — violative (vI–lay-tiv), adj. — violator, n.Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 1600 (8th ed. 2004)

infraction, n. A violation, usu. of a rule or local ordinance and usu. not punishable by incarceration. See VIOLATION (1). — infract, vb.
civil infraction. An act or omission that, though not a crime, is prohibited by law and is punishable. • In some states, many traffic violations are classified as civil infractions.Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 796 (8th ed. 2004)

Model Penal Code. A proposed criminal code drafted by the American Law Institute and used as the basis for criminal-law revision by many states. — Abbr. MPC.
Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 1025 (8th ed. 2004)

public-welfare offense. A minor offense that does not involve moral delinquency and is prohibited only to secure the effective regulation of conduct in the interest of the community. • An example is driving a car with one brake-light missing. — Also termed regulatory offense; contravention.

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 1110 (8th ed. 2004)

Human

Ballantine’s Dictionary of Law [1948]:
Human being – see monster
Monster – human being by birth, but in somepart resembling a lower animal. A monsterhas no inheritable blood and cannot be heir toany land.
Human laws – man’s laws, with man as the author,as distinguished from divine laws,with God the author.
Oxford Dictionary 1901:Human – belonging or relative to man asdistinguished from God or super humanbeings, pertaining to the sphere or faculties of manwith implication of limitation or inferiority; mundaneand secular, often opposed to divine.
Random House Dictionary:Human – secular- of or pertaining to worldly thingsor to things not regarded as sacred:temporal; not related to or concerned with religion:opposed to sacred: concerned with non-religioussubjects; not belonging to a religious order; one ofthe secular clergy, of or pertaining to this world.Secular humanism – any set of beliefs whichpromotes human values without specificallusion to religious doctrine, secular spirit ortendency, especially a system of political or socialphilosophy that rejects all forms of religious faith orreligious worship; the view that public education andother matters of civil policy should be conductedwithout the influence of religious beliefs.
HumanEtymonline http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?l=h&p=13
c.1250, from M.Fr. humain “of or belonging to man,” from L. humanus, probably related to homo (gen. hominis) “man,” and to humus “earth,” on notion of “earthly beings,” as opposed to the gods (cf. Heb. adam “man,” from adamah “ground”). Cognate with O.Lith. zmuo (acc. zmuni) “man, male person.” Displaced its O.E. cognate guma (from P.Gmc. *guman-) which survives only in disguise in bridegroom. First record of humankind is from 1645. Humanoid (1918) is a hybrid of L. humanus and Gk. -oeides “like,” from eidos “form, shape” (see -oid).humane Look up humane at Dictionary.comc.1450, variant of human, used interchangeably with it until early 18c., when it began to be a distinct word with sense of “having qualities befitting human beings.” But inhuman still can be the opposite of humane. The Royal Humane Society (founded 1774) was originally to rescue drowning persons.humanism Look up humanism at Dictionary.comalong with humanist used in a variety of philosophical and theological senses 16c.-18c., especially ones imitating L. humanitas “education befitting a cultivated man.” Main modern sense traces to c.1860; as a pragmatic system of thought, defined 1907 by co-founder F.C.S. Schiller as: “The perception that the philosophical problem concerns human beings striving to comprehend a world of human experience by the resources of human minds.” Humanist is from Fr. humaniste, from It. umanista, coined by It. poet Lodovicio Ariosto (1474-1533) “student of human affairs or human nature.”humanityc.1384, from O.Fr. humanité, from L. humanitatem (nom. humanitas) “human nature, humanity,” from humanus (see human). Originally in Eng. “kindness, graciousness;” sense of “human race” first recorded c.1450. Humanities (L. literæ humaniores) were those branches of literature (ancient classics, rhetoric, poetry) which tended to humanize or refine. Humanitarian (1819) originally was “one who affirms the humanity of Christ (but denies His divinity);” first used 1844 in modern sense of “one who advocates or practices human action;” usually disparaging at first, with a suggestion of excess.
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American Jural Society http://tinyurl.com/5btnj9
What kind of Beings Are We?If we put all of this information together,a natural person, which is the subject of thestatutory law, is a “human”, a being of worldlyand inferior attributes and questionable morality,detached from that which is sacred or divine,opposed to and rejecting that which includesfaith in any form of religious worship or spiritualbeliefs. In other words, he is a godless beingwithout moral standards. This might be a veryapplicable description for those who liveaccording to the ethics which are typical of‘Babylon’ [society], but the sons of God, whoconduct their lives in accordance with theChristian ideals upon which this nation wasfounded, are specifically excluded from such aforeign jurisdiction.The natural person or ‘human’, as defined in law,obviously needs to be controlled by such statutesas those found in Roman Civil Law. Men willidentify themselves into this category of being,based upon the way they talk, and act, and howthey live. We have all been educated in thegovernment school system to think of ourselvesas humans, rather than the mortal children ofGod, as taught in the scriptures….
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“Human”  Kennith Burke’s definition of http://www.cla.purdue.edu/dblakesley/burke/human/index.html
First published in abbreviated form in The Rhetoric of Religion (1961), and then expanded in later versions in The Hudson Review (Winter, 1963-64), Language as Symbolic Action (1966), and a 1989 CCCCs presentation, Kenneth Burke’s “Definition of Human” encapsulates many of the key tenets of Dramatism, his theory and philosophy of language. In its final form, the definition reads:
“Being bodies that learn language thereby becoming wordlingshumans are the symbol-making, symbol-using, symbol-misusing animalinventor of the negative separated from our natural conditionby instruments of our own making goaded by the spirit of hierarchyacquiring foreknowledge of death and rotten with perfection.”(qtd. in Coe 332-333).
—–HuWikipediaHu http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HuHu (also hu) is a third person singular “non gender-specific pronoun”, short for “that human”. Its variants include “hus”, “hux”, “hume”, and “huself”.
Hu or hu may also refer to:
* Hu (mythology), the deification of the first word, in the Egyptian mythology of the Ennead* Huh (god), the deification of eternity in the Egyptian mythology of the Ogdoad* Hu (Sufism), a name for God.* HU (chant), a love song to god pronounced like the long drawn-out word ‘hue’. Used but not limited to a new-age religion called Eckankar.
* Hu is a breed of sheep
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Hu http://www.unwords.com/unword/hu.html1. (pron.) A 3rd person gender-neutral pronoun. Its brevity and morphological structure (one open syllable: a consonant + a vowel) make it similar to other 3rd person pronouns — a typical, easily recognizable member of this class: he – she – hu.
Origins: A clipping from “human” (like “flu” from “influenza”). The derivative forms of “hu”: reflexive “huself,” possessive “hus,” and objective “hu”. Thus the five forms of the 3rd person pronouns make up the following table:
gender nom gen (adj) posses acc refl
male he his his him himselffem she her hers her herselfneut hu hus hus hu huself
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HU: “…(etimology of the word ‘human’ deriving from Sanskrit (If I remember right) associated with God and the sun, also a mantra which is the core focus of the religion of Eckankar: “the religion of the light and sound of God”)…” Source?http://tinyurl.com/5exycx
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Hu: Bronze hu, late Zhou dynasty (c. 600–256/255 ; in …type of ancient Chinese bronze vessel used to contain wine or water. Encyclopedia Brittanica.http://www.britannica.com/search?query=Hu&ct=&searchSubmit.x=0&searchSubmit.y=0
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Hu-man: “There is another kind of animal, which in contemporary society is not recognized as an animal: ‘the intellectual animal called man, who is falsely called a hu-man being’. He arises from pulpits with such titles as: ‘pastor’, ‘priest’, and ‘preacher’. And there are emotional animals called man, who also are falsely called hu-man beings. There are also instinctual animals, who are called man, and also falsely called hu-man beings. A real man has no sin, and does not sin, because he is born of God. (1 John 3:9) Only the man who is balanced in the 3 centers, awakened, who has developed intuition, and the siddhis, and devoted himself to understanding, those who come to terms with the fact that all religion is not simply exoteric, but also esoteric in nature, these ones become true humans, true men. True men can understand the word of God because they’ve lived it. Not the animals who look like men, but in reality are Pinnochio…”http://idu.16.forumer.com/a/boycott-of-ata0_post1575.html

Without Prejudice
After you put Without Prejudice UCC 1-207 where your signature is going to be. ” your signature” is the last you thing you put on the document. When you pick up your pen from the signed contract it is consummated, you have given up your right to change the contract.

When you use “without prejudice UCC 1-207″ in connection with your signature, you are saying, “I reserve my right not to be compelled to perform under any contract or commercial agreement that I did not enter knowingly, voluntarily and intentionally. I do not accept the liability of the compelled benefit of any unrevealed contract or commercial agreement.”

If you are confronted with explaining what the “UCC 1-207″ does here is your answer.
When you are going to sign a contract ( drivers license, lease, buying a automobile, snowmobile, a building permit, marriage license, devoice decree, or any other document).
BEFORE you sign!!! you have the right to draw a fine line through anything that is not to your liking. It can be a number, a letter, a word or a group of words. At this time you can add any thing you want in the contract. Any changes you have made sign your name close to it and date it. A contract is to have all of the contract in full disclosure at the time of signing. If not the UCC 1-207 will stop you from giving up your rights on the contract you are about to sign and void out any part of the contract that you have not had the opportunity to view.

Parties to a Suit in Equity :
The person who seeks a remedy in chancery by suit, commonly called a plaintiff, and the person against whom the remedy is sought, usually denominated the defendant, are the parties to a suit in equity.
2. It is of the utmost importance, that there should be proper parties; and therefore no rules connected with the science of equity pleading, are so necessary to be attentively considered and observed, as those which relate to the persons who are to be made parties. to a suit, for when a mistake in this respect is discovered at the hearing of the cause, it may sometimes be attended with defeat, and will, at least, be followed by delay and expense. 3 John. Ch. R. 555; 1 Hopk. Ch. R. 566; 10 Wheat. R. 152.
3. A brief sketch will be here given by considering, 1. Who may be plain-tiffs. 2. who may be made defendants. 3. The number of the parties.
4. – §1. Of the plaintiff. Under this head will be considered who may sue in equity: and,
5. – 1. The government, or as the style is in England, the crown) may sue in a court of equity, not only in suits strictly on behalf of the government, for its own peculiar rights and interest, but also on behalf of the rights and interest of those, who partake of its prerogatives, or claim its peculiar protection. Mitf. Eq. Plead. by Jeremy, 4, 21-24; Coop. Eq. 21, 101. Such suits are usually brought by the attorney general.
6.- 2. As a general rule all persons, whether natural or artificial, as corporations, may sue in equity; the exceptions are persons who are not sui juris, as a person not of full age, a feme covert, an idiot, or lunatic.
7. The incapacities to sue are either absolute, or partial.
8. The absolute, disable the party to sue during their continuance; the partial, disable the party to sue by himself alone, without the aid of another. In the United States, the principal ab solute incapacity, is alienage. The alien, to be disabled to sue in equity, must be an alien enemy, for an alien friend may sue in chancery. Mitf. Equity, PI, 129; Coop. Equity Pl. 27. But still the subject matter of the suit may. disable an alien to sue. Coop. Eq. Pl. 25; Co. Lit. 129 b. An alien sovereign or an alien corporation may maintain a suit in equity in this country. 2 Bligh’s Rep. 1, N. S.; 1 Dow. Rep.. 179, N. S.; 1 Sim. R. 94; 2 Gall. R. 105; 8 Wheat. Rep. 464; 4 John. Ch. Rep. 370. In case if a foreign sovereign, he must have been recognized by the government of this country before he can sue. Story’s Eq. pl. §55; 3 Wheat. Rep. 324; Cop. Eq. Pl. 119
9. Partial incapacity to sue exists in the case of infants, of married women, of idiots and lunatics, or other persons who are incapable, or are by law specially disabled to sue in their own names; as for example, in Pennsylvania, and some other states, habitual drunkards, who are under guardianship. 10.-1. An infant cannot, by himself, exhibit a bill, not only on account of his want of discretion, but because of his inability to bind himself for costs. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 25. And when an infant sues, he must sue by his next friend. Coop, Eq. 27; 1 Sm. Chan. Pl. 54. But as the next friend may sometimes bring a bill. from improper motives, the court will, upon a proper application, direct the master to make inquiry on this subject, and if there be reason to believe it be not brought for the benefit of the infant, the proceedings will be stayed. 3 P. Wms. 140; Mitf. Eq. Pl. 27; Coop. Eq. Pl. 28.
11. – 2. A feme covert must, generally, join with her husband; but when he has abjured the realm, been transported for felony, or when he is civilly dead, she may sue as a feme sole. And when she has a separate claim, she may even sue her husband, with the assistance of a next friend of her own selection. Story’s Eq. Pl. §61; Story’s Eq. Jur. §1368; Fonbl. Eq. b. 1, c. 2, §6, note p. And the husband may himself sue the wife.
12. – 3. Idiots and lunatics are generally under the guardianship of persons who are authorized to bring a suit in the idiot’s name, by their guardian or committee.
13. – §2. Of the defendant. 1. In general, those persons who may sue in equity, may be sued. Persons sui juris may defend themselves, but those under an absolute or partial inability, can make defence only in a particular manner. A bill may be exhibited against all bodies politic or corporate, against all persons not laboring under any diability, and all persons subject to such incapacity, as infants, married women, and lunatics, or habitual drankards.
14. – 2. The government or the state, like the king in England, cannot be sued. Story, Eq. Pl. §69.
15. – 3. Bodies politic or corporate, like persons sui juris, defend a suit by themselves.
16. – 4. Infants institute a suit, as has been seen, by next friend, but they must defend a suit by guardian appointed by the court, who is usually the nearest relation, not concerned in interest, in the matter in question. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 103; Coop. Eq. Pl. 20, 109; 9 Ves. 357; 10 Ves. 159; 11 Ves. 563; 1 Madd. R. 290; Vide Guardian, n. 6.
17. – 5. Idiots and lunatics defend by their committees, who, in ordinary circumstances, are appointed guardians ad litem, for that purpose, as a matter of course. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 103; Coop. Eq. Pl. 30, 32; Story’s Eq. Pl. SS70; Shelf on Lun. 425.; and vide 2 John. Ch. R. 242, where, Chancellor Kent held, that the idiot need not be made a party as defendant to a bill for the payment of his debts, but his committee only. When the idiot or lunatic has no committee, or the latter has an interest adverse to that of the lunatic or idiot, a guardian ad litem will be appointed Mitf. Eq. Pl. 103;; Story’s Eq. Pl. §70.
18. – 6. In general, a married woman, when she is sued, must be joined with her husband, and their answer must also be joint. But there axe exceptions to this rule in both its requirements.
19. – 1. A married woman may be made a defendant, and answer as a feme sole, in some instances, as when her husband is plaintiff in the suit, and sues her as defendant, and from the like necessity, when the husband is an exile or has abjured the realm, or has been transported under a criminal sentence, or is an alien enemy. She may be sued and answer as a feme sole. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 104, 105; Coop. Eq. Pl. 30.
20. – 2. When her husband is joined, or ought to be joined, she cannot make a separate defence, without a special order of court. The following are instances where such orders will made. When a married woman claims as defendant in opposition to her husband, or lives separate from him, or disapproves of the defence he wishes her to make, she may obtain an order of court for liberty to answer, and defend the suit separately. And when the husband is abroad, the plaintiff may obtain, an order that she shall answer separately; and, if a woman obstinately refuses to join a defence with her husband, the latter may obtain an order to compel her to make a separate answer. Mitf. Eq: Pl.: 104; Coop. Eq. Pl. 30; Story’s Eq 71.
21. – 3. As to the number of parties. It is a general rule that every person who is at all interested in the subject-matter of the suit, must be made a party. It is, the constant aim of a court of equity, to do complete justice by deciding upon and settling the rights of all persons interested in the subject of the suit, to make the performance of the order of the court perfectly safe to those who are compelled to obey it, and, to prevent future litigation. For this purpose, all persons materially interested in the subject ought to be parties to the suit, plaintiffs or defendants, however numerous they may be, so that a complete decree may be made binding on those parties. Mitford’s Eq. Pl. 144; 1 John. Ch. R. 349; 9 John. R. 442; 2 Paige’s C. R. 278; 2 Bibb, 184; 3 Cowen’s R. 637; 4 Cowen’s R. 682 9 Cowen’s R. 321; 2 Eq. Cas. Ab. 179; 3 Swans. R. 139. When a great number of individuals are interested as in the instance of creditors seeking an account of the estate of their deceased debtor for payment of their demands, a few suing on behalf of the rest may substantiate the suit, and the other creditors may come in under the decree. 2 Ves. 312, 313. In such case the bill should expressly show that it is fifed as well on the behalf of other members as those who are really made the complainants; and the parties must not assume a corporate, name, for if they assume the style of a corporation, the bill cannot be sustained. 6 Ves. jr. 773; Coop. Eq. Pl. 40; 1 John. Ch. R. 349; 13 Ves. jr. 397 16 Ves. jr. 321; 2 Ves. sen. 312 S. & S. 18; Id. 184. In some cases, however, when all the persons interested are, not made parties, yet, if there be such privily between the plaintiffs and defendants, that a complete decree may be made, the want of parties is not a cause of demurrer. Mitf. El q. Pl. 145. Vide Calvert on Parties to Suits in Equity; Edwards on Parties to Bills in Chancery; Bouv Inst. Index, h. t.
Source : Bouvier 1856

ESTOPPEL.

estoppel (e-stop-l), n. 1. A bar that prevents one from asserting a claim or right that contradicts what one has said or done before or what has been legally established as true. [Cases: Estoppel 52-59. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 2-4, 58-64, 66-81, 83-89, 120-121, 153-155, 157, 159-160, 167.] 2. A bar that prevents the relitigation of issues. 3. An affirmative defense alleging good-faith reliance on a misleading representation and an injury or detrimental change in position resulting from that reliance. Cf. WAIVER (1). [Cases: Estoppel 83-87. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 90-95.] — estop, vb.
Quote” ‘Estoppe,’ says Lord Coke, ‘cometh of the French word estoupe, from whence the English word stopped; and it is called an estoppel or conclusion, because a man’s own act or acceptance stoppeth or closeth up his mouth to allege or plead the truth.’ [Co. Litt. 352a.] Estoppel may also be defined to be a legal result or ‘conclusion’ arising from an admission which has either been actually made, or which the law presumes to have been made, and which is binding on all persons whom it affects.” Lancelot Feilding Everest, Everest and Strode’s Law of Estoppel 1 (3d ed. 1923).Quote
“In using the term ‘estoppel,’ one is of course aware of its kaleidoscopic varieties. One reads of estoppel by conduct, by deed, by laches, by misrepresentation, by negligence, by silence, and so on. There is also an estoppel by judgment and by verdict; these, however, obviously involve procedure. The first-named varieties have certain aspects in common. But these aspects are not always interpreted by the same rules in all courts. The institution seems to be flexible.” John H. Wigmore, “The Scientific Role of Consideration in Contract,” in Legal Essays in Tribute to Orrin Kip McMurray 641, 643 (1935).administrative collateral estoppel. See COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL.assignor estoppel. Patents. Estoppel barring someone who has assigned the rights to a patent from later attacking the patent’s validity. Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. v. Formica Insulation Co., 266 U.S. 342, 45 S.Ct. 117 (1924). • The doctrine was narrowed by Diamond Scientific Co. v. Ambico, Inc., 848 F.2d 1220 (Fed. Cir. 1988), in which the court held that in some circumstances equity may outweigh the public-policy reasons behind the estoppel doctrine. [Cases: Patents 129(2). C.J.S. Patents § 227.]collateral estoppel. See COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL.equitable estoppel. 1. A defensive doctrine preventing one party from taking unfair advantage of another when, through false language or conduct, the person to be estopped has induced another person to act in a certain way, with the result that the other person has been injured in some way. • This doctrine is founded on principles of fraud. The five essential elements of this type of estoppel are that (1) there was a false representation or concealment of material facts, (2) the representation was known to be false by the party making it, or the party was negligent in not knowing its falsity, (3) it was believed to be true by the person to whom it was made, (4) the party making the representation intended that it be acted on, or the person acting on it was justified in assuming this intent, and (5) the party asserting estoppel acted on the representation in a way that will result in substantial prejudice unless the claim of estoppel succeeds. — Also termed estoppel by conduct; estoppel in pais. [Cases: Estoppel 52-96. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 2-4, 55-155, 157, 159-160, 165, 167-200.] 2. See promissory estoppel.estoppel by conduct. See equitable estoppel.estoppel by contract. A bar that prevents a person from denying a term, fact, or performance arising from a contract that the person has entered into.estoppel by deed. Estoppel that prevents a party to a deed from denying anything recited in that deed if the party has induced another to accept or act under the deed; esp., estoppel that prevents a grantor of a warranty deed, who does not have title at the time of the conveyance but who later acquires title, from denying that he or she had title at the time of the transfer. — Also termed estoppel by warranty. See AFTER-ACQUIRED-TITLE DOCTRINE. [Cases: Estoppel 12-51. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 3, 10-54, 201-204, 206-208, 210-211.]Quote
“The apparent odiousness of some classes of estoppel, chiefly estoppels by deed, seems to result not so much from the nature of an estoppel, as from the highly technical rules of real property law upon which it operated, and with which it was associated. Estoppels by record, indeed, stand upon a considerably higher footing than estoppels by deed ….” Lancelot Feilding Everest, Everest and Strode’s Law of Estoppel 10 (1923).
estoppel by election. The intentional exercise of a choice between inconsistent alternatives that bars the person making the choice from the benefits of the one not selected.estoppel by inaction. See estoppel by silence.estoppel by judgment. See COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL.
estoppel by laches. An equitable doctrine by which some courts deny relief to a claimant who has unreasonably delayed or been negligent in asserting a claim. [Cases: Equity 67. C.J.S. Equity §§ 128-132.]
estoppel by misrepresentation. An estoppel that arises when one makes a false statement that induces another person to believe something and that results in that person’s reasonable and detrimental reliance on the belief. [Cases: Estoppel 82-87. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 90-95.]estoppel by negligence. An estoppel arising when a negligent person induces someone to believe certain facts, and then the other person reasonably and detrimentally relies on that belief. [Cases: Estoppel 96. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 68, 114.]estoppel by record. See COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL.estoppel by representation. An estoppel that arises when one makes a statement or admission that induces another person to believe something and that results in that person’s reasonable and detrimental reliance on the belief; esp., equitable estoppel. [Cases: Estoppel 82-87. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 90-95.]estoppel by silence. Estoppel that arises when a party is under a duty to speak but fails to do so. — Also termed estoppel by standing by; estoppel by inaction. [Cases: Estoppel 95. C.J.S. Estoppel § 99.]estoppel by standing by. See estoppel by silence.estoppel by verdict. See COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL.estoppel by warranty. See estoppel by deed.estoppel in pais. See equitable estoppel.estoppel on the record. See prosecution-history estoppel.file-wrapper estoppel. See prosecution-history estoppel.judicial estoppel. Estoppel that prevents a party from contradicting previous declarations made during the same or an earlier proceeding if the change in position would adversely affect the proceeding or constitute a fraud on the court. — Also termed doctrine of preclusion of inconsistent positions; doctrine of the conclusiveness of the judgment. [Cases: Estoppel 68. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 138-141, 143-144.]legal estoppel. Estoppel recognized in law (as distinguished from equitable estoppel or estoppel in pais), such as an estoppel resulting from a recital or other statement in a deed or official record, and precluding any denial or assertion concerning a fact. [Cases: Estoppel 1-51. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 3, 5-54, 201-204, 206-208, 210-211.]marking estoppel. Patents. Estoppel that prevents a party from asserting that a product is not covered by a patent if that party has marked the product with a patent number. • This type of estoppel has been questioned in recent years, and has been sharply limited by some courts. [Cases: Patents 222. C.J.S. Patents §§ 394-395.]promissory estoppel. The principle that a promise made without consideration may nonetheless be enforced to prevent injustice if the promisor should have reasonably expected the promisee to rely on the promise and if the promisee did actually rely on the promise to his or her detriment. — Also termed (inaccurately) equitable estoppel. [Cases: Estoppel 85. C.J.S. Estoppel §§ 92-93.]Quote
“The doctrine of promissory estoppel is equitable in origin and nature and arose to provide a remedy through the enforcement of a gratuitous promise. Promissory is distinct from equitable estoppel in that the representation at issue is promissory rather than a representation of fact. ‘Promissory estoppel and estoppel by conduct are two entirely distinct theories. The latter does not require a promise.’ ” Ann Taylor Schwing, California Affirmative Defenses § 34:16, at 35 (2d ed. 1996) (quoting Division of Labor Law Enforcement v. Transpacific Transp. Co., 88 Cal. App. 3d 823, 829 (1979)).prosecution-history estoppel. Patents. The doctrine limiting a patentee’s invocation of the doctrine of equivalents by eliminating from the claims those elements that the holder surrendered or abandoned during the prosecution of the patent. — Also termed estoppel on the record; file-wrapper estoppel. See DOCTRINE OF EQUIVALENTS. [Cases: Patents 168(2.1). C.J.S. Patents § 296.]quasi-estoppel. An equitable doctrine preventing one from repudiating an act or assertion if it would harm another who reasonably relied on the act or assertion.technical estoppel. 1. An estoppel arising from a matter of record or from a deed made by the party who is claimed to be estopped. • Estoppels by deed or by record are called “technical” because the rules of estoppel apply with certainty in appropriate cases. 2. COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL. See estoppel by deed.

Cite as: BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY 589 (8th ed. 2004)

ENJOYMENT. The exercise of a right; the possession and fruition of a right, privilege, or incorporeal hereditament.
—Adverse enjoyment. The possession or exercise of an easement, under a claim of right against the owner of the land out of which such easement is derived. 2 Washb. Real Prop. 42; Cox v. Forrest, 60 Md. 79.—Enjoyment, quiet, covenant for. See Covenant.

POSSESSION
POSSESS. To occupy in person; to have in one’s actual and physical control; to have the exclusive detention and control of; also to own or be entitled to. See Fuller v. Fuller, 84 Me. 475, 24 Atl. 946; Brantly v. Kee, 58 N. C. 337.
POSSESSED. This word is applied to the right and enjoyment of a termor, or a person having a term, who is said to be possessed, and not seised. Bac. Tr. 335; Poph. 76; Dyer, 369.
POSSESSIO. Lat In the civil law.That condition of fact under which one can exercise his power over a corporeal thing at his pleasure, to the exclusion of all others. This condition of fact is called “detention,” and It forms the substance of possession in all its varieties. Mackeld. Rom. Law, § 238.
“Possession,” in the sense of “detention,” is the actual exercise of such a power as the owner has a right to exercise. The term “possessio” occurs in the Roman jurists in various senses. There is possessio simply, and possessio oivilis, and possessio naturalis. Possessio denoted, originally, bare detention. But this detention, under certain conditions, becomes a legal state, inasmuch as it leads to ownership, through usuoapio. Accordingly, the word “possessio,” which required no qualification so long as there was no other notion attached to possessio, requires such qualification when detention becomes a legal state. This detention, then, when it has the conditions necessary to usucapio, is called “possessio civilis;” and all other possessio as opposed to civilis is naturalis. Sandars, Just. Inst. 274. Wharton.
In old English law. Possession; seisin. The detention of a corporeal thing by means of a physical act and mental intent, aided by some support of right. Bract fol. 386.
—Pedis possessio. A foothold; an actual possession of real property, implying either actual occupancy or enclosure and use. See Lawrence v. Fulton, 19 Cal. 690; Porter v. Kennedy, 1 McMul. (S. C.) 357.—Possessio bona fide. Possession in good faith.
—Possessio mala fide, possession in bad faith. A possessor bona fide is,one who believes that no other person has a better right to the possession than himself. A possessor mala fide is one who knows that he is not entitled to the possession. Mackeld. Rom. Law, § 243.—Possessio bonornm. In the civil law. The possession of goods. More commonly termed “bonorum possessio,” (g. v.)
—Possessio civilis. In Roman law. A legal possession, t. e., a possessing accompanied with the intention to be or to thereby become owner; and, as so understood, it was distinguished from “possessio naturalis,” otherwise called “nuda detentio,” which was a possessing without any such intention. Possessio civilis was the basis of usucapio or of longi temporis possessio, and was usually (but not necessarily) adverse possession. Brown.
—Possessio fratris. The possession or seisin of a brother; that is, such possession of an estate by a brother as would entitle his sister of the whole blood to succeed him as heir, to the exclusion of a half-brother. Hence, derivatively, that doctrine of the older English law of descent which shut out the half-blood from the succession to estates; a doctrine which was abolished by the descent act, 3 & 4 Wm. IV. c 106 See 1 Steph. Comm. 385; Broom, Max. 532.
—Possessio longi temporis. See Usucapio.
—Possessio naturalis. See Possessio Civilis. Possessio fratris de feodo simpliei facit sororem esse haeredem. The brother’s possession of an estate in fee-simple makes the sister to be heir. 3 Coke, 41; Broom, Max. 532. Possessio pacifica pour anus 60 facit jus. Peaceable possession for sixty years gives a right. Jenk. Cent. 26.
POSSESSION. The detention and control, or the manual or ideal custody, of anything which may be the subject of property, for one’s use and enjoyment, either as owner or as the proprietor of a qualified right in it, and either held personally or by another who exercises it in one’s place and name. That condition of facts under which one can exercise his power over a corporeal thing at his pleasure to the exclusion of all other persons. See Staton v. Mullis, 92 N. C. 632; Sunol v. Hepburn, 1 Cal. 263; Cox v. Devin-ney, 65 N. J. Law, 389, 47 Atl. 570; Churchill v. Onderdonk, 59 N. Y. 136; Bice v. Frayser (C. C.) 24 Fed, 460; Travers v. McElvain, 181 111. 382, 55 N. E. 135; Emmerson v. State, 33 Tex. Cr. R. 89, 25 S. W. 289; Slater v. Rawson, 6 Mete. (Mass.) 444.
—Actual possession. This term, as used in the provisions of Rev. St. N. Y. p. 312, § 1, authorizing proceedings to compel the determination of claims to real property, means a possession in faCt effected by actual entry upon the premises; an actual occupation. Churchill v. Onderdonk, 59 N. Y. 134. It means an actual occupation or possession in fact, as contradistinguished from that constructive one which the legal title draws after it. The word “actual” is used in the statute in opposition to virtual or constructive, and calls for an open, visible occupancy. Cleveland v. Crawford, 7 Hun (N. Y.) 616.
—Adverse possession. The actual, open, and notorious possession and enjoyment of real property, or of any estate lying in grant, continued for a certain length of time, held adversely and in denial and opposition to the title of another claimant, or under circumstances which indicate an assertion or color of right or title on the part of the person maintaining it, as against another person who is out of possession. Costello v. Edson, 44 Minn. 135, 46 N. W. 299; Taylor v. Philippi, 35 W. Va.
554, 14 S. E. 130; Pickett v. Pope, 74 Ala. 122; Martin v. Maine Cent. R. Co., 83 Me. 100, 21 Atl. 740; Dixon v. Cook, 47 Miss. 220.
—Chose in possession. A thing (subject of personal property) in actual possession, as distinguished from a “chose in action,” which is not presently in the owner’s possession, but which he has a right to demand, receive, or recover by suit.
—Civil possession. In modern civil law and in the law of Louisiana, that possession which exists when a person ceases to reside in a house or on ‘the land which he occupied, or to detain the movable which he possessed, but without intending to abandon the possession. It is the detention of a thing by virtue of a just title and under the conviction of possessing as owner. Civ. Code La. art. 3391 et seq.
—Constructive possession. Possession not actual but assumed to exist, where one claims to hold by virtue of some title, without having the actual occupancy, as, where the owner of a tract of land, regularly laid out, is in possession of a part, he is constructively in possession of the whole. Fleming v. Maddox, 30 Iowa, 241.
—Derivative possession. The kind of possession of one who is in the lawful occupation or custody of the property, but; not under a claim of title of his own, but under a right derived from another, as, for example, a tenant, bailee, licensee,etc.
—Dispossession. The act of ousting or removing one from the possession of property previously held by him, which may be tortious and unlawful, as in the case of a forcible motion, or in pursuance of law, as where a landlord “dispossesses” his tenant at the expiration of the term or for other cause by the aid of judicial process.
—Estate in possession. An estate whereby a present interest passes to and resides in the tenant, not depending on any subsequent circumstance or contingency; an estate where the tenant is in actual pernancy or receipt of the rents and profits.
—Naked possession. The actual occupation of real estate, but without any apparent or colorable right to hold and continue such possession; spoken of as the lowest and most imperfect degree of title. 2 Bl. Comm. 195; Birdwell v. Burleson, 31 Tex. Civ. App. 31, 72 S. W. 446.
—Natural possession. That by which a man detains a thing corporeally, as, by occupying a house, cultivating ground, or retaining a movable in possession; natural possession is also defined to be the corporeal detention of a thing which we possess as belonging to us, without any title to that possession or with a title which is void. Civ. Code La. 1900, arts. 3428, 3430. And see Railroad Co: v. Le Rosen, 52 La. Ann. 192, 26 South. 854; Sunol v. Hepburn, 1 Cal. 262.
—Open possession. Possession of real property is said to be “open” when held without concealment or attempt at secrecy, or without being covered up in the name of a third person, or otherwise attempted to be withdrawn from sight, but in such a manner that any person interested can ascertain who is actually in possession by proper observation and inquiry. See Bass v. Pease, 79 111. App. 318.
—Peaceable possession. See Peaceable.—Possession money. In English law. The man whom the sheriff puts in possession of goods taken under a writ of fieri facias is entitled, while he continues so in possession, to a certain sum of money per diem, which is thence termed “possession money.” The amount is 3s. 6d. per day if he is boarded, or 5s. per day if he is not boarded. Brown.
—Possession, writ of. “Where the judgment in an action of ejectment is for the delivery of the land claimed, or its possession, this writ is used to put the plaintiff in possession. It is in the nature of execution.
—Quasi possession is to a right what possession is to a thing; it is the exercise or enjoyment of the right, not necessarily the continuous exercise, but such an exercise as shows an intention to exercise it at any time when desired. Sweet.
—Scrambling possession. By this term is meant a struggle for possession on the land itself, not such a contest as is waged in the courts, or possession gained by an act of trespass, such as building a fence. Spiers v. Duane, 54 Cal. 177; Lobdell v. Keene, 85 Minn. 90, 88 N. W. 426; Dyer v. Reitz, 14 Mo. App. 45.
—Unity of possession. Joint possession of two rights by several titles, as where a lessee of land acquires the title in fee-simple, which extinguishes the lease. The term also describes one of the essential properties of a joint estate, each of the tenants having the entire possession as well of every parcel as of the whole. 2 Bl. Comm. 182.
—Vacant possession. An estate which has been abandoned, vacated, or forsaken by the tenant. In the older books, “possession” is sometimes used as the synonym of “seisin;” but, strictly speaking, they are entirely different terms. “The difference between possession and seisin is : Lessee for years Is possessed, and yet the lessor is still seised; and therefore the terms of law are that of chattels a man is possessed, whereas in feoffments, gifts in tail, and leases for life he is described as ‘seised.'” Noy, Max. 64.
“Possession” is used in some of the books In the sense of property. “A possession is an hereditament or chattel.” Finch, Law, b. 2, C.3.
Possession is a good title where no better title appears. 20 Vin. Abr. 278.
Possession is nine-tenths of the law. This adage is not to be taken as true to the full extent, so as to mean that the person in possession can only be ousted by one whose title is nine times better than his, but it places in a strong light the legal truth that every claimant must succeed by the strength of his own title, and not by the weakness of his antagonist’s. Wharton.
POSSESSION VAUT TITRE. Fr. In English law, as In most systems of jurisprudence, the fact of possession raises a prima facie title or a presumption of the right of property in the thing possessed. In other words, the possession is as good as the title (about.) Brown.
POSSESSOR. One who possesses; one who has possession.—Possessor bona fide. He is a bona fide possessor who possesses as owner by virtue of an act sufficient in terms to transfer property, the defects of which he was ignorant of. He ceases to be a bona fide possessor from the moment these defects are made known to him, or are declared to him by a suit instituted for the recovery of the thing by the owner. Civ. Code La. art 503.
—Possessor mala fide. The possessor in bad faith is he who possesses as master, but who assumes this quality, when he well knows that he has no title to the thing, or that his title is vicious and defective. Civ. Code La. art 3452.
POSSESSORY. Relating to possession; founded on possession; contemplating or claiming possession.—Possessory action. See next title.
—Possessory claim. The title of a pre-emptor of public lands who has filed his declaratory statement but has not paid for the land. Enoch v. Spokane Falls & N. Ry. Co, 6 Wash. 393, 33 Pac. 966.
—Possessory judgment.
In Scotch practice. A judgment which entitles a person who has uninterruptedly been in possession for seven years to continue his possession until the question of right be decided in due course of law. Bell.
—Possessory lien. One which attaches to such articles of another’s as may be at the time in the possession of the lienor, as, for example, an attorney’s lien on the papers and documents of the client in his possession. Weed Sewing Mach. Co. v. Boutelle, 56 Vt 570, 48 Am. Rep. 821.
POSSESSORY ACTION. An action which has for its immediate object to obtain or recover the actual possession of the subject-matter ; as distinguished from an action which merely seeks to vindicate the plaintiff’s title, or which involves the bare right only; the latter being called a “petitory” action.An action founded on possession. Trespass for injuries to personal property is called a “possessory” action, because it lies only for a plaintiff who, at the moment of the injury complained of, was in actual or constructive, immediate, and exclusive possession. 1 Chit PI. 168, 169.
In admiralty practice. A possessory suit is one which is brought to recover the possession of a vessel, had under a claim of title. The Tilton, 5 Mason, 465, Fed. Cas. No. 14,054; 1 Kent Comm. 371.
In old English law. A real action which had for its object the regaining possession of the freehold, of which the demandant or his ancestors had been unjustly deprived by the present tenant or possessor thereof.In Scotch law. An action for the vindication and recovery of the possession of heritable or movable goods; e. g., the action of molestation. Paters. Comp.In Louisiana. An action by which one claims to be maintained in the possession of an immovable property, or of a right upon or growing out of it, when he has been disturbed, or to be reinstated to that possession, when he has been divested or evicted. Code Proc. La. § 6.
—-

OWNER. The person in whom is vested the ownership, dominion, or title of property; proprietor. Garver v. Hawkeye Ins. Co., 69 Iowa, 202, 28 N. W. 555; Turner v. Cross, 83 Tex. 218, 18 S. W. 578, 15 L. R, A. 262; Coombs v. People, 198 111. 586, 64 N. E. 1056; Atwater v. Spalding, 86 Minn. 101, 90 N. W. 370, 91 Am. St Rep. 331.
He who has dominion of a thing, real or personal, corporeal or incorporeal, which he has a right to enjoy and do with as he pleases, even to spoil or destroy it, as far as the law permits, unless he be prevented by some agreement or covenant which restrains his right. Bouvier.
—Equitable owner. One who is recognized in equity as the owner of property, because the real and beneficial use and title belong to him, although the bare legal title is vested in another, e. g., a trustee for his benefit—General owner. The general owner of a thing is he who has the primary or residuary title to it; as distinguished from a special owner, who has a special interest in the same thing, amounting to a qualified ownership, such, for example, as a bailee’s hen. Farmers’ & Mechanics’ Nat Bank v. Logan, 74 N. Y. 581.—Joint owners. Two. or more persons who jointly own and hold title to property, e. g., joint tenants.—Legal owner. One who is recognized and held responsible by the law as the owner of property, la a more particular sense, one in whom the legal title to real estate is vested, but who holds it in trust for the benefit of another, the latter being called the “equitable” owner.—Part owners. Joint owners; co-owners; those who have shares of ownership in the same thing, particularly a vessel.—Reputed owner. He who has the general credit or reputation of being the owner or proprietor of goods is said to be the reputed owner. See Santa Cruz Rock Pav. Co. v. Lyons (Cal.) 43 Pac. 601. This phrase is chiefly used in English bankruptcy practice, where the bankrupt is styled the “reputed owner” of goods lawfully in his possession, though the real owner may be another person. The word “reputed” has a much weaker sense than its derivation would appear to warrant; importing merely a supposition or opinion derived or made up from outward appearances, and often unsupported by fact. The term “reputed owner” is frequently employed in this sense. 2 Steph. Comm. 206.—Riparian owner. See Riparian.—Special owner. One who has a special interest in an article of property, amounting to a qualified ownership of it such, for example, as a bailee’s lien; as distinguished from the general owner, who has the primary or residuary title to the same thing. Frazier v. State, 18 Tex. App. 44L
OWNERSHIP. The complete dominion, title, or proprietary right In a thing or claim. See Property.
The ownership of a thing is the right of one or more persons to possess and use it to the exclusion of others. In this Code, the thing of which there may be ownership is called “property.” Civ. Code Cal. § 654.
Ownership is the right by which a thing belongs to some one in particular, to the exclusion of all other persons. Civ. Code La. art 488.
Ownership is divided into perfect and imperfect. Ownership is perfect when it is perpetual, and when the thing is unincumbered with any real right towards any other person than the owner. On the contrary, ownership is imperfect when it is to terminate at a certain time or on a condition, or if the thing which is the object of it, being an immovable, is charged with any real right towards a third person; as a usufruct, use, or servitude. When an immovable is subject to a usufruct the owner of it is said to possess the naked ownership. Civ. Code La. art. 490; Maestri v. Board of .Assessors, 110 La. 517, 34 South. 658.

REGISTER
REGISTER, evidence. A book containing a record of facts as they occur, kept by public authority; a register of births, marriages and burials.
2. Although not originally intended for the purposes of evidence, public registers are in general admissible to prove the facts to which they relate.
3. In Pennsylvania, the registry of births, &c. made by any religious society in the state, is evidence by act of assembly, but it must be proved as at common law. 6 Binn. R. 416. A copy of the register of births and deaths of the Society of Friends in England, proved before the lord mayor of London by an ex parte affidavit, was allowed to be given in evidence to prove the death of a person; 1 Dall. 2; and a copy of a parish register in Barbadoes, certi-fied to be a true copy by the rector, proved by the oath of a witness, taken before the deputy secretary of the island and notary public, under his hand and seal was held admissible to prove pedigree; the handwriting and office of the secretary being proved. 10 Serg. & Rawle, 383.
4. In North Carolina, a parish register of births, marriages and deaths, kept pursuant to the statute of that state, is evidence of pedigree. 2 Murphey’s R. 47.
5. In Connecticut, a parish register has been received in evidence. 2 Root, R. 99. See 15 John. R. 226. Vide 1 Phil. Ev. 305; 1 Curt. R. 755; 6 Eng. Eccl. R. 452; Cov. on Conv. Ev. 304.
REGISTER, common law. The certificate of registry granted to the person or persons entitled thereto, by the collector of the district, comprehending the port to which any ship or vessel shall belong; more properly, the registry itself. For the form, requisites, &c. of certificate of registry, see Act of Con. Dec. 31, 1792; Story’s Laws U. S. 269 3 Kent, Com. 4th ed. 141._____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WISDOM
Only when Man embraces the Power of Love!and NOT the Love of Power!Will he finally see world Peace! j.Hendrix RIP
“Corruptissima re publica plurimae leges.”
“(The more corrupt the state, the more numerous the laws.)”Cornelius Tacitus (55-117 A.D.)
“I claim the law of agent and principal applies and that service upon one is service upon both.”
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Capitaliztion from Blacks law dictionary:
John Doe:Capitis Diminutio Minima
Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968The lowest or least comprehensive degree of loss of status. This occurred where a man’s family relations alone were changed.
It happened upon the arrogation [pride] of a person who had been his own master, (sui juris,) [of his own right, not under any legal disability] or upon the emancipation of one who had been under the patria potestas. [parental authority] It left the rights of liberty and citizenship unaltered. See Inst. 1, 16, pr.; 1, 2, 3; Dig. 4, 5, 11; Mackeld.Rom.Law, 144.

John DOE:Capitis Diminutio Media
Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968A lesser or medium loss of status. This occurred where a man loses his rights of citizenship, but without losing his liberty. It carried away also the family rights.

JOHN DOE:Capitis Diminutio Maxima
Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968The highest or most comprehensive loss of status. This occurred when a man’s condition was changed from one of freedom to one of bondage, when he became a slave. It swept away with it all rights of citizenship and all family rights.
Your name represents your person, your status or title in the society, how the name is presented is an indication of the status of the person, the First Letter Only Capitalized is your person with full rights and liberties… “Capitis Diminutio Minima from Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968. The lowest or least comprehensive degree of loss of status. This occurred where a man’s family relations alone were changed. It happened upon the arrogation [pride] of a person who had been his own master, (sui juris,) [of his own right, not under any legal disability] or upon the emancipation of one who had been under the patria potestas. [parental authority] It left the rights of liberty and citizenship unaltered. See Inst. 1, 16, pr.; 1, 2, 3; Dig. 4, 5, 11; Mackeld.Rom.Law, 144.”
The uppercase name represents Capitis Diminutio Maxima… from “Blacks Law Dictionary Revised 4th Ed.1968 The highest or most comprehensive loss of status. This occurred when a man’s condition was changed from one of freedom to one of bondage, when he became a slave. It swept away with it all rights of citizenship and all family rights…”
So what does it mean that all of the government correspondences show your name in uppercase?
Are we slaves in Canada, has the government removed our lawful rights?
The only way possible for this to happen in Canada is if the government claims in representing the interests of the nation they have removed our lawful rights through due process of law, since the Canadian nation was founded upon the principals of freedom and equality, a nation of free men and free institutions with lawful rights and natural liberties, not a nation of classes and slaves in servitude, nor a nation of corporate/private government, which is no longer a free institution. No free men, no free institutions, no nation of Canada, no lawful claim to govern.
Here we must look to the 2 most important acts regarding the governments jurisdiction and the peoples rights. The Bill of Rights (“The Bill”) and the Charter of Rights and freedoms (“The Charter”).
First came The Bill, where it clearly states that the nation of Canada is formed of free men and free institutions, this is the free individuals who are the aggregate of the nation.A nation where the rights recognized and declared in The Bill had existed before that bill and shall continue to exist with out discrimination thereafter.
So have we the people of this nation retained our lawful rights?
Let’s look at the rights spoken of,
The right of the individual to life, liberty, and security of the person and the right not to be deprived there of except by due process of law.
From my understanding of Capitis Diminutio Minima The Bill protects this status, “It left the rights of liberty and citizenship unaltered”, citizens are both born and naturalized, naturalized you must register, born you do not have to register to be what you are by birth right, you maintain all rights at law to due process, title to property, protection of the law, and equality before the law. These are lawful rights not granted by government.
Now we need to look at The Charter, which stands often in front of The Bill when it comes to the governments claim of jurisdiction. Though it does not operate notwithstanding The Bill.
So both still stand as active legislation and govern the same jurisdictional rights?
Yes, and in very different ways.
When the provinces just wouldn’t accept The Bill and Canada was experiencing a Constitutional identity crisis they made The Charter and Trudeau is touted as the greatest PM for having achieved getting the provinces to agree to it.
So what happened to those inalienable rights recognized and declared in The Bill?
Instead of right up front we see them three parts down under legal rights granted by government even worse some we don’t see at all.
What is left of the right to due process of law, equality under the law and protection of the law?
They no longer exist.
Now we get ” Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice”. No due process, no equality under the law, nor the right to protection of the law, those lawful rights have been suspended and replaced with legal alienable rights. By the definition of Capitis Diminutio Maxima as we saw earlier this indicates the status of slaves, as a slave does not possess the right to title to property, or due process of law and can only have rights granted to him. At birth we are registered and our parents give the province their parental rights and we become children of the provinces.
This is why the provinces didn’t want to sign on to The Bill, they would no longer be able to claim and remove your rights, your legal title and status, fundamentally our nation and all generations of it’s children. In The Bill all individuals statuses were as free men, not so in the Charter.
In The Charter it says “Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law”
In The Bill it says “The Parliament of Canada affirming that the Canadian Nation is founded upon principals that acknowledge the supremacy of God, the dignity and worth of the human person, and the position of the family in a society of free men and free institutions. Affirming also that men and institutions remain free only when freedom is founded upon respect for moral and spiritual value and the rule of law…”It goes on a little more but this still makes the point I want to make, The Bill is the constitution of the nation The Charter is not, it is the charter of Canada, also known as The Government of Canada. That I believe is how both still stand as active legislation.
So we make the distinction,
1. are you a citizen of birth right to the nation of Canada, with all of your natural liberties, are you a free man with the right to due process of law, a real system of law, not an abstract legal concept that changes? Do you have equality under the law? Do you have title to property?If you have the government issued birth certificate the answer is no.
Or 2. are you an naturalized citizen in your own country, removed of your natural rights and liberties, no due process, not protection of the law, no right to de jour governance, no right to property, all privileges and rights granted and removed by government, essentially a slave unknowingly to you? If you have a government issued birth certificate the answer is yes.
or so I believe. What to do about it well I’m gona learn as much as I can, I hope you do too, here’s a start.

http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/charter/http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showdoc/cs/C-12.3///en?page=1

Content from external sources:
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread346428/pg1As Black’s Law Dictionary explains, the full capitalization of the letters of one’s natural name, results in a diminishing or complete loss of legal or citizenship status, wherein one actually becomes a slave or an item of inventory. The method by which the State causes a natural person to “volunteer” himself into slavery, is through forming legal joinder, implied or stated, with the entity or legal fiction (name all CAPS). Of course, most natural persons wouldn’t willingly form such an unlawful but legally reductionist joinder, so trickery and obfuscation are used. The initial joinder is formed when a legal Birth Certificate is issued by the State, name in all CAPS. In fact, both the Certificate of Birth AND Social Security number, are for “inventory” control purposes, similar to the Amistad Schooner’s manifest or those numbers or records used by legal entities or Corporations to track, account for, use and dispose of inventory. It is under the Admiralty jurisdiction
Persons http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09079a.htmMan and person were not equivalent terms. A slave was not a person, but a thing; a person was a human being endowed with civil status. In other than human beings personality might exist by a fiction. Status was natural or civil. Natural status existed by reason of natural incidents, such as posthumous or already born (jam nati), sane and insane, male and female, infancy and majority. Civil status had to do with liberty, citizenship, and family. If one had no civil status whatever, he had no personality and was a mere thing. Men were either free or slaves: if free they were either free born or freedmen. Slaves were born such or became slaves either by the law of nations or by civil law. By the law of nations they became slaves by reason of captivity; by civil law, by the status of their parents or in the occasional case where they permitted themselves to be sold in order to participate in the price…

Many people are involved in diligent research concerning the use of all capital letters for proper  names, e.g., JOHN PAUL JONES as a substitute for  John Paul Jones in all court documents, driver’s  licenses, bank accounts, birth certificates, etc..   Is the use of all capital letters to designate a  name some special English grammar rule or style? Is  it a contemporary American style of English? Is the  use of this form of capitalization recognized by  educational authorities? Is this an official  judicial or U.S. government rule and/or style of  grammar? Why do attorneys, court clerks,  prosecutors judges, insurance companies, banks,  credit card companies, utility companies, etc.  always use all capital letters when writing a proper  name?
1.  What English grammar experts say
One of the foremost authorities on American English grammar, style, composition, and rules is The Chicago Manual of Style. The latest (14th) Edition, published by the University of Chicago Press, is internationally known and respected as a major contribution to maintaining and improving the standards of written or printed text. Since we can find no reference in their manual concerning the use of all capitalized letters with a proper name or any other usage, we wrote to the editors and asked this question:
“Is it acceptable, or is there any rule of English grammar, to allow a proper name to be written in all capital letters? For example, if my name was John Paul Jones, can it be written as JOHN PAUL JONES?  Is there any rule covering this?”
The Editorial Staff of the University of Chicago answered:
“Writing names in all caps is not conventional; it is not Chicago style to put anything in all caps.  For instance, even if ‘GONE WITH THE WIND’ appears on the title page all in caps, we would properly render it ‘Gone with the Wind’ in a bibliography.  The only reason we can think of to do so is if you are quoting some material where it is important to the narrative to preserve the casing of the letters.
“We’re not sure in what context you would like your proper name to appear in all caps, but it is likely to be seen as a bit odd.”
Law is extremely precise. Every letter, capitalization, punctuation mark, etc., in a legal document is utilized for a specific reason and has legal (i.e. deadly force) consequences. If, for instance, one attempts to file articles of incorporation in the office of a Secretary of State of a State, if the exact title of the corporation – down to every jot and tittle – is not exactly the same each and every time the corporation is referenced in the documents to be filed, the Secretary of State will refuse to file the papers. This is because each time the name of the corporation is referenced it must be set forth identically in order to express the same legal entity. The tiniest difference in the name of the corporation identifies an entirely different legal person.
It is therefore an eminently valid, and possibly crucial, question as to why governments, governmental courts, and agencies purporting to exist (in some undefined, unproved manner) within the jurisdiction of “this state” insist on always capitalizing every letter in a proper name.
Mary Newton Bruder, Ph.D., also known as The Grammar Lady, who established the Grammar Hotline in the late 1980’s for the “Coalition of Adult Literacy,” was asked the following question:
“Why do federal and state government agencies and departments, judicial and administrative courts, insurance companies, etc., spell a person’s proper name in all capital letters? For example, if my name is John Paul Jones, is it proper at any time to write my name as JOHN PAUL JONES?”
Dr. Bruder’s reply was short and to the point:
“It must be some kind of internal style. There is no grammar rule about it.”
It seemed that these particular grammatical experts had no idea why proper names were written in all caps, so we began to assemble an extensive collection of reference books authored by various publishers, governments, and legal authorities to find the answer.
2. What English grammar reference books say
2.1 Manual on Usage & Style
One of the reference books obtained was the “Manual on Usage & Style,” Eighth Edition, ISBN I-878674-51-X, published by the Texas Law Review in 1995. Section D, CAPITALIZATION, paragraph D: 1:1 states:
“Always capitalize proper nouns… [Proper nouns], independent of the context in which they are used, refer to specific persons, places, or things (e.g., Dan, Austin, Rolls Royce).”
Paragraph D: 3:2 of Section D states:
“Capitalize People, State, and any other terms used to refer to the government as a litigant (e.g., the People’s case, the State’s argument), but do not capitalize other words used to refer to litigants (e.g., the plaintiff, defendant Manson).”
Either no attorney, judge, or law clerk in Texas has ever read the recognized law style manual that purports to pertain to them, or the act is a deliberate violation of the rules for undisclosed reasons. In either ignorance (“ignorance of the law is no excuse”) or violation (one violating the law he enforces on others is acting under title of nobility and abrogating the principle of equality under the law) of law, they continue to write “Plaintiff,” “Defendant,” “THE STATE OF TEXAS” and proper names of parties in all capital letters on every court document.
2.2  The Elements of Style
Another well-recognized reference book is “The Elements of Style,” Fourth Edition, ISBN 0-205-30902-X, written by William Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White, published by Allyn & Bacon in 1999.  Within this renowned English grammar and style reference book, is found only one reference to capitalization, located within the Glossary at “proper noun,” page 94, where it states:
“The name of a particular person (Frank Sinatra), place (Boston), or thing (Moby Dick). Proper nouns are capitalized.”
There’s an obvious and legally evident difference between capitalizing the first letter of a proper name as compared to capitalizing every letter used to portray the name.
2.3  The American Heritage Book of English Usage
The American Heritage Book of English Usage, A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English, published in 1996, at Chapter 9, E-Mail, Conventions and Quirks, Informality, states:
“To give a message special emphasis, an E-mailer may write entirely in capital letters, a device E-mailers refer to as screaming. Some of these visual conventions have emerged as away of getting around the constraints on data transmission that now limit many networks”.
Here is a reference source, within contemporary – modern – English, that states it is of an informal manner to write every word of – specifically – an electronic message, a.k.a. e-mail, in capital letters. They say it’s “screaming” to do so. By standard definition, we presume that is the same as shouting or yelling. Are all judges, as well as their court clerks and attorneys, shouting at us when they corrupt our proper names in this manner?  (If so, what happened to the decorum of a court if everyone is yelling?) Is the insurance company screaming at us for paying the increased premium on our Policy? This is doubtful as to any standard generalization, even though specific individual instances may indicate this to be true. It is safe to conclude, however, that it would also be informal to write a proper name in the same way.
Does this also imply that those in the legal profession are writing our Christian names informally on court documents? Are not attorneys and the courts supposed to be specific, formally writing all legal documents to the “letter of the law?” If the law is at once both precise and not precise, what is its significance, credibility, and force and effect?
2.4  New Oxford Dictionary of English
“The New Oxford Dictionary of English” is published by the Oxford University Press. Besides being considered the foremost authority on the British English language, this dictionary is also designed to reflect the way language is used today through example sentences and phrases. We submit the following definitions from the 1998 edition:
“Proper noun (also proper name).”
“Noun.”
“A name used for an individual person, place, or organization, spelled with an initial capital letter, e.g. Jane, London, and Oxfam.”
“Name.”
“Noun.”
“1. A word or set of words by which a person, animal, place, or thing is known, addressed, or referred to: my name is Parsons, John Parsons. Kalkwasser is the German name for limewater.”
“Verb.”
“2. Identify by name; give the correct name for: the dead man has been named as John Mackintosh.”
“Phrases.”
“3. In the name of. Bearing or using the name of A specified person or organization: a driving license in the name of William Sanders.”
From the “Newbury House Dictionary of American English,” published by Monroe Allen Publishers, Inc., (1999):
“name”
“n. I [C] a word by which a person, place, or thing is known: Her name is Diane Daniel.”
We can find absolutely no example in any recognized reference book that specifies or allows the use of all capitalized names, proper or common. There is no doubt that a proper name, to be grammatically correct, must be written with only the first letter capitalized, with the remainder of the word in a name spelled with lower case letters.
2.5  US Government Style Manual
Is the spelling and usage of a proper name defined officially by US Government? Yes. The United States Government Printing Office in their “Style Manual,” March 1984 edition (the most recent edition published as of March 2000), provides comprehensive grammar, style and usage for all government publications, including court and legal writing.
Chapter 3, “Capitalization,” at ‘ 3.2, prescribes rules for proper names:
“Proper names are capitalized. [Examples given are] Rome, Brussels, John Macadam, Macadam family, Italy, Anglo-Saxon.”
At Chapter 17, “Courtwork, the rules of capitalization,” as mentioned in Chapter 3, are further reiterated:
“17.1.”
“Courtwork differs in style from other work only as set forth in this section; otherwise the style prescribed in the preceding sections will be followed.”
After reading ’17 in entirety, I found no other references that would change the grammatical rules and styles specified in Chapter 3 pertaining to capitalization.
At ‘ 17.9, this same official US Government manual states:
“In the titles of cases the first letter of all principal words are capitalized, but not such terms as defendant and appellee.”
This wholly agrees with Texas Law Review’s Manual on “Usage & Style” as referenced above.
Examples shown in ‘ 17.12 are also consistent with the aforementioned ‘17.9 specification: that is, all proper names are to be spelled with capital first letters; the balance of each spelled with lower case letters.
2.6  Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization
“The National Aeronautics and Space Administration” (NASA) has published one of the most concise US Government resources on capitalization. NASA publication SP-7084, “Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization. “A Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors” was compiled and written by the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. At Chapter 4, “Capitalization,” they state in 4.1 “Introduction:”
“First we should define terms used when discussing capitalization:
All caps means that every letter in an expression is capital, LIKE THIS.
Caps & 1c means that the principal words of an expression are capitalized, Like This.
Caps and small caps refer to a particular font of type containing small capital letters instead of lowercase letters.
Elements in a document such as headings, titles, and captions may be capitalized in either sentence style or headline style:
* Sentence style calls for capitalization of the first letter, and proper nouns of course.        * Headline style calls for capitalization of all principal words (also called caps & lc).
Modern publishers tend toward a down style of capitalization, that is, toward use of fewer capitals, rather than an up style.”
Here we see that in headlines, titles, captions, and in sentences, there is no authorized usage of all caps. At 4.4.1. “Capitalization With Acronyms,” we find the first authoritative use for all caps:
“Acronyms are always formed with capital letters.’
“Acronyms are often coined for a particular program or study and therefore require definition.’
“The letters of the acronym are not capitalized in the definition unless the acronym stands for a proper name:’
“Wrong – The best electronic publishing systems combine What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) features…’
“Correct – The best electronic publishing systems combine what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) features…’
“But Langley is involved with the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) Program.”
This cites, by example, that using all caps is allowable in an acronym. “Acronyms” are words formed from the initial letters of successive parts of a term. They never contain periods and are often not standard, so that definition is required. Could this apply to lawful proper Christian names? If that were true, then JOHN SMITH would have to follow a definition of some sort, which it does not. For example, only if JOHN SMITH were defined as ‘John Orley Holistic Nutrition of the Smith Medical Institute To Holistics (JOHN SMITH)’ would this apply.
The most significant section appears at 4.5, “Administrative Names”:
“Official designations of political divisions and of other organized bodies are capitalized:
* Names of political divisions;        * Canada, New York State;        * United States Northwest Territories;        * Virgin Islands, Ontario Province;        * Names of governmental units, US Government Executive Department, US Congress, US Army;        * US Navy.”
According to this official US Government publication, the States are never to be spelled in all caps such as “NEW YORK STATE.” The proper English grammar – and legal – style is “New York State.” This agrees, once again, with Texas Law.
2.7  Review’s Manual on Usage & Style.
The Use of a Legal Fiction
The Real Life Dictionary of the Law
The authors of “The Real Life Dictionary of the Law,” Gerald and Kathleen Hill, are accomplished scholars and writers. Gerald Hill is an experienced attorney, judge, and law instructor. Here is how the term legal fiction is described:
“Legal fiction.”
“n. A presumption of fact assumed by a court for convenience, consistency or to achieve justice.’
“There is an old adage: Fictions arise from the law, and not law from fictions.”
2.8  Oran’s Dictionary of the Law
From Oran’s “Dictionary of the Law,” published by the West Group 1999, within the definition of “Fiction” is found:
“A legal fiction is an assumption that something that is (or may be) false or nonexistent is true or real.’
“Legal fictions are assumed or invented to help do justice.’
“For example, bringing a lawsuit to throw a nonexistent ‘John Doe’ off your property used to be the only way to establish a clear right tothe property when legal title was uncertain.”
2.9  Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law
“Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law” 1996 states:
“legal fiction:”
“something assumed in law to be fact irrespective of the truth or accuracy of that assumption.’
“Example:’
“… the legal fiction that a day has no fraction Fields vs. Fairbanks North Star Borough, 818 P.2d658 (1991).”
This is the reason behind the use of all caps when writing a proper name. The US and State Governments are deliberately using a legal fiction to “address” the lawful, real, flesh-and-blood man or woman. We say this is deliberate because their own official publications state that proper names are not to be written in all caps. They are deliberately not following their own recognized authorities.
In the same respect, by identifying their own government entity in all caps, they are legally stating that it is also intended to be a legal fiction. As stated by Dr. Mary Newton Bruder in the beginning of this memorandum, the use of all caps for writing a proper name is an “internal style” for what is apparently a pre-determined usage and, at this point, unknown jurisdiction.
The main key to a legal fiction is assumption as noted in each definition above.
Conclusion: There are no official or unofficial English grammar style manuals or reference publications that recognize the use of all caps when writing a proper name. To do so is by fiat, within and out of an undisclosed jurisdiction by unknown people for unrevealed reasons, by juristic license of arbitrary presumption not based on fact. The authors of the process unilaterally create legal fictions for their own reasons and set about to get us to take the bait, fall for the deceit.
3.  Assumption of a Legal Fiction
An important issue concerning this entire matter is whether or not a proper name, perverted into an all caps assemblage of letters, can be substituted for a lawful Christian name or any proper name, such as the State of Florida. Is the assertion of all-capital-letter names “legal?” If so, from where does this practice originate and what enforces it?
A legal fiction may be employed when the name of a “person” is not known, and therefore using the fictitious name “John Doe” as a tentative, or interim artifice to surmount the absence of true knowledge until the true name is known. Upon discovering the identity of the fictitious name, the true name replaces it.
In all cases, a legal fiction is an assumption of purported fact without having shown the fact to be true or valid. It is an acceptance with no proof.  Simply, to assume is to pretend. Oran’s “Dictionary of the Law” says that the word “assume” means:
1. To take up or take responsibility for; to receive; to undertake. See “assumption.”
2. To pretend.
3. To accept without proof.
These same basic definitions are used by nearly all of the modern law dictionaries. It should be noted that there is a difference between the meanings of the second and third definitions with that of the first. Pretending and accepting without proof are of the same understanding and meaning. However, to take responsibility for and receive, or assumption, does not have the same meaning. Oran’s defines “assumption” as:
“Formally transforming someone else’s debt into your own debt.’
“Compare with guaranty.’
“The assumption of a mortgage usually involves taking over the seller’s ‘mortgage debt’ when buying a property (often a house).”
Now, what happens if all the meanings for the word “assume” are combined? In a literal and definitive sense, the meanings of assume would be: The pretended acceptance, without proof, that someone has taken responsibility for, has guaranteed, or has received a debt.
Therefore, if we apply all this in defining a legal fiction, the use of a legal fiction is an assumption or pretension that the legal fiction named has received and is responsible for a debt of some sort.
Use of the legal fiction “JOHN P JONES” in place of the proper name “John Paul Jones” implies an assumed debt guarantee without any offer of proof. The danger behind this is that if such an unproven assumption is made, unless the assumption is proven wrong it is considered valid.
An assumed debt is valid unless proven otherwise.  (“An unrebutted affidavit, claim, or charge stands as the truth in commerce.”) This is in accord with the Uniform Commercial Code, valid in every State and made a part of the Statutes of each State. A name written in all caps – resembling a proper name but grammatically not a proper name – is being held as a debtor for an assumed debt. Did the parties to the Complaint incur that debt? If so, how and when?
Where is the contract of indebtedness that was signed and the proof of default thereon? What happens if the proper name, i.e. “John Paul Jones,” answers for or assumes the fabricated name, i.e. “JOHN P JONES?” The two become one and the same.  This is the crux for the use of the all caps names by the US Government and the States. It is the way that they can bring someone into the “de facto” venue and jurisdiction that they have created. By implication of definition, this also is for the purpose of some manner of assumed debt.
Why won’t they use “The State of Texas” or “John Doe” in their courts or on Driver’s Licenses? What stops them from doing this? Obviously, there is a reason for using the all-caps names since they are very capable of writing proper names just as their own official style manual states. The reason behind “legal fictions” is found within the definitions as cited above.
4.  The Legalities of All-Capital-Letters Names
We could go on for hundreds of pages citing the legal basis behind the creation and use of all-capital-letters names. In a nutshell, fabricated legal persons such as “STATE OF TEXAS” can be used to fabricate additional legal persons.  “Fictions” arise from the law, not the law from fictions. Bastard legal persons originate from any judicial/governmental actor that whishes to create them, regardless of whether he/she/it is empowered by law to do so. However, a law can never originate from a fictional foundation that doesn’t exist.
The generic and original US Constitution was validated by treaty between individual nation states (all of which are artificial, corporate entities since they exist in abstract idea and construct).  Contained within it is the required due process of law for all the participating nation states of that treaty. Representatives of the people in each nation state agreed upon and signed it. The federal government is not only created by it, but is also bound to operate within the guidelines of Constitutional due process. Any purported law that does not originate from Constitutional due process is a fictional law without validity. Thus, the true test of any American law is its basis of due process according to the organic US Constitution. Was it created according to the lawful process or created outside of lawful process?
5.  Executive Orders and Directives
For years many have researched the lawful basis for creating all-caps juristic persons and have concluded that there is no such foundation according to valid laws and due process. But what about those purported “laws” that are not valid and have not originated from constitutional due process? There’s a very simple answer to the creation of such purported laws that are really not laws at all: “Executive Orders” and “Directives.” They are “color of law” without being valid laws of due process. These “Executive Orders” and “Directives” have the appearance of law and look as if they are laws, but according to due process, they are not laws. Rather, they are “laws” based on fictional beginnings and are the inherently defective basis for additional fictional “laws” and other legal fictions. They are “regulated” and “promulgated” by Administrative Code, rules and procedures, not due process. Currently, Executive Orders are enforced through the charade known as the Federal Administrative Procedures Act. Each State has also adopted the same fatally flawed administrative “laws.”
6.  Lincoln Establishes Executive Orders
Eighty-five years after the Independence of the United States, seven southern nation States of America walked out of the Second Session of the thirty-sixth Congress on March 27, 1861. In so doing, the Constitutional due process quorum necessary for Congress to vote was lost and Congress was adjourned sine die, or “without day.” This meant that there was no lawful quorum to set a specific day and time to reconvene which, according to Robert’s Rules of Order, dissolved Congress. This dissolution automatically took place because there are no provisions within the Constitution allowing the passage of any Congressional vote without a quorum of the States.
Lincoln’s second Executive Order of April 1861 called Congress back into session days later, but not under the lawful authority, or lawful due process, of the Constitution. Solely in his capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the US Military, Lincoln called Congress into session under authority of Martial Law. Since April of 1861, “Congress” has not met based on lawful due process. The current “Congress” is a legal fiction based on nothing more meritorious than “Yeah, so what are you going to do about it?” Having a monopoly on the currency, “law,” and what passes for “government,” and most of the world’s firepower, the motto of the Powers That Be is: “We’ve got what it takes to take what you’ve got.”
Legal-fiction “laws,” such as the Reconstruction Acts and the implementation of the Lieber Code, were instituted by Lincoln soon thereafter and became the basis for the current “laws” in the US. Every purported “Act” in effect today is “de facto,” based on colorable fictitious entities created arbitrarily, out of nothing, without verification, lawful foundation, or lawful due process. All of such “laws” are not law, but rules of ruler ship by force/conquest, originating from and existing in military, martial law jurisdiction. Military, martial law jurisdiction:
= jurisdiction of war
= win/lose interactions consisting of eating or being eaten, living or dying
= food chain
= law of necessity
= suspension of all law other than complete freedom to act in any manner to eat, kill, or destroy or avoid being eaten, killed, or destroyed
= no law
= lawlessness
= complete absence of all lawful basis to create any valid law.
Contractually, being a victim of those acting on the alleged authority granted by the law of necessity,
= no lawful object, valuable consideration, free consent of all involved parties, absence of fraud, duress, malice, and undue influence
= no bona fide, enforceable contract
= no valid, enforceable nexus
= absolute right to engage in any action of any kind in self-defense
= complete and total right to disregard any alleged jurisdiction and demands from self-admitted  outlaws committing naked criminal aggression without any credibility and right to demand allegiance and compliance from anyone.
Every President of the United States since Lincoln has functioned by Executive Orders issued from a military, martial law jurisdiction with the only “law” being the “law of necessity,” i.e. the War Powers. The War Powers are nothing new. Indeed, they have been operational from the instant the first man thought he would “hide from God,” try to cheat ethical and natural law by over reaching, invade the space and territory of others, covet other people’s land or property, steal the fruits of their labors, and attempt to succeed in life by win/lose games. All existing “authority” in the United States today derives exclusively from the War Powers. Truman’s reaffirmation of operational authority under the War Powers begins: “NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917, 40 Stat. 415, as amended (section 5(b) of Appendix to Title 50), and section 4 of the act of March 9, 1933, 48 Stat. 2. …” Sic transit rights, substance, truth, justice, peace, and freedom in America, “the land of the free and the home of the brave.”
7.  The Abolition of the English & American Common Law
Here’s an interesting quote from the 1973 session of the US Supreme Court:
“The American law.’
“In this country, the law in effect in all but a few States until mid-l9th century was the pre-existing English common law…’
“It was not until after the War Between the States that legislation began generally to replace the common law.”
Roe vs. Wade, 410 US 113.
In effect, Lincoln’s second Executive Order abolished the recognized English common law in America and replaced it with “laws” based on a fictional legal foundation, i.e., Executive Orders and Directives executed under “authority” of the War Powers. Most States still have a reference to the common laws within their present day statutes. For example, in the Florida Statutes (1999), Title I. Chapter 2, at ‘ 2.01 “Common law and certain statutes declared in force,” it states:
“The common and statute laws of England which are of a general and not a local nature, with the exception hereinafter mentioned, down to the 4th day of July, 1776, are declared to be of force in this state; provided, the said statutes and common law be not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States and the acts of the Legislature of this state. History. — s. l, Nov.  6, 1829; RS 59; GS 59; RGS 71; CGL 87.”
Note that the basis of the common law is an approved Act of the people of Florida by Resolution on November 6, 1829, prior to Lincoln’s Civil War.  Also note that the subsequent “laws,” as a result of Acts of the Florida Legislature and the United States, now take priority over the common law in Florida. In April 1861, the American and English common law was abolished and replaced with legal fiction “laws,” a.k.a. Statutes, Rules, and Codes based on Executive Order and not the due process specified within the organic Constitution. Existing and functioning under the law of necessity ab initio, they are all non-law and cannot validly assert jurisdiction, authority, or demand for compliance from anyone. They are entirely “rules of ruler ship,” i.e. organized piracy, privilege, plunder, and enslavement, invented and enforced by those who would rule over others by legalized violence in the complete absence of moral authority, adequate knowledge, and natural-law mechanics to accomplish any results other than disruption, conflict, damage, and devastation. The established maxim of law applies:
“Extra territorium just dicenti non paretur impune.’
“One who exercises jurisdiction out of his territory cannot be obeyed with impunity.”
[10 Co. 77; Dig. 2. 1. 20; Story, Confl. Laws ' 539; Broom, Max. 100, 101]
8.  Applying it all to Current “laws”
An established maxim of law states the importance of the name:
“Ad recte docendum oportet, primum inquirere nomina, quia rerum cognitio a nominibusrerum dependet.’
“In order rightly to comprehend a thing, inquire first into the names, for a right knowledge of things depends upon their names.”
[Co. Litt. 68]
Title III, “Pleadings and Motions,” Rule 9(a) “Capacity,” Federal/STATE Rules of Civil Procedure, states, in pertinent part:
“When an issue is raised as to the legal existence of a named party, or the party’s capacity to be sued, or the authority of a party to be sued, the party desiring to raise the issue shall do so by specific negative averment, which shall include supporting particulars.”
[Rule 9(a), Federal/STATE Rules of Civil Procedure; Title 28 U.S.C. Appendix (unstatutory; See statutory Title 1 U.S.C. ' 204 (Notes) )]
At this juncture, it is clear that the existence of a name written with all caps is a necessity-created legal fiction. This is surely an issue to be raised and the supporting particulars are outlined within this memorandum. Use of the proper name must be insisted upon as a matter of abatement – correction – for all parties of an action of purported “law.” However, the current “courts” cannot correct this since they are all based on presumed/assumed fictional law and must use artificial, juristic names. Instead, they expect the lawful Christian man or woman to accept the all-caps name and agree by silence to be treated as if he or she were a fictional entity invented and governed by mortal enemies. They must go to unlimited lengths to deceive and coerce this compliance or the underlying criminal farce would be exposed and a world-wide plunder/enslavement racket that has held all of life on this planet in a vice grip for millennia would crumble and liberate every living thing. At this point the would-be rulers of the world would be required to succeed in life by honest, productive labors the way those upon whom they parasitically feed are forced to conduct their lives.
9.  Oklahoma Statutes
Since the entire game functions on the basis of people’s failure to properly rebut a rebuttable presumption, the issue then becomes how to properly rebut their presumption that you are knowingly, intentionally, and voluntarily agreeing to be treated as if you were the all-caps name. One angle of approach is found in the requirement for proper names to be identified in any legal dispute. This includes a mandate to correct the legal paperwork involved when proper names are provided. In regard to criminal prosecution this is clearly set forth in the Oklahoma Statutes, Section 2885, O. S. 1931, 22 Okla. St. Ann. § 403:
“When a defendant is indicted or prosecuted by a fictitious or erroneous name, and in any stage of the proceedings his true name is discovered, it must be inserted in the subsequent proceedings, referring to the fact of his being charged by the name mentioned in the indictment or information.”
10.  “Legal” Definition
In fact, it would appear that the Oklahoma Statutes are saying that the use of a “fictitious name” in either an indictment or information (prosecutorial) that such use is forgivable upon after the fact correction. Unfortunately, that is not the case when held to “legal” definition.
“Fictitious name.”
“A counterfeit, alias, feigned, or pretended name taken by a person, differing in some essential particular from his true name (consisting of Christian name and patronymic [surname]), with the implication that it is meant to deceive or mislead.”
[Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed. Pg. 624]
The use of, by implication, mistake, or otherwise, of fictitious names within any lawful and even “legal” document renders said document/instrument fatally flawed for simple fraud. And, since no Private Citizen can be held accountable for the same crime twice, by guarantee, then if initially one is charged in the wrong name, and that mistaken identity at any stage of the proceeding renders the present proceeding null, void, and dismissed. This renders the above “statute” also null, void, and never written, for this fatal error cannot be corrected and one must, secondly, face the same charges. Mistaken Identity cannot be used as a correctable error merely because one cannot be charged twice for the same cause, even if the first charged was mistaken.
But that is not the limit of “legal” definition of “fictitious” use of names. It is much more serious to use a fictitious name as a “plaintiff”:
“Fictitious plaintiff.”
“A person appearing in the writ, complaint, or record as the plaintiff in a suit, but who in reality does not exist, or who is ignorant of the suit and of the use of his name in it.’
“It is a contempt of court to sue in the name of a fictitious party.”
[Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed. Pg. 624.]
Obviously, any action in which both and/or all parties are fictitious is a “fictitious action” and it is “legally” defined as such:
“Fictitious action.”
“An action brought for the sole purpose of obtaining the opinion of the court on a point of law, not for the settlement of any actual controversy between the parties.”
[Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed. Pg. 624]
These three “legal” definitions have now led us to one final definition that defines any and all such “fictitious actions”:
“Fictitious.”
“Founded on a fiction; having the character of a fiction; pretended; counterfeit.’
“Feigned, imaginary, not real, false, not genuine, nonexistent.’
“Arbitrarily invented and set up, to accomplish an ulterior object.”
[Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed. Pg. 624]
It does not take a Rocket Scientist to figure out many of these “ulterior objects”; constitutional abrogation, tyranny, despotism, false personation, embezzlement of the Public Money, banking fraud, commercial fraud, identity theft, neglect of office, malfeasance, misfeasance, and nonfeasance of office, piracy, privateering, kidnapping, false imprisonment, ransoming, constitutional malpractice, maritime fraud, military fraud, trademark infringement/counterfeiting, anti-Christian acts, securities fraud, communism, fascism, Alien Enemy Program, etc. The list is almost endless.
It appears, thus far, that “legal” definition of these fictitious/legal fiction/imaginary/etc. assumptive/presumptive has far and away been the most damaging references used to the cause and case of the tyrants and despots that are so prevalent.
11.  American Jurisprudence
In general, it is essential to identify parties to court actions properly. If the alleged parties to an action are not precisely identified, then who is involved with whom or what, and how? If not properly identified, all corresponding judgments are void, as outlined in Volume 46, American Jurisprudence 2d, at “Judgments:”
“‘ 100 Parties – A judgment should identify the parties for and against whom it is rendered, with such certainty that it may be readily enforced, and a judgment which does not do so may be regarded as void for uncertainty. Such identification may be achieved by naming the persons for and against whom the judgment is rendered. Technical deficiencies in the naming of the persons for and against whom judgment is rendered can be corrected if the parties are not prejudiced. A reference in a judgment to a party plainly liable, followed by an omission of that party’s name from the language of the decree, at least gives rise to an ambiguity and calling for an inquiry into the court’s real intention as reflected in the entire record and surrounding circumstances.” [Footnote numbers and cites are omitted.]
12.  The present situation in America
A legal person = a legal fiction
One of the terms used predominantly by the present civil governments and courts in America is “legal person.” Just what is a legal person? Some definitions are:
[A] legal person: a body of persons or an entity (as a corporation) considered as having many of the rights and responsibilities of a natural person and especially the capacity to sue and be sued.  [Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law (1996)]
Person. I. A human being (a “natural” person). 2. A corporation (an “artificial” person).  Corporations are treated as persons in many legal situations. Also, the word “person” includes corporations in most definitions in this dictionary. 3. Any other “being” entitled to sue as a legal entity (a government, an association, a group of Trustees, etc.). 4. The plural of person is persons, not people (see that word).  [Oran's "Dictionary of the Law," West Group (1999)]
Person. An entity with legal rights and existence including the ability to sue and be sued, to sign contracts, to receive gifts, to appear in court either by themselves or by lawyer and, generally, other powers incidental to the full expression of the entity in law. Individuals are “persons” in law unless they are minors or under some kind of other incapacity such as a court finding of mental incapacity. Many laws give certain powers to “persons” which, in almost all instances, includes business organizations that have been formally registered such as partnerships, corporations or associations.  [Duhaime's Law Dictionary.]
PERSON, noun. per’sn. [Latin persona; said to be compounded of per, through or by, and sonus, sound; a Latin word signifying primarily a mask used by actors on the stage.] 8. In law, an artificial person, is a corporation or body politic. -Blackstone.  [Webster's 1828 Dictionary]
“…a Sovereign is not a “person”  [United Mine Workers vs. United States, 330 U.S. 258 (1947)]
“A name is word or words used to distinguish and identify a person.”  [Name, 65 C.J.S. ' 1, pg. 1]
“Person. It may include [limited to] artificial beings, as corporations …territorial corporations … foreign corporations … relating to taxation and revenue laws … XIV Amendment “persons” … A county … a slave … estate of a decedent … a judge holding court … an infant [Ward of the Court] … officers, partnerships, and women …participants in the forbidden acts ["defendants" & "plaintiffs"] … agents, officers, and members of the board of directors or trustees, or their controlling bodies, of corporations … the legal subject [subject-matter] or substance [rem; res] …”  [Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 8th ed., pg. 2574]
A corporation incorporated under de jure law, i.e. by bona fide express contract between real beings capable of contracting, is a legal fact. Using the juristic artifice of “presumption,” or “assumption” (a device known as a “legal fiction”), implied contract, constructive trusts, another entirely separate entity can be created using the name of the bona fide corporate legal fact (the name of the corporation) by altering the name of the corporation into some other corrupted format, such as ALL-CAPITAL LETTERS or abbreviated words in the name. The corporation exists in law, but has arbitrarily been assigned another NAME. No such corporation (legal fact), nor any valid law, nor even a valid legal fiction, can be created under the “law of necessity,” i.e. under “no law.” Likewise, the arbitrary use of the legal-fiction artifice of “right of presumption” (over unwary, uninformed, and usually blindly trusting people) can be legitimately exercised under “no law.” Anything whatsoever done under alleged authority of naked criminal aggression, i.e. law of necessity, can be rendered legitimate. Maxims of law describing “necessity” include:
* “Necessity has no law.” [Plowd. 18, and 15 Vin. Abr. 534; 22 id. 540]    * “In time of war, laws are silent.” [Cicero]
Non-existent law, the legal condition that universally prevails in the official systems of the world today, means that no lawful basis exists upon which anything can be created, or be made to transpire, upon which basis allegiance and obedience can be legitimately demanded. Acting under the law of necessity, i.e. lawlessness, allows complete and total right of everyone to disregard any and all alleged assertions of any lawful, verifiable, and legitimate jurisdiction over anything or anyone. Anyone acting against anyone under such non-law is self-confessing to be a naked criminal aggressor, and con man who has forfeited all credibility and right to demand allegiance, obedience, or compliance with any jurisdiction he might assert. If you, as a real being, are in real law and it is impossible for an attorney or judge to recognize or access it, you are not (and cannot be made subject to by them) in their jurisdiction. The crucial issue is then how to notice them of your position and standing.
A person created under de jure law, with the person’s identifying name appearing as prescribed by law and according to the rules of English grammar, is a legal fact. A corrupted “alter ego” version of that name, manufactured under the legal fiction of “right of presumption” will have “credibility” only so long as the presumption remains unchallenged. The rule of the world is that anything and everything skates unless you bust it.
13.  Legal or Lawful?
It is crucial to define the difference between “legal” and “lawful.” The generic Constitution references genuine law. The present civil authorities and their courts use the word “legal.”  Is there a difference in the meanings? The following is quoted from A Dictionary of Law (1893):
Lawful. In accordance with the law of the land; according to the law; permitted, sanctioned, or justified by law. “Lawful” properly implies a thing conformable to or enjoined by law; “Legal,” a thing in the form or after the manner of law or binding by law. A writ or warrant issuing from any court, under color of law, is a “legal” process however defective. See “legal.”
Legal. Latin legalis. Pertaining to the understanding, the exposition, the administration, the science and the practice of law: as, the legal profession, legal advice; legal blanks, newspaper.  Implied or imputed in law. Opposed to actual “Legal” looks more to the letter [form/appearance], and “Lawful” to the spirit [substance/content], of the law. “Legal” is more appropriate for conformity to positive rules of law; “Lawful” for accord with ethical principle. “Legal” imports rather that the forms [appearances] of law are observed, that the proceeding is correct in method, that rules prescribed have been obeyed; “Lawful” that the right is act full in substance, that moral quality is secured. “Legal” is the antithesis of equitable, and the equivalent of constructive. [2 Abbott's Law Dictionary 24]
Legal matters administrate, conform to, and follow rules. They are equitable in nature and are implied (presumed) rather than actual (express). A legal process can be defective in law. This accords with the previous discussions of legal fictions and color of law. To be legal, a matter does not have to follow the law. Instead, it conforms to and follows the rules or form of law. This is why the Federal and State Rules of Civil and Criminal Procedure are cited in every court Petition so as to conform to legal requirements of the specific juristic persons named, e.g., “STATE OF GEORGIA” or the “U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT” that rule the courts.
Lawful matters are ethically enjoined in the law of the land – the law of the people – and are actual in nature, not implied. This is why whatever true law was upheld by the organic Constitution has no bearing or authority in the present day legal courts. It is impossible for anyone in “authority” today to access, or even take cognizance of, true law since “authority” is the “law of necessity,” 12 U.S.C. 95.
Therefore, it would appear that the meaning of the word “legal” is “color of law,” a term which Black’s Law Dictionary, Fifth Edition, defines as:
Color of law.
“The appearance or semblance, without the substance, of legal right.’
“Misuse of power, possessed by virtue of state law and made possible only because wrongdoer is clothed with authority of state,is action taken under “color of law.”
[Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed., Pg. 241]
14.  Executive Orders rule the land
The current situation is that legalism has usurped and engulfed the law. The administration of legal rules, codes, and statutes now prevail instead of actual law. This takes place on a Federal as well as State level. Government administrates what it has created through its own purported “laws,” which are not lawful, but merely “legal.” They are arbitrary constructs existing only because of the actions of people acting on fictitious (self-created) authority, i.e. no authority; they are authorized and enforced by legal Executive Orders. Executive Orders are not lawful and never have been. As you read the following, be aware of the words “code” and “administration.”
Looking at the United States Census 2000 reveals that the legal authority for this census comes from “Office of Management and Budget” (0MB) Approval No. 0607-0856. The 0MB is a part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau is responsible for implementing the national census, which is a division of the “Economics and Statistics Administration” of the U.S. Department of Commerce (USDOC). The USDOC is a department of the Executive Branch. Obviously, Census 2000 is authorized, carried out, controlled, enforced and implemented by the President – the Executive Branch of the Federal Government – functioning as it has been since 1861, in the lawless realm of necessity (which is now even more degenerate than when it commenced under Lincoln).
In fact, the Executive Office of the President controls the entire nation through various departments and agencies effecting justice, communications, health, energy, transportation, education, defense, treasury, labor, agriculture, mails, and much more, through a myriad of Executive Orders, Proclamations, Policies, and Decisions.
Every US President since Lincoln has claimed his ‘authority’ for these Executive Orders on Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution for the United States of America (1764 to Date):
“The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; … He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.”
In reality, the Congress is completely by-passed.  Since the Senate was convened in April, 1861 by Presidential Executive Order No. 2, (not by lawful constitutional due process), there is no United States Congress. The current “Senate” and “House” are, like everything, “colorable” (“color of Senate”) under the direct authority of the Executive Office of the President. The President legally needs neither the consent nor a vote from the Senate simply because the Senate’s legal authority to meet exists only by Executive Order.  Ambassadors, public ministers, consuls, Federal judges, and all officers of the UNITED STATES are appointed by, and under authority of, the Executive Office of the President.
15.  The Federal Registry is an Executive function
The first official act of every incoming President is to re-affirm the War Powers. He must do so, or he is devoid of power to function in office. The War Powers are set forth in the Trading With The Enemy Act of October 6, 1917, and the Amendatory Act of March 9, 1933 (The Banking Relief Act). In the Amendatory Act, every citizen of the United States was made an enemy of the Government, i.e. the Federal Reserve/IMF, et al, Creditors in bankruptcy who have conquered the country by their great paper-money banking swindle.
For the past 65 years, every Presidential Executive Order has become purported “law” simply by its publication in the Federal Register, which is operated by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR). In 1935, the OFR was established by the Federal Register Act. The purported authority for the OFR is found within the United States Code, Title 44, at Chapter 15:
“‘ 1506. Administrative Committee of the Federal Register; establishment and composition; powers and duties
The Administrative Committee of the Federal Register shall consist of the Archivist of the United States or Acting Archivist, who shall be chairman, an officer of the Department of Justice designated by the Attorney General, and the Public Printer or Acting Public Printer. The Director of the Federal Register shall act as secretary of the committee. The committee shall prescribe, with the approval of the President, regulations for carrying out this chapter.”
Notice that the entire Administrative Committee of the Federal Register is comprised of officers of the Federal Government. Who appoints all Federal officers? The President does. This “act” also gives the President the authority to decree all the regulations to carry out the act. By this monopoly the Executive establishes, controls, regulates, and enforces the Federal Government without need for any approval from the Senate or anyone else (other than his undisclosed superiors). He operates without any accountability to the people at all. How can this be considered lawful?
In 1917, President Woodrow Wilson couldn’t persuade Congress to agree with his desire to arm United States vessels traversing hostile German waters before the United States entered World War I, so Wilson simply invoked the “policy” through a Presidential Executive Order. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order No. 9066 in December 1941 forcing 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent to be rounded up and placed in concentration camps while all their property was confiscated. Is it any wonder that the Congress, which the President “legally” controls, did not impeach President William Jefferson Clinton when the evidence for impeachment was overwhelming? On that note, why is it that Attorney-Presidents have used Executive Orders the most? Who, but an attorney, would know and understand legal rules the best. Sadly, they enforce what’s “legal” and ignore what’s lawful. In fact, they have no access to what is lawful since the entirety of their “authority,” which is ethically and existentially specious, derives from the War Powers.
16.  How debt is assumed by legal fictions
We now refer back to the matter of assumption, as already discussed, with its relationship to arbitrarily created juristic persons, e.g. “STATE OF CALIFORNIA” or “JOHN P JONES.” Since an assumption, by definition, implies debt, what debt does a legal fiction assume? Now that we have explored the legal – executive – basis of the current Federal and State governments, it’s time to put all this together.
The government use of all caps in place of proper names is absolutely no mistake. It signifies an internal (“legal”) rule and authority. Its foundation is pure artifice and the results have compounded into more deceit in the form of created,  promulgated, instituted, administered, and enforced rules, codes, statutes, and policy – i.e. “the laws that appear to be but are not, never were, and never can be.”
“Qui sentit commodum, sentire debet et onus. He who enjoys the benefit, ought also to bear the burden.  He who enjoys the advantage of a right takes the accompanying disadvantage – a privilege is subject to its condition or conditions.” [Bouvier's Maxims of Law (1856)]
17.  The Birth Certificate
Since the early 1960’s, State governments – themselves specially created, juristic, corporate persons signified by all caps – have issued Birth Certificates to “persons” with legal fiction all-caps names. This is not a lawful record of your physical birth, but rather the birth of the juristic, all-caps name. It may appear to be your true name, but since no proper name is ever written in all caps (either lawfully or grammatically) it does not identify who you are. The Birth Certificate is the government’s self-created document of title for its new “property,” i.e. the deed to the juristic-name artificial person whose all-caps name “mirrors” your true name. The Birth Certificate brings the new all-caps name into colorable admiralty/maritime law, the same way a ship (and ship of state) is berthed.
One important area to address, before going any further, is the governmental use of older data storage from the late 1950’s until the early 1980’s. As a “left over” from various teletype-oriented systems, many government data storage methods used all caps for proper names. The IRS was supposedly still complaining about some of their antiquated storage systems as recent as the early 1980’s. At first, this may have been a necessity of the technology at the time, not a deliberate act.  Perhaps, when this technology was first being used and implemented into the mainstream of communications, some legal experts saw it as a perfect tool for their perfidious intentions. What better excuse could there be?
However, since local, State, and Federal offices primarily used typewriters during that same time period, and Birth Certificates and other important documents, such as driver’s licenses, were produced with typewriters, it’s very doubtful that this poses much of an excuse to explain all-caps usage for proper names. The only reasonable usage of the older databank all-caps storage systems would have been for addressing envelopes or certain forms in bulk, including payment checks, which the governments did frequently.
Automated computer systems, with daisy-wheel and pin printers used prevalently in the early 1980’s, emulated the IBM electric typewriter Courier or Helvetica fonts in both upper and lower case letters. Shortly thereafter, the introduction of laser and ink-jet printers with multiple fonts became the standard. For the past fifteen years, there is no excuse that the government computers will not accommodate the use of lower case letters unless the older data is still stored in its original form, i.e. all caps, and has not been translated due to the costs of re-entry. But this does not excuse the entry of new data, only “legacy” data. In fact, on many government forms today, proper names are in all caps while other areas of the same computer produced document are in both upper and lower case. One can only conclude that now, more than ever, the use of all caps in substitution the writing a proper name is no mistake.
When a child is born, the hospital sends the original, not a copy, of the record of live birth to the “State Bureau of Vital Statistics,” sometimes called the “Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services” (HRS). Each STATE is required to supply the UNITED STATES with birth, death, and health statistics. The STATE agency that receives the original record of live birth keeps it and then issues a Birth Certificate in the corrupted, all-caps version of the baby’s true name, i.e. JAMES WILBER SMITH.
cer-tif-i-cate, noun. Middle English certificate, from Middle French, from Medieval Latin ceruficatum. from Late Latin, neuter of certificatus, past participle of certificare, to certify, 15th century. 3: a document evidencing ownership or debt. [Merriam Webster Dictionary (1998)]
The Birth Certificate issued by the State is then registered with the U.S. Department of Commerce — the Executive Office — specifically through their own sub-agency, the U.S. Census Bureau, which is responsible to register vital statistics from all the States. The word “registered,” as it is used within commercial or legal based equity law, does not mean that the all-caps name was merely noted in a book for reference purposes. When a Birth Certificate is registered with the U.S. Department of Commerce, it means that the all-caps legal person named thereon has become a surety or guarantor, a condition and obligation that is automatically and unwittingly assumed unless you rebut the presumption by effectively noticing them: “It ain’t me.”
registered. Security, bond. — [Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Law (1996)]
Security. I a: Something (as a mortgage or collateral) that is provided to make certain the fulfillment of an obligation. Example: used his property as security for a loan. lb: “surety.” 2: Evidence of indebtedness, ownership, or the right to ownership. — Ibid.
Bond. I a: A usually formal written agreement by which a person undertakes to perform a certain act (as fulfill the obligations of a contract). … with the condition that failure to perform or abstain will obligate the person … to pay a sum of money or will result in the forfeiture of money put up by the person or surety. 1b: One who acts as a surety. 2: An interest-bearing document giving evidence of a debt issued by a government body or corporation that is sometimes secured by a lien on property and is often designed to take care of a particular financial need. — Ibid.
Surety. The person who has pledged him or herself to pay back money or perform a certain action if the principal to a contract fails, as collateral, and as part of the original contract. [Duhaime's Law Dictionary]
1: a formal engagement (as a pledge) given for the fulfillment of an undertaking.
2: one who promises to answer for the debt or default of another.
Under the Uniform Commercial Code, however, a surety includes a guarantor, and the two terms are generally interchangeable.
[Merriam Webster's "Dictionary of Law" (1996)]
Guarantor. A person who pledges collateral for the contract of another, but separately, as part of an independently contract with the obligee of the original contract. [Duhaime's Law Dictionary]
18.  Duhaime’s Law Dictionary.
It is not difficult to see that a state-created Birth Certificate, with an all-caps, name is a document evidencing debt the moment it is issued.  Once a state has registered a birth document with the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Department notifies the Treasury Department, which takes out a loan from the Federal Reserve. The Treasury uses the loan to purchase a bond (the Fed holds a “purchase money security interest” in the bond) from the Department of Commerce, which invests the saleproceeds in the stock or bond market. The Treasury Department then issues Treasury securities in the form of Treasury Bonds, Notes, and Bills using the bonds as surety for the new “securities.” This cycle is based on the future tax revenues of the legal person whose name appears on the Birth Certificate. This also means that the bankrupt, corporate U.S. can guarantee to the purchasers of their securities the lifetime labor and tax revenues of every “citizen of the United States”/American with a Birth Certificate as collateral for payment.  This device is initiated simply by converting the lawful, true name of the child into a legal, juristic name of a person.
Dubuque rei potissinia pars prineipium est
The principal part of everything is in the beginning. (“Well begun is half done.”)
Legally, you are considered to be a slave or indentured servant to the various Federal, State and local governments via your STATE-issued and STATE-created Birth Certificate in the name of your all-caps person.
Birth Certificates are issued so that the issuer can claim “exclusive” title to the legal person created thereby. This is further compounded when one voluntarily obtains a Driver’s License or a Social Security Account Number. The state even owns your personal and private life through your STATE-issued marriage license/certificate issued in the all-caps names. You have no rights in birth, marriage, or even death. The state holds title to all legal persons the state creates via Birth Certificates until the rightful owner, i.e. you, reclaims/redeems it by becoming the holder in due course of the instrument.
The main problem is that the mother and father, and then the eighteen-year-old man or woman, voluntarily agreed to this contrived system of plunder and slavery by remaining silent – a legal default, latches, and failing to claim one’s own Rights. The maxim of law becomes crucially operative: “He who fails to assert his rights has none.”
The legal rules and codes enforce themselves. There is no court hearing to determine if those rules are correct. Government rules are self-regulating and self-supporting. Once set into motion, such “laws” automatically come into effect provided the legal process has been followed.
19.  The various bankruptcies
The legal person known as the UNITED STATES is bankrupt and holds no lawful Constitutionally mandated silver or gold – gold coin or bullion – with which to back any currency. All private held and federally held gold coins and bullion in America was seized via Executive Order of April 5, 1933 and paid to the creditor, the private Federal Reserve Corporation under the terms of the bankruptcy.
Congress – still convening strictly under Executive Order authority – confirmed the bankruptcy through the Joint Resolution to Suspend the Gold Standard and Abrogate the Gold Clause, June 5, 1933, House Joint Resolution (HJR) 192, June 5, 1933, 73rd Congress, 1st Session, Public Law 73-10. This 1933 public law states, in part:
“… every provision contained in or made with respect to any obligation which purports to give the oblige a right to require payment in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency, or in an amount in money of the United States measured thereby, is declared to be against public policy.”
The corporate U.S. declared bankruptcy a second time, whereby the Secretary of Treasury was appointed “Receiver” for the bankrupt U.S. in Reorganization Plan No. 26, Title 5 USC 903, Public Law 94-564, “Legislative History,” page 5967.
Since 1933, the only “assets” used by the UNITED STATES to “pay its debt” to the Fed have been the blood, sweat, and tears of every American unfortunate to be saddled with a Birth Certificate and a Social Security Account Number (the U.S. Government must conceal this fact from the American people at all cost). Their future labor and tax revenues have been “legally” pledged via the new all-caps, juristic-person names appearing on the Birth Certificates, i.e. the securities used as collateral for loans of credit (thin-air belief) to pay daily operational costs, re-organization expenses in bankruptcy, insurance policy premiums required to float the bankrupt government, and interest on the ever-increasing, wholly fraudulent, debt.
20.  All Caps Legal Person vs. The Lawful Being
Just who or what is the all-caps person, i.e. “JOHN PAUL JONES,” “JOHN P JONES,” or some other all capital letter corruption thereof? It is the entity the government created to take the place of the real being, i.e.  John Paul Jones. The lawful Christian name of birthright has been replaced with a legal corporate name of deceit and fraud. If the lawful Christian name answers as the legal person, the two are recognized as being one and the same. However, if the lawful being distinguishes himself/herself as a party other than the legal fiction, the two are separated.
A result of the federal bankruptcy was the creation of the “UNITED STATES,” which was made a part of the legal reorganization. The name of each STATE was also converted to its respective, all-caps legal person, e.g. STATE OF DELAWARE. These new legal persons were then used to create more legal persons, such as corporations, with all-capital letters names, as well. Once this was accomplished, the con began to pick up speed. All areas of government and all alleged “courts of law,” are de facto, “color of law and right” institutions. The “CIRCUIT COURT OF WAYNE COUNTY” and the “U.S. DISTRICT COURT” can recognize and deal only with other legal persons.  This is why a lawful name is never entered in their records. The all-caps legal person is used instead. Jurisdiction in such sham courts covers only other artificial persons.
The proper jurisdiction for a lawful being is a Constitutionally sanctioned, common-law-venue court. Unfortunately, such jurisdiction was “shelved” in 1938 and is no longer available. The only courts today are statutory commercial tribunals collecting tribute (plunder) from the alleged Creditors who think they have conquered the country on their way to ruling the world.
21.  Your Strawman is a “GOVERNMENT AGENCY”: See the Evidence From the Government’s Own manual!!
See the “U.S. Government Styles Manual” for the evidence in section on “ABBREVIATIONS AND LETTER SYMBOLS” at:

http://www.access.gpo.gov/styleman/2000/pdf/chap09.pdf

This section states (emphasis added):
9.8. Except as otherwise designated, points and spaces are omitted after initials used as shortened names of governmental agencies and of other organized bodies. “Other organized bodies” shall be interpreted to mean organized bodies that have become popularly identified with a symbol, such as MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), GM (General Motors), GMAC (General Motors Acceptance Corp.), etc. (See “List of Abbreviations.”) Symbols, when they appear in copy, may be used for acts of Congress. Example: ARA (Area Redevelopment Act).
VFW
NLRB
TVA
AFL-CIO
ARC
ASTM
Now do you see the trick?
The “governmental agency” for “John-Jay:Jones” is:  “JOHN JAY JONES”.
There is no conspiracy about this —  it is just “hidden” in plain sight!!!
Chapter 11 deals with “Italics” and in 11.7 mentions that “Vessels” are in “other than lowercase roman”.  An “Vessel” is defined in 18 USC 9 as “… any citizen thereof or any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States or any State or Territory or district or possession.”  See links below:

http://www.access.gpo.gov/styleman/2000/pdf/chap11.pdf

http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/9.html

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Here is some interesting words in Admiralty Law.
When you go to ‘court’ you play with a racket. Courts are just rackets
The judge rules from the bench. Bench in Latin is ‘bank’
Admiralty court is a ‘pretend game’ …You need to file a ‘motion’ in court or your case will not be heard..which means no crime has been committed…
Money=Energy….Battery Cells stores energy
Court is referred to ‘circuit’ court and if you interupt the circuit or current(cy) you get charged.
Man is a cell that stores energy(money)
The courthouse is a place where your money is extracted.
If you get sent to jail you end up in a cell..but you can be released with money.
You have then paid your debt to ‘society’ that is the law society….justice is not served…the only thing that matters is money
If you hire a lawyer you are considered a ward of the court…. an infant or person of unsound mind.
In a river there are currents and on the sides of the river are banksBanks control the current-sea ‘currentcy’
The judge is the referee for the opposing teams in court. He does not care who wins because he gets paid no matter who wins.
The statute of Liberty had to be placed in water because the term liberty is what a sailor get’s when he pulls into port. He is not free.The statute of Liberty does not represent freedom.
When a ship comes to shore it is said that ‘the ship is sitting in its berth when its ‘doc’ked.
The ship has to produce a certificate of manifest because the property on the ship represents money. The captain taken from the word ‘capitol’ ‘re’presents the money by showing the manifest.
The law of the sea is merchant law….mer means sea
All ship’s or vessels are named after women.
Women when pregnant are carrying money… ‘human resource’
When a mother’s water breaks she ‘delivers’ a ‘human resource’ through her ‘berth’ canal.The ‘delivery’ is performed by the ‘doc’tor
Ballantine’s definition for a human being – ‘monster’
here is two charts comparing physical law and legal law
Physical Law/ Legal LawLand/ WaterGold/Silver/ Federal Reserve NotePresent/ ‘re’-presentLawful/ LegalReal/ FictionSubstance/ ReflectionThing/ Thing namedCreditor/ DebtorLender/ BorrowerObject/ SymbolPhysical Body/ Paper CertificateSpiritual being / Human being
the words of admiral-tie law need to be dis-cussedand explainedunderstandingmeans to stand under
self representation means your representing your self to be UNDER the courts juristiction[same as UNDER-standing]
defendant means your allready called guilty [yet this is pre trial how is this?via juristiction we surendered to ir by not knowing what their words mean this is a great topic
it should reveal much when we net work on itcan we cut and paste? or will it all be links who knows
we need some one to lead on this the file is open edit it full disclosure ?not for me to judge :lol:
_________________men can’t be pefect god alone is perfect
Our leaders are just like we are thus we can go where they been and they realise where we are
propaganda is not designed to fool the critical thinkerbut to give moral cowards an excuse not to think at all.

A Brief History Of Planet X Nibiru

By Robertino Solàrion ©1996/2003

On 24 January 2008, Rob Solàrion delivered a lecture on Planet X Nibiru to the Ark-La-Tex Theosophical Society meeting in Avery, Texas, west of Texarkana. Excerpts of this lecture have been uploaded to Google Videos: 44 minutes (file size 60MBs). You will need a broadband connection (DSL or cable) to view it. CLICK HERE for the video.

On 11 June 2008 I established a blog at Google’s Blogspot.Com. The purpose of the blog is to allow a open discussion of the survival techniques and possibilities following the upcoming Crossover of Planet X, which could occur at any time over the next 4-5 years. Anyone may use this blog to post a question or a response. I’ll try to visit the blog myself a couple of times a day; but if I overlook a comment directed to me, then you can always email me personally about it, using the “Email Me” link at the bottom of each webpage. Please be polite and considerate of others in what you post to the blog. This is an important subject for our times, and I hope that you enjoy the comments! Regards, Rob Solàrion, 18 June 2008
CLICK HERE FOR THE PLANET X SURVIVAL BLOG.

By way of preface, let me state that that this is my own personal theory, albeit it based upon the pioneering research of both Zecharia Sitchin and R.A. Boulay. Mr. Sitchin and Mr. Boulay disagree on the nature of these “gods” (whether they are “humanoid” or “saurian”), and in that debate I fully support the contentions of Mr. Boulay. A photograh of Mr. Sitchin and a list of his books are appended below. I do not have a photo of Mr. Boulay, but his first-edition book Flying Serpents & Dragons can be read at this website in both English and French. Also, the use of royal titles for the hierarchy of these “gods” (Emperor, Prince, Duchess and so forth) is purely of my own invention and is intended to convey to the reader the sort of royal relationships that exist amongst these Nibiruan entities.

After the discovery of the Planet Pluto in 1930 CE, astronomers soon noted that earlier theories regarding the hypothetical influences of such a planet on the orbits of Planets Uranus and Neptune were not validated by the existence of only Pluto. So eventually in the 1970s after computers were becoming commonplace, a computer-generated model of this “Planet X“, as it was called, was created. It was determined that Planet X would have to be at least five times bigger than the Planet Earth. They also calculated the length and shape of its orbit around the Sun as well as the number of years necessary to complete such an orbit.
In 1983 with NASA’s cooperation a group of astronomers began a comprehensive survey of the sky with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). In the fall of that year the IRAS discovered several moving objects in the vicinity of this solar system, including 5 previously unknown comets, a few “lost” comets, 4 new asteroids and “an enigmatic comet-like object”. Headlines read “Giant Object Mystifies Astronomers” and “Mystery Body Found in Space”. In The Washington Post was the headline and story “At Solar System’s Edge Giant Object is a Mystery — A heavenly body possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and possibly so close to Earth that it would be part of this solar system has been found in the direction of the Constellation Orion by an orbiting telescope called the IRAS. So mysterious is the object that astronomers do not know if it is a planet, a giant comet, a ‘protostar’ that never got hot enough to become a star, a distant galaxy so young that it is still in the process of forming its first stars, or a galaxy so shrouded in dust that none of the light cast by its stars ever gets through. ‘All I can tell you is that we don’t know what it is,’ said Gerry Neugebauer, chief IRAS scientist.”
The United States Government squashed the story immediately! For some arcane top-secret reason the government doesn’t want to alarm or panic the general public by disclosure of this discovery. Why? Because a race of reptilian super-beings inhabits that planet, and common knowledge of this fact would have people screaming in the streets. Listen to this story.

Long, long ago, approximately 500,000 years back into the past, our Planet Earth/Tiamat was a quite different place than it is today. To clarify a point, this planet’s original name is Tiamat. The nickname “Earth”, from the Greek “Gaia”, is only a recent innovation. Herein, this planet will be referred to as Planet Tiamat.
A half a million years ago, Tiamat was not located in Space where it is today. It orbited farther out from the Sun, in between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Mars was orbiting at a distance much closer to the Sun than now and was quite habitable, with a temperate climate and liquid water. This fact has been verified numerous times by NASA and other scientific groups. What those groups do not acknowledge is the fact that Mars had a different orbital pattern than today. Establishment groups do not accept a cataclysmic evolution of this solar system, at least not publicly.
Then, too, Tiamat’s system was closer to the Star Sirius (or Sothis, as the ancient Egyptians called it). This solar system and the Sirian planetary system are part of a unit. The two systems are gravitationally connected to one another, a new fact that is now beginning to gain widespread consensus from the scientific community. Our “Sirian Regional System” as a unit revolves around the Central Sun Alcyone in the Pleiades Cluster, which might be termed “the Pleiades Quadrant”. This greater sector revolves around the Galactic Center, in the direction of the Stars of Sagittarius, once every 200,000,000 years or so. What is so significant about our present-day epoch is that certain great cycles relating to orbital alignments within the Pleiades Quadrant and between this Quadrant and the Galactic Center are starting to repeat themselves, and there’s nothing that we can do about it. It’s happening, folks! Prepare for the unexpected! This Great Cycle should be in full swing by 21 December 2012 CE. Mark your calendars!
But returning to the history of Nibiru andiamat, our planet had a much colder environment than today. The humanoid population, which our paleontologists and the like call “Neanderthals”, were hardier and hairier than we are. They lived in caves to take advantage of the natural internal warmth of Tiamat. These early Tiamatians were directly descended from ancestors in the Pleiades, a fact that can be amply verified by the history and mythology of the Mayas and the Polynesians, to name a couple. However, the Pleiadian origins of Tiamat in the first place will not be discussed in this brief history. That is for another time and space.
This solar system was internally stable 500,000 years ago. But an unanticipated, strange event occurred. One of the larger planets from the Sirian System had strayed off course eons before and had drifted our way. This planet had been unwittingly captured by our Sun and thrown into an extremely elongated comet-like orbit, lasting 3,600 of our current years, with its aphelion at the Oort Cloud, the very boundary of the Sun’s gravitational field. It is approximately the size of our Planet Neptune. It is populated with a reptilian super-race governed by an elite aristocracy known as “the Nefilim”. The general population is known as “Anunnaki” (Sumerian) or “Anakim” (Old Testament). At the time of this event, the Planet Nibiru was being ruled by Emperor Alalu and Empress Lilitu.
After its capture by our Sun, the Planet Nibiru slowly began to suffer atmospheric deterioration. The governing “Council of Twelve” headed by Emperor Alalu met in emergency session and concluded that in order for their planet to survive, a heat-shield of gold dust would have to be constructed to protect their atmosphere and prevent a cooling off of the planet, which would have been disastrous for a reptilian-based existence constantly dependent upon external heat sources for bodily warmth. They began an immediate exploration of their new solar system. A fleet of spacecraft was dispatched to Tiamat and other planets in an attempt to search for gold.


CURRENT MEMBERS
OF THE COUNCIL OF TWELVE

*
Emperor Anu & Empress Antu
Crown-Prince Enlil & Crown-Princess Ninlil
Prince Enki & Princess Ninki
Prince Nannar & Princess Ningal
Prince Utu & Princess-Royal Inanna
Prince Ishkur & Queen Ninkhursag

Left-Right : Emperor Anu, Prince Enki, Princess-Royal Inanna

The above graphic, obtained from a website, is supposed to be the insignia of
Nibiruan Crown-Prince Enlil, Yahweh, Zeus, Osiris, Thor.
Probably it represents the central core of the Winged Disk.

The following are images from the Internet of depictions of the Winged Disk. If you are interested further, you can contact me or search at Google or elsewhere for additional information. Some of these Internet images are corrupted.



Commander and Crown-Prince Anu, along with his two sons Enki and Enlil and daughter Ninkhursag, landed in what is now the Persian Gulf and first went ashore in what is now modern-day Kuwait. Eventually they established a spaceport in Mesopotamia at a place known in our mythology and religion as E-din or Eden. Guided by those early Tiamatians, they found abundant sources of gold on Tiamat and successfully created their Nibiruan heat-shield. They soon found out, however, that this heat-shield required periodic maintenance, in turn forcing them to always have a contingent of Anunnaki gold-miners stationed here on Tiamat, constantly shipping more gold home to Planet Nibiru.

After the passage of several Nibiruan orbits around their new Sun, perhaps 26,000 Tiamatian Years, as their planet’s orbit stabilized, Nibiru passed perilously close to Tiamat. One of its host of moons and moonlets crashed into Tiamat in what is now the Pacific Ocean, blowing the lost continent of Lemuria to smithereens, leaving its remnants floating about in Space in what we now so casually refer to as the “Asteroid Belt”, and knocking Tiamat out of it old orbit and into a newer one closer to the Sun. In the process, Tiamat captured one of Nibiru’s moons named “Kingu”, which is the correct term for our present Moon. Tiamat and Kingu finally settled down into their current positions, and in all of this chaos the Planet Mars got displaced to a new orbit farther out from the Sun, eventually causing that planet’s surface to freeze and die. On the up-side of all of this was the fact that this cosmic catastrophe made Nibiru’s orbit finally stabilize, so that no more events of this awful magnitude have subsequently occurred.
In connection with this upheaval, Crown-Prince Anu and his consort Crown-Princess Antu became distressed with Emperor Alalu’s actions and decisions, so the next time Emperor Alalu and Empress Lilitu visited Tiamat to check for gold-mine damage that might have resulted from the collision, they staged a coup d’état and proclaimed themselves Emperor Anu and Empress Antu. They banished deposed Emperor Alalu and Empress Lilitu to Tiamat and forbade them from ever returning to Nibiru. Alalu and Lilitu, believe it or not, may still be alive and living in a palatial underground spaceport in the Grand Teton Mountains near Yellowstone National Park, surrounded by massive hordes of gold and precious gems, and operating an enormous transmitter device (the source of the Taos Hum?) that allows them to stay in communication with Nibiru and its space patrols. It should be emphasized now that the Nibiruans are not the typical big-eyed “Greys” that we hear about so often in the media. See The Gods Of Eden by William Bramley for additional details.
To digress for a moment at this point, the reptilian inhabitants of the Planet Nibiru are anywhere from 10-20 feet (3-6 meters) tall. They have elaborate cranial hair, often multi-colored, but very little, if any, body hair, although some of the males do have mustaches and beards. Many of the males have goat-like horns on their heads, and many of the females are winged. They do not sweat and have no body odors, which was one reason they didn’t let the Tiamatians do their gold-mining for them. They thought the hairy Tiamatian mammals stank, and they didn’t like to be around them. They stayed to themselves. They can have up to seven pupils in each eye, seven fingers on each hand, and seven toes on each foot. They regularly wear clothing made of pure goldleaf, and their diet mainly consists of liquids which provide them with their necessary nutrients without their having to consume many solid foods. They seeded Tiamat with many of our current fruits and vegetables, however, and they deserve credit for that. See the companion essay Nibiruan Physiology.
Time passed. The Anunnaki gold-miners got restless, despising their drudgery in the mines, which were primarily located in what is now South Africa, under the command of Nefilim Duke Nergal and Duchess Ereshkigal. Eventually they revolted and refused to do anymore mining. Alarmed, Emperor Anu summoned Queen Ninkhursag to the throne room. Queen Ninkhursag is Nibiru’s Chief Medical Officer and Geneticist. Emperor Anu implored Queen Ninkhursag to come up with a cloned hybrid Nibiruan-Tiamatian to act as a slave gold-miner. She accepted the challenge and eventually created a hybrid male from the egg of Tiamatian female and the sperm of her brother Prince Enki. She referred to this hybrid as the “Adamu”. At first, only males were produced, cloned one just like the other. A group of Nibiruan females was ordered to serve as incubation vessels for the Adamu clones. These female Anunnaki were known as the “Birth Goddesses”.
Life went merrily along. Nibiru had its gold, the Anunnaki males were freed from the mines, the Adamu clones went into fullscale production and became excellent gold-mining slaves. But as always happens both here and on Nibiru, a hitch developed. The Birth Goddesses got fed up with sitting around pregnant all the time with little Adamu clones, so they revolted and refused to continue with the incubation process. Emperor Anu immediately had Queen Ninkhursag brought back to the throne room and this time ordered her to create a “female Adamu” that could mate with the males and produce their own clones. By now, for Queen Ninkhursag, this was a piece of cake. She created the female “Eva” prototype along with an absolutely perfect Adamu clone. These two were allowed to romp around naked on the palace grounds at Eden, in hopes that they would produce a child, a little-bitty-baby-slave gold-miner, the PERFECT ROBOT!
But alas — they were infertile. Just as two mules cannot produce another mule, requiring instead that a horse mate with a donkey, these two hybrid clones could not reproduce. At this point Emperor Anu was beside himself. He had to have gold! So he ordered Queen Ninkhursag to undo the hybridization! She had her brother Prince Enki travel to the Eden Palace to do the job for her. Prince Enki had the hybrid Adamu and Eva ingest a chemical substance of some sort that caused them to revert back to more of a Tiamatian than a Nibiruan creation. They immediately shed their reptilian outer-skins and began to mate. Realizing that he’d been dealt a major blow, in that as a result of the dehybridization he’d lost power over these new creatures, Emperor Anu banished the Adamu and Eva from forever re-entering the Eden Palace grounds.
Cro-Magnon Man was born. It was approximately 20,000 years ago. Neanderthal Man was slowly but inexorably going extinct as a result of Tiamat’s closer proximity to the Sun and its warmer climate. By 10,000 BCE, they really no longer existed, leaving Cro-Magnon Man to dominate Tiamat.
In his book The Rainbow Conspiracy, Brad Steiger writes in connection with the Philadelphia Experiment that U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt met with some “nearly human aliens” in the 1930s. These aliens had a greenish tint to their skin. In order to mingle unnoticed here on Tiamat, they use a bleaching solution to lighten their skin-tone. And then there are all those old drawings of “gods” from India, nearly human-looking “gods” who have a bluish skin-tone. Did you ever look closely at the skin color and quality of anole lizards (faux chameleons)? Their skin is so, so smooth and silky! And green! According to a report on TV in August 1996, medical researchers, looking into better ways to develop medicine-delivery skin-patches for sick people, have discovered that snakeskin is extremely similar to human skin. They are developing new medicine-delivery skin-patches from plain old snakeskin! Why is this important? Well, R.A. Boulay in his book Flying Serpents And Dragons writes in connection with our Nibiruan ancestors that the snake was a correlative creation that occurred during the dehybridization process of the Adamu and Eva! What unnecessary or useless reptilian characteristics that had to be “shed” during dehybridization rematerialized as a “serpent”. Thus, one might contemplate the following: if an anole or a chameleon can change colors, can a Nibiruan do the same?
What happened next is our recorded history. Nibiru once again came too close to Tiamat, unleashing a worldwide catastrophe of floods and earthquakes. This time the Eden Palace and Spaceport themselves were inundated and destroyed. Nefilim Prince Utu was ordered to rebuild the Spaceport in what is now the Sinai Peninsula. Life on Tiamat eventually got back to normal, but then the “Pyramid Wars” broke out.
One of Emperor Anu’s favorites was a Princess-Royal Inanna, whom he appointed as ruler of what is now known as India and Nepal. Her Hindi/Sanskrit title was Lakshmi. She is still worshipped there today. Her lover and consort was the most handsome man on Nibiru, the Duke Dumuzi. Duke Dumuzi became involved in a quarrel with Baron Marduk, resulting in the outbreak of the “Pyramid Wars”. Princess-Royal Inanna and Duke Dumuzi began a protracted power struggle with Baron Marduk and Baroness Sarpanit. In the process Duke Dumuzi was murdered by Baron Marduk; and Prince Utu in cahoots with Princess-Royal Inanna blew up the Sinai Spaceport along with the satellite R&R cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. The South African goldmines fell into disarray when Duke Nergal and Duchess Ereshkigal allied themselves with Baron Marduk and Baroness Sarpanit. Once again there was chaos among the Nefilim Ruling Council



Emperor Anu was forced to rebuild the Nibiruan Spaceport, this time putting it under the command of his son Prince Enki. Prince Enki and his consort Princess Ninki were sent to what is now the area around Lake Titicaca, Peru, where they rebuilt the complex on the Nazca Plain. Massive new sources of gold were found in the surrounding Andes Mountains, so the South African mining operation was moved to Lake Titicaca.



And that brings us up to about 3,600 years ago. At that point it seems that the Nibiruans began to abandon Tiamat. Perhaps their atmospheric heat-shield had “crystallized” by then, and they no longer had need of so much gold from Tiamat. This is unclear. The last time their planet passed by Tiamat was in 687 BCE when they once again headed out for their long winter hibernation at the Oort Cloud. But they have always continued to maintain some sort of presence here. In addition to the underground installation in the Grand Teton Mountains, they have other underground facilities in South America, in the Saudi Arabian Empty Quarter and in the Himalaya Mountains, to name a few. There’s another underground chamber just southwest of the Great Pyramid of Egypt, which the Nefilim built in connection with the Sinai Spaceport; but there is a debate of sorts about which extraterrestrial race controls access to that most sacred, ancient chamber. The answer to that question, as well as many others, will undoubtedly be forthcoming in the very near future.
Where is Planet Nibiru today? Well, it’s still out there. Occasionally some astronomer will spot it and name it some enigmatic cosmic object, like an “Object Kowal” or a “mini-galaxy”. Our governments definitely suspect that it’s there but may be keeping this knowledge under wraps from the general population. Ancient skywatchers in the Middle East and Mayan Mexico are said to have looked for Nibiru’s grand arrival in the Constellation of Sagittarius. When it periodically returns to this part of the solar system, it apparently sort of appears out of nowhere. Suddenly it’s just up there, like a golden miniature sun with a long and fearsome cometary tail trailing along behind it and its host of satellites, hovering, dangling like a jewel over the Tiamatian North Pole for a “millennium of the gods.” The Cosmic Tree. The World Mountain. Mount Olympus. Mount Meru. Hyperborea, the North Country, the nation beyond the land where the North Wind rises, the land of eternal springtime, the nation beyond the mountains of the God of the North Wind! Hyperborea!
The material presented here in only the tip of the iceberg of our available knowledge of the Planet Nibiru and her stormy interaction with Planet Tiamat. If you would wish to obtain additional information, you are referred to the following books, including all of the Sitchin material in nine volumes consisting of more than 3,000 pages total.

 

 

 


 

Genesis Revisited by Zecharia Sitchin
Divine Encounters by Zecharia Sitchin
The Earth Chronicles by Zecharia Sitchin
1 — The Twelfth Planet
2 — The Stairway To Heaven
3 — The Wars Of Gods And Men
4 — The Lost Realms
5 — When Time Began
6 — The Cosmic Code
7 — The Lost Book Of Enki


The Gods Of Eden by William Bramley
Gods Of The New Millennium by Alan F. Alford
Matrix IV: The Equivideum by Val Valerian, Drunvalo Melchizedek & Michael Topper
The Secret Science by John Baines (Darío Salas Sommer)
The Stellar Man by John Baines (Darío Salas Sommer)
The Rainbow Conspiracy by Brad Steiger
The Hidden History Of The Human Race by Michael A. Cremo & Richard L. Thompson

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Nibiru

Nibiru, in Babylonian Astronomy translates to “Planet of Crossing” or “Point of Transition”, especially of rivers, i.e. river crossings or ferry-boats, a term of the highest point of the ecliptic, i.e. the point of summer solstice, and its associated constellation. The establishment of the Nibiru point is described in tablet 5 of the Enuma Elish. Its cuneiform sign was often a cross, or various winged disc. The Sumerian culture was located in the fertile lands between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, at the southern part of today’s Iraq.

As the highest point in the paths of the planets, Nibiru was considered the seat of the summus deus who pastures the stars like sheep, in Babylon identified with Marduk. This interpretation of Marduk as the ruler of the cosmos was identified as an early monotheist tendency in Babylonian religion by Alfred Jeremias.


Some authors believe that the observations of ancient astronomers provide proof that Nibiru is an actual planet or brown dwarf in our solar system. These claims are for the most part dismissed as fringe science or pseudoscience by the mainstream scientific communities of archaeology and astronomy.

The work of Zecharia Sitchin has garnered much attention among ufologists, ancient astronaut theorists and conspiracy theorists. He claims to have uncovered, through his retranslations of Sumerian texts, evidence that the human race was visited by a group of extraterrestrials from a distant planet in our own Solar System.

Part of his theory lies in an astronomical interpretation of the Babylonian creation myth, the Enuma Elish, in which he replaces the names of gods with hypothetical planets. However, since the principal evidence for Sitchin’s claims lies in his own personally derived etymologies and not on any scholarly agreed interpretations, his theories remain at most pseudoscience to the majority of academics.

Sitchin’s theory proposes the planets Tiamat and Nibiru. Tiamat supposedly existed between Mars and Jupiter. He postulated that it was a thriving world in a much differently shaped solar system, with jungles and oceans, whose orbit was disrupted by the arrival of a large planet or very small star (less than twenty times the size of Jupiter) which passed through the solar system between 65 million and four billion years ago. The new orbits caused Tiamat to collide with one of the moons of this object, which is known as Nibiru. The debris from this collision are thought by the theory’s proponents to have variously formed the asteroid belt, the Moon, and the current inclination of the planet Earth.

To the Babylonians, Nibiru was the celestial body or region sometimes associated with the god Marduk. The word is Akkadian and the meaning is uncertain. Because of this, the planet Nibiru is sometimes also referred to as Marduk. Sitchin hypothesizes it as a planet in a highly elliptic orbit around the Sun, with a perihelion passage some 3,600 years ago and assumed orbital period of about 3,750 years; he also claims it was the home of a technologically advanced human-like alien race, the Anunnaki, who allegedly visited Earth in search of gold. These beings eventually created humanity by genetically crossing themselves with extant primates, and thus became the first gods.

Beginning in 1995, websites such as ZetaTalk have identified Nibiru or “Planet X” as a brown dwarf currently within our planetary system, soon to pass relatively close to Earth affecting Earth’s magnetics and causing catastrophic damage. Sitchin disagrees.

http://www.crystalinks.com/nibiru.html

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Nibiru collision

V838 Mon, a star with an expanding gas shell, purported as photographic evidence of Nibiru

The Nibiru collision is a supposed disastrous encounter between the Earth and a large planetary object (either a collision or a near-miss) which certain groups believe will take place in the early 21st century. Believers in this doomsday event usually refer to this object as Planet X or Nibiru. The idea that a planet-sized object could possibly collide with or pass by Earth in the near future is not supported by any scientific evidence and has been rejected as pseudoscience by astronomers and planetary scientists.[1]

The idea was first proposed in 1995 by Nancy Lieder, founder of the website ZetaTalk. Lieder describes herself as a contactee with the ability to receive messages from extra-terrestrials from the Zeta Reticuli star system through an implant in her brain. She states that she was chosen to warn mankind that the object would sweep through the inner Solar System in May 2003 (though that date was later abandoned) causing Earth to undergo a pole shift that would destroy most of humanity. The predicted collision has subsequently spread beyond Lieder’s website and has been embraced by numerous internet doomsday groups, most of which link the event to the 2012 phenomenon. Although the name “Nibiru” is derived from the works of ancient astronaut writer Zecharia Sitchin and his interpretations of Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, Sitchin himself denied any connection between his work and various claims of a coming apocalypse.

Origins

‹ The template (Infobox pseudoscience) is beingconsidered for deletion. ›

Pseudoscientific concepts

Claims

Earth’s imminent collision or near miss with a giant planetoid

Related scientific disciplines

Astronomy, archaeology

Year proposed

1995

Original proponents

Nancy Lieder

Subsequent proponents

Marshall Masters, Jaysen Rand, Mark Hazlewood, Pana Wave

The idea of the Nibiru encounter originated with Nancy Lieder, a Wisconsin woman who claims that as a girl she was contacted by gray extraterrestrials called Zetas, who implanted a communications device in her brain. In 1995, she founded the website ZetaTalk to disseminate her ideas.[2] Lieder first came to public attention on internet newsgroups during the build-up to Comet Hale-Bopp‘s 1997 perihelion. She stated, speaking as the Zetas, that “The Hale-Bopp comet does not exist. It is a fraud, perpetrated by those who would have the teeming masses quiescent until it is too late. Hale-Bopp is nothing more than a distant star, and will draw no closer.”[3] She claimed that the Hale-Bopp story was manufactured to distract people from the imminent arrival of a large planetary object, “Planet X”, which would soon pass by Earth and destroy civilization.[3] After Hale-Bopp’s perihelion revealed it as one of the brightest and longest-observed comets of the last century,[4] Lieder removed the first two sentences of her initial statement from her site, though they can still be found in Google‘s archives.[3] Her claims eventually made the New York Times.[5]

Lieder described Planet X as roughly four times the size of the Earth, and said that its perigee would occur on May 27, 2003, resulting in the Earth’s rotation ceasing for exactly 5.9 terrestrial days. This would be followed by the Earth’s pole destabilising in a pole shift (a physical pole shift, with the Earth’s pole physically moving, rather than a geomagnetic reversal) caused by magnetic attraction between the Earth’s core and the magnetism of the passing planet. This in turn would disrupt the Earth’s magnetic core and lead to subsequent displacement of the Earth’s crust.[6]

Lieder’s Planet X idea first spread beyond her website in 2001, when Mark Hazlewood, a former member of the ZetaTalk community, took her ideas and published them in a book: Blindsided: Planet X Passes in 2003. Lieder would later accuse him of being a confidence trickster.[7] A Japanese cult called the Pana Wave Laboratory, which blocked off roads and rivers with white cloths to protect itself from electromagnetic attacks, also warned that the world would end in May 2003 after the approach of a tenth planet.[8]

Roughly a week before the supposed arrival of Planet X, Lieder appeared on KROQ radio in Los Angeles, and advised listeners to put their pets down in anticipation of the event. When asked if she had done so, she replied that she had, and that “The puppies are in a happy place.” She also advised that “A dog makes a good meal”.[9] After the 2003 date passed without incident, Lieder said that it was merely a “White Lie … to fool the establishment,”[10] and said that to disclose the true date would give those in power enough time to declare martial law and trap people in cities during the shift, leading to their deaths.[11]

Many internet sites continue to proclaim that Lieder’s object is en route to Earth, often citing its arrival date as December, 2012. This date has gathered many apocalyptic associations, as it is the end of the current cycle (baktun) in the long count in the Mayan calendar. Several writers have published books connecting the collision with 2012.[12] Hazlewood has since changed his views on Planet X, and now says that there are intelligent alien forces acting to protect us as a species, and that we are set to ascend to a higher level of consciousness in 2012.[13]

Zecharia Sitchin and Sumer

Although Lieder originally referred to the object as “Planet X”, it has become deeply associated with Nibiru, a planet from the works of ancient astronaut proponent Zecharia Sitchin, particularly his book The 12th Planet. According to Sitchin’s interpretation of Babylonian religious texts, which contravenes every conclusion reached by credited scholars on the subject,[14][15] a giant planet (Nibiru or Marduk) passes by Earth every 3,600 years and allows its sentient inhabitants to interact with humanity. These beings, which Sitchin identified with the Annunaki of Sumerian myth, would become humanity’s first gods.[16] Lieder first made the connection between Nibiru and her Planet X on her site in 1996 (“Planet X does exist, and it is the 12th Planet, one and the same.”).[17]

However, Sitchin, who died in 2010, denied any connection between his work and Lieder’s claims. In 2007, partly in response to Lieder’s proclamations, Sitchin published a book, The End of Days, which set the time for the last passing of Nibiru by Earth at 556 BC, which would mean, given the object’s supposed 3,600–year orbit, that it would return sometime around AD 2900.[18] He did however say that he believed that the Annunaki might return earlier by spaceship, and that the timing of their return would coincide with the shift from the astrological Age of Pisces to the Age of Aquarius, sometime between 2090 and 2370.[19]

Other names

Lieder drew the name Planet X from the hypothetical planet once searched for by astronomers to account for discrepancies in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune.[17] In 1894, Bostonian astronomer Percival Lowell became convinced that the planets Uranus and Neptune had slight discrepancies in their orbits. He concluded that they must be being tugged by the gravity of another, more distant planet, which he called “Planet X”.[20] However, nearly a century of searching failed to turn up any evidence for such an object (Pluto was initially believed to be Planet X, but was later determined to be too small).[21] In 1992, astronomer Myles Standish showed that the supposed discrepancies in the planets’ orbits were illusory; the product of an overestimation of the mass of Neptune.[22] Today astronomers accept that Planet X does not exist.[23]

Another common name for Planet X/Nibiru is Nemesis, a name taken from a hypothesis first proposed by physicist Richard A. Muller. In 1984, Muller postulated that mass extinctions were not random, but appeared to occur in the fossil record with a loose periodicity that ranged from 26-34 million years. He attributed this supposed pattern to a heretofore undetected companion to the Sun, either a brown dwarf, a dim red dwarf or a gas giant planet, lying in an elliptical, 26-million-year orbit. This object, which he named Nemesis, would, once every 26 million years, pass through Oort cloud, the shell of over a trillion icy objects believed to be the source of long-period comets and to lie at thousands of times Pluto’s distance from the Sun. Nemesis’s gravity would then disturb the comets’ orbits and send them into the inner Solar System, causing the Earth to be bombarded. However, to date no direct evidence of Nemesis has been found.[24] Though the idea of Nemesis appears similar to the Nibiru collision, they are in fact very different, as Nemesis, if it existed, would have an orbital period thousands of times longer, and would never come near Earth itself.[25]

Still others refer to the object as Eris;[26] however, Eris (provisional designation: 2003 UB313) is a dwarf planet only slightly larger than Pluto[27] with a well-determined orbit that never takes it closer than 5.5 billion km from the Earth.[28] Astronomer Mike Brown, who discovered Eris, believes the confusion results from both the real Eris and the imaginary Nibiru having extremely elliptical orbits.[26]

Scientific criticism

Astronomers point out that such an object so close to Earth would be easily visible to the naked eye (Jupiter and Saturn are both visible to the naked eye, and are dimmer than Nibiru would be at their distances), and would be creating noticeable effects in the orbits of the outer planets.[29] Some counter this by claiming that the object has been hiding behind the Sun for several years, though such a claim is geometrically impossible.[12] Images of Nibiru near the Sun taken by amateurs are usually the result of lens flares, false images of the Sun created by reflections within the lens.[30]

Mike Brown notes that if this object’s orbit were as described, it would only have lasted in the Solar System for a million years or so before Jupiter expelled it, and that there is no way another object’s magnetic field could have such an effect on Earth.[31]Lieder’s assertions that the approach of Nibiru would cause the Earth’s rotation to stop or its axis to shift violate the laws of physics. In his rebuttal of Immanuel Velikovsky‘s Worlds in Collision, which made the same claim that the Earth’s rotation could be stopped and then restarted, Carl Sagan noted that, “the energy required to brake the Earth is not enough to melt it, although it would result in a noticeable increase in temperature: the oceans would [be] raised to the boiling point of water . . . [Also,] how does the Earth get started up again, rotating at approximately the same rate of spin? The Earth cannot do it by itself, because of the law of the conservation of angular momentum.”[32]

In a 2009 interview with the Discovery Channel, Mike Brown noted that, while it is not impossible that the Sun has a distant planetary companion, such an object would have to be lying very far from the observed regions of the Solar System to have no gravitational effect on the other planets. A Mars-sized object could lie undetected at 300 AU (10 times the distance of Neptune); a Jupiter-sized object at 30,000 AU (1000 times the distance of Neptune). To travel 1000 AU (30 times the distance of Neptune) in 2 years, an object would need to be moving at 2400 km/s, or faster than the galactic escape velocity. At that speed, any object would be shot out of the Solar System, and then out of the Milky Way galaxy into intergalactic space.[33]

Conspiracy theories

Many believers in the imminent approach of Planet X/Nibiru accuse NASA of deliberately covering up visual evidence of its existence.[34] One such accusation involves the IRAS infrared space observatory, launched in 1983. The satellite briefly made headlines due to an “unknown object” that was at first described as “possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and possibly so close to Earth that it would be part of this Solar System”.[35] This newspaper article has been cited by proponents of the collision idea, beginning with Lieder herself, as evidence for the existence of Nibiru.[36] However, further analysis revealed that of several unidentified objects, nine were distant galaxies and the tenth was “intergalactic cirrus“; none were found to be Solar System bodies.[37]

Another accusation frequently made by websites predicting the collision is that the US government built the South Pole Telescope to track Nibiru’s trajectory, and that the object has been imaged optically.[38] However, the SPT (which is not funded by NASA) is a radio telescope, and cannot take optical images. Its South Pole location was chosen due to the low-humidity environment, and there is no way an approaching object could be seen only from the South Pole.[39] The “picture” of Nibiru posted on YouTube was revealed to in fact be a Hubble image of the expanding gas shell around the star V838 Mon.[38]

Public reaction

The impact of the public fear of the Nibiru collision has been especially felt by professional astronomers. Mike Brown now says that Nibiru is the most common pseudoscientific topic he is asked about.[31]

David Morrison, director of SETI, CSI Fellow and Senior Scientist at NASA‘s Astrobiology Institute at Ames Research Center, says he receives 20–25 emails a week about the impending arrival of Nibiru; some frightened, others angry and naming him as part of the conspiracy to keep the truth of the impending apocalypse from the public, and still others asking whether or not they should kill themselves, their children or their pets.[34][40] Half of these emails are from outside the US.[12] “Planetary scientists are being driven to distraction by Nibiru,” notes science writer Govert Schilling, “And it is not surprising; you devote so much time, energy and creativity to fascinating scientific research, and find yourself on the tracks of the most amazing and interesting things, and all the public at large is concerned about is some crackpot theory about clay tablets, god-astronauts and a planet that doesn’t exist.”[1] Morrison states that he hopes that the non-arrival of Nibiru could serve as a teaching moment for the public, instructing them on ‘rational thought and baloney detection’, but doubts that will happen.[34]

Morrison noted in a lecture recorded on FORA.tv that there was a huge disconnect between the massive number of people on the internet who believed in Nibiru’s arrival in 2012 and the majority of scientists who have never heard of it. To date he is the only major NASA scientist to speak out regularly against the Nibiru phenomenon.[40]

A viral marketing campaign for Sony Pictures‘ 2009 film 2012, directed by Roland Emmerich, which depicts the end of the world in that year, featured a supposed warning from the “Institute for Human Continuity” that listed the arrival of Planet X as one of its doomsday scenarios.[41] Mike Brown attributes a spike in concerned emails and phone calls he received from the public to this site.[26]

Planetary objects proposed in religion, astrology and ufology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Nibiru (Sitchin))

This article is about non-scientific hypothetical planetary objects. For scientifically accepted hypothetical planetary objects, see Hypothetical planet (disambiguation). For fictional planets, see Planets in science fiction.

There are a number of planets or moons whose existence is not supported by scientific evidence, but which are occasionally believed to exist by astrologers, pseudoscientists, conspiracy theorists, or certain religious groups. Some were proposed by early philosophers, and so might be considered part of protoscience, but none has ever gained any scientific acceptance.

Planets proposed by Zecharia Sitchin

Zecharia Sitchin

“Nibiru (hypothetical planet)” redirects here. For the “Nibiru” of the 2012 Doomsday prediction, see Nibiru collision.

The work of Zecharia Sitchin has garnered much attention among ufologists, ancient astronaut theorists and conspiracy theorists. He claimed to have uncovered, through his retranslations of Sumerian texts, evidence that the human race was visited by a group of extraterrestrials from a distant planet in our own Solar System. Part of his theory lay in an astronomical interpretation of the Babylonian creation myth, the Enuma Elish, in which he replaced the names of gods with hypothetical planets. However, since the principal evidence for Sitchin’s claims lay in his own personally derived etymologies and not on any scholarly agreed interpretations, his theories remain at most pseudoscience to the majority of academics.[1][2][3]

Sitchin’s theory proposes the planets Tiamat and Nibiru. Tiamat supposedly existed between Mars and Jupiter. He postulated that it was a thriving world in a very different solar system, with jungles and oceans, whose orbit was disrupted by the arrival of a large planet or very small star (less than twenty times the size of Jupiter) which passed through the solar system between 65 million and four billion years ago. The new orbits caused Tiamat to collide with one of the moons of this object, which is known as Nibiru. The debris from this collision are thought by the theory’s proponents to have variously formed the asteroid belt, the Moon, and the current inclination of the planet Earth.

To the Babylonians, according to Sitchin, Nibiru was the celestial body or region sometimes associated with the god Marduk. The word is Akkadian and the meaning is uncertain. Because of this, Sitchin claimed, the planet Nibiru is sometimes also referred to as Marduk. Sitchin hypothesized it as a planet in a highly elliptic orbit around the Sun, with a perihelion passage some 3,600 years ago and assumed orbital period of about 3,750 years; he also claimed it was the home of a technologically advanced human-like alien race, the Anunnaki, who apparently visited Earth in search of gold. These beings eventually created humanity by genetically crossing themselves with extant primates, and thus became the first gods.

Beginning in 1995, websites such as ZetaTalk have claimed that Nibiru or “Planet X” is a brown dwarf currently within our planetary system, soon to pass relatively close to Earth. Sitchin disagreed with the timing of passage.[4]

Sitchin also postulated that Pluto began life as Gaga, a satellite of Saturn which, due to gravitational disruption caused by Nibiru’s passing, was flung into orbit beyond Neptune.

Planets proposed by Joseph Smith

Book of Abraham, Kolob, and Mormon cosmology

Joseph Smith, the founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, claimed to reveal knowledge of a number of extrasolar objects through his examination of ancient religious documents. Of principal importance was Kolob, the star or planet “nearest the throne of God”.

Planets proposed by L. Ron Hubbard

L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, proposed as part of his religious cosmology a Galactic Confederacy which consisted of 26 stars and 76 planets including Earth, which was then known as “Teegeeack“.[5][6] One planet in the Scientology doctrine is known as Helatrobus.

Central Fire

The Central Fire or Hearth of the Universe is a fiery celestial body hypothesized by the pre-Socratic philosopher Philolaus to be positioned at the center of the universe, around which all other celestial objects revolve. It is analogous to the medievalempyrean, put further beyond the fixed stars, being the welkin or highest heaven. It is sometimes called “the house of Zeus” but more frequently “the mother of the gods” or “estia”, after the goddess of fire and hearth, Hestia.

Like the other pre-Socratic thinkers, Philolaus operated under the common-sense idea that the world was flat. However, his astute observations of the movements of the stars and planets led him to develop the firm conviction that their apparent motion was due in part to the real motion of the observer, i.e. that the Earth must rotate around not only a central point, but also on its own axis. Philolaus’ Pythagorean view of the cosmos led him to believe that not only the Earth must revolve around this point, but also every other body in the universe, including the Sun. Since in his understanding, the world was flat, its revolution around a fixed point meant that down must be any direction toward the Central Fire, and up any direction away from it.

Given the elegance and mathematical simplicity of Philolaus’ ideas regarding the nature of the Earth’s place in the cosmos, it is easy to understand how the idea of a central fire quickly became a fixture in the thinking of his fellow pre-Socratics. Since this celestial body was necessarily beneath the Earth at all times, its existence, at the very least, could not be disproven. However, all this created a problem in Pythagorean cosmology. The Greek philosophers did not regard the Earth as a planet. Planets, in their understanding, were composed of a fiery or ethereal matter having little or no density, a fifth element with neither positive density like Earth and Water nor negative density like Fire and Air. Since these objects existed with zero density, they could quite easily rotate eccentric to the Earth without becoming off balance. However, the Earth was obviously made of the dense elements of Earth and Water. If there were a single Earth revolving at some distance from the center of space, the universe’scenter of balance would not coincide with its spatial center. Since this is the point towards which things fall, the Earth must have a counter-balance of the same mass or the universe would be flung apart. This problem led Philolaus to develop idea of aCounter-Earth, a second, flat Earth, identical but opposite to ours in every way. The necessity of a counter-Earth or central fire was obviated by the discovery, at least by the time of Eratosthenes in the 3rd Century B.C. that the Earth was in fact round.[7]

Counter-Earth

Main article: Counter-Earth

Counter-Earth or Antichthon is a planet hypothesized by the Greek philosopher Philolaus, who reasoned that, in order to keep the universe in balance, there must be an antichthon, a second Earth, identical but opposite to ours in every way, on the other side of the Central Fire. Abandoned with the acceptance of heliocentrism.

Hercolubus

Not to be confused with Helatrobus.

New Age author V. M. Rabolu writes in Hercolubus or Red Planet that Barnard’s star is actually a planet known to the ancients as Hercolubus, which purportedly came dangerously close to Earth in the past, destroying Atlantis.[8] Rabolu claims that Hercolubus will come close to Earth again. He also claims that humanity will only be saved by means of mantras, “astral unfolding” and Psychological Death.[9] Nibiru collision originator Nancy Lieder has used Rabolu’s ideas to bolster her claims.[10]

Barnard’s star has been directly measured to be 5.98 ± 0.003 light years from Earth (35.15 trillion miles). At that distance, it would need to be travelling at ten thousand miles a second (an appreciable fraction of the speed of light) to reach Earth in less than a century. While it is approaching Earth, Barnard’s Star will not make its closest approach to the Sun until around 11,700 AD, when it will approach to within some 3.8 light-years.[11] This is only slightly closer than the closest star to the Sun (Proxima Centauri) lies today.

Lilith

This article is about the astrological Earth moon. For the asteroid, see 1181 Lilith. For the scientific hypothesis of Earth’s second moon, see Other moons of Earth. For other uses, see Lilith (disambiguation).

Lilith is the name given to a hypothetical second moon of Earth, about the same mass as the Earth’s Moon, proposed by astrologer Walter Gornold (Sepharial) in 1918. Gornold took the name Lilith from medieval Jewish legend, where she is described as the first wife of Adam.[12] Gornold claimed that Lilith was the same second moon that scientist Georg Waltemath claimed to have discovered at the turn of the century.[13][14] Gornold also claimed to have seen Waltemath’s moon and opined that it was dark enough to have escaped visual detection.[15] However, Georg Waltemath’s proposed natural satellites had already been discredited by two Austrian Astronomers at the turn of the century.

In 1898, Hamburg scientist Dr. Georg Waltemath announced he had located a second moon[16] inside a system of tiny moons orbiting the Earth.[17] However, after the failure of a corroborating observation of this invisible moon by the scientific community, the idea of a second moon was discredited. In 1918, astrologer Walter Gornold, also known as Sepharial, claimed to have confirmed the existence of a second moon. He named it Lilith and believed it to be the same moon Waltemath claimed to have observed. Sepharial affirmed that Lilith was indeed invisible for most of the time but claimed to have viewed it as it crossed the Sun.[15] The majority of scientists object to these theories, pointing out that any second moon of the Earth would have been seen by now.[18] There are many readily apparent holes in the arguments supporting Lilith’s existence, and the existence of this astronomical object is believed only by fringe groups.

Credo Mutwa’s comet

In the year 2000, Zulu Sangoma Credo Mutwa gave a keynote address to the Living Lakes Partnership. In his conclusion, he said:[19]

Let me tell you one last thing: I am told by the great storytellers of our tribes that fresh water is not native to our Earth. Once, many thousands of years ago a terrible star, the kind of star with a very long tail, descended very close upon our skies. So close that the Earth turned upside down and what had become the sky became down, and what was the heavens became up. The whole world was turned upside down. The sun rose in the south and set in the north. Then came drops of burning black stuff, like molten tar, which burned every living thing on Earth that could not escape. After that came a terrible deluge of water accompanied by winds so great that they blew whole mountaintops away. And after that came huge chunks of ice bigger than any mountain and the whole world was covered with ice for many generations. After that the surviving people saw an amazing sight. They saw rivers and streams of water that they could drink, they saw that some of the fishes that escaped from the sea and were now living in these rivers. That is the great story of our forefathers. And we are told that this thing is going to happen again very soon. Because the great star, which is the lava of our sun, is going to return on the day of the year of the red bull, which is in the year 2012.

Rizq

An extrasolar planet in a trinary star system believed by the followers of the Nuwaubian doctrine espoused by self-described contactee Dwight York to have been the homeworld of the Annunaki Eloheem.

Serpo

Betty and Barney Hill and Greys

Project Serpo is the name of an alleged top-secret exchange program between the United States government and an alien planet called Serpo. Details of the alleged exchange program have appeared in several UFO conspiracy stories, including one incident in 1983 in which a man identifying himself as USAF Sergeant Richard C. Doty contacted investigative journalist Linda Moulton Howe claiming to be able to supply her Air Force records of the exchange for her HBO documentary “The ET Factor” only to pull out without providing any evidence to substantiate his story, and one incident in 2005 when a series of emails were sent to a UFO discussion group run by Victor Martinez claiming that the project was real.[20] Some variations on the conspiracy story state that the name Serpo is the nickname of the extrasolar planet.[20] Other versions state that it is a mispronunciation of either Serponia or Seinu by US authorities involved in the project.

The first mention of a ‘Project Serpo’ was in a UFO email list maintained by enthusiast Victor Martinez. Various versions of the conspiracy theory circulated, and were later detailed on www.serpo.org. According to the most common version of the story, an alien survived a crash near Roswell in the later 1940s (see Roswell UFO incident). This alien was detained but treated well by American military forces, contacted its home planet and eventually repatriated. The story continues by claiming that this led to the establishment of some sort of relationship between the American government and the people of its home world – said to be a planet of the binary star system Zeta Reticuli.[20]

Zeta Reticuli has a history in ufology (including the Betty and Barney Hill abduction and the Bob Lazar story), having been claimed as the home system of an alien race called the Greys.

The story finally claims that twelve American military personnel visited the planet between 1965 and 1978 and that all of the party have since died, from ‘after effects of high radiation levels from the two suns‘.[20]

One criticism of Project Serpo stems from the lack of veracity of one of its alleged witnesses, Sergeant Richard Doty. Doty has been involved in other alleged UFO-related activities (see Majestic 12 and Paul Bennewitz), and this makes the Project Serpo allegations automatically suspect.[20] Additionally, there is no physical evidence supporting the project’s existence.[20] According to Tim Swartz of Mysteries Magazine, Doty, who promised evidence to Moulton Howe before backing out, has been involved in circulating several other UFO conspiracy stories.[20] Swartz also expressed that the details of Project Serpo have varied considerably with different accounts.[20] It has been alleged that the entire series of posts were designed to be viral marketing for a new book by Doty.[21]

Further criticisms of the story include the usual arguments against conspiracy theories, UFOs, and faster-than-light travel, as well as astronomical knowledge of the Zeta Reticuli system. There is currently no evidence of technological life in the system and also no evidence of planets. Because the stars are widely separated (several thousand astronomical units), claims of excess radiation as a result of the presence of a second star are nonsensical. On a more fundamental level, it is entirely possible that the messages originating the story were deliberate hoaxes. The postings were to Internet forums that cover conspiracy theories and UFOs, and a cursory examination of such forums shows that hoaxes are not uncommon. Some ufologists have even claimed that the messages were a hoax perpetrated by the American military and intelligence communities as a cover for real secret programs.

Bill Ryan, a chief proponent of publicizing the Project Serpo claims, announced on March 5, 2007 that he was stepping down from his role as webmaster for the Serpo material. Ryan nevertheless maintains his belief that an extraterrestrial exchange program did occur – although he states that the Serpo releases definitely contained disinformation.[22]

Ummo

Ummo or Ummoism [23] describes a series of decades-long claims that aliens from the planet Ummo were communicating with persons on the Earth. Most Ummo information was in the form of many detailed documents and letters sent to various esoteric groups or UFO enthusiasts. The Ummo affair was subject to much mainstream attention in France and Spain during the 1960s through the 1970s, and a degree of interest remains regarding the subject. General consensus is that the Ummoism was an elaborate hoax. The culprit (or culprits) is unknown, but a José Luis Jordán Peña has claimed responsibility for instigating Ummoism.[24] However, there are still a few small groups of devotees, such as “a strange Bolivian cult called the Daughters of Ummo”.[25]

Dr. Jacques Vallée has said that the Ummo documents might be a real-world analogue of the fictional creators of Borges‘ “Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius“.[26] Historian Mike Dash writes that Ummoism began on February 6, 1966, in Madrid. On that day, Jordán Peña claimed to have had a close encounter of the first kind when he saw “an enormous circular object with three legs and, on its underside, a curious symbol: three vertical lines joined by a horizontal bar. The two exterior lines curved outward at the edges, which made the pictogram resemble the alchemical sign for the planet Uranus.” (Dash, 299)

Peña’s report generated a fair amount of excitement, but it was only the beginning. Not long afterwards, a Madrid author of a UFO book received several photographs in an anonymous mailing. The photos were of a craft similar to the one reported by Peña, and bearing the same symbol. Within a few weeks, “a leading Spanish contactee named Fernando Sesma became involved when he began receiving lengthy, typewritten documents which purported to come from a spacefaring race called the Ummites.” (Dash, 299) Within the year, various persons (mostly in Madrid) received about 150 Ummite documents, totaling over 1000 pages. Every page of Ummite documents was stamped with the same symbol of three linked lines. New Ummite documents would continue surfacing for many subsequent years. Many others have received Ummo letters, including French scientist Jean-Pierre Petit, a researcher at the CNRS.

In June 2002, a scientist with the pseudonym Jean Pollion released, in French, his book Ummo, de vrais extraterrestres, or, Ummo, real extraterrestrials in which he analyses the “Ummite” thoughts and language. He shows that the Ummo language is different from any other language we know in that it is a “functional” language. One of the astonishing properties of this language, according to the author, is that it works without a dictionary. One must only know 18 symbols, that Pollion has named “soncepts”, which if combined make up a functional description of the thing or situation that the creator of the “word” is trying to convey. Currently, more than 1300 pages of those letters have been registered, but it is possible that many other letters exist. In a 1988 letter, reference is made to the existence of 3850 pages, copies of which having been sent to several individuals, represent perhaps up to 160,000 pages of total Ummo documents. The true identity of the authors of those reports remains unknown.

Dash notes that “few ufologists outside Spain took the Ummoism seriously—the photographic evidence was highly suspect, and, while the Ummite letters were more sophisticated than most contactee communication, there was nothing in them that could not have originated on Earth.” Still, Dash allows that, whatever their origins, “considerable effort had gone into the supposed hoax.” (Dash, 299)

Many scientific subjects are described in detail in the letters, including network theory (or graph theory), astrophysics, cosmology, the unified field theory, biology, and evolution. Some of this information is thought to be dubious pseudoscience, but much of it is scientifically accurate. However, Jerome Clark (Clark, 1993) notes that Dr. Jacques Vallée argued that the scientific content of the Ummo letters was knowledgeable but unremarkable, and compared the scientific references to a well-researchedscience fiction novel – plausible in the 1960s, but dated by the standards of the 1990s. Controversy sparked about one particular assertion the Ummites made. In 1965, they wrote they were coming from a planet orbiting Wolf 424, adding this star is at 3.68502 light-year of the Sun. This was coherent with the estimation made by astronomers in 1938, but after some additional measurement, this distance was re-estimated at 14.3 light year. Fernando Esma asked then the Ummites about this apparent mistake. The Ummites replied in another letter the same year that the difference between the number given in the precedent letter and the latest measurement was caused by fluctuations in the fabric of spacetime.[27]

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History is repeating itself again. There was once a super race of aliens known to the ancient people of the Earth as the Anunnaki. In recent years, there have been many speculative writings about Planet X, which is also known as Planet Nibiru. Most of these writings are based somewhat on Zecharia Sitchins book, The Twelfth Planet. Sitchin, like Velikovsky and Darwin, used his respective theories to support his claims. A question arises: Is Nibiru real? There are those who believe that the Anunnaki of Nibiru are coming back to Earth soon. They believe that Planet X is going to pass by Earth on its 3,600 year orbit around our sun. The early people named Planet X as Nibiru in Sumerian, and Marduk in Babylonian. It has been said that the ancient Mesopotamians believed that Nibiru was the twelfth member in our solar system and that it was “heaven” where their gods resided and came from. (Robert Sepehr) http://www.planetxvideo.com
In Sumer, the alien race of gods were known as the Anunnaki. In Greece, the Annodoti. In the Celtic lore, the Tuatha de Danaan. In the Semetic scriptures (Torah, Talmud, Old Testament, and other Apocryphal texts like the Book of Enoch), they are called The Nephilim, The Sons of God, or The Watchers. The gods themselves had their own monarchy, with laws of succession similar to our own, and they built a global empire upon the Earth, with great cities, temples and monuments, and mighty nations established on several continents. They created mankind as a slave race to work on their farms and in their gold mines, among other things. The Sumerian legends are very clear: man was made to bear the yoke of the gods. Man was separate from the gods, like a domesticated animal, and there was a great cultural taboo amongst the gods against sharing any of their sacred information with humanity, even things such as writing and mathematics. These gods ruled directly over Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley, and their rule is recorded in the histories of all three civilizations. At some point, it is told, some of the gods broke rank. This is again recorded in just about every culture on Earth that has a written or oral history of legends. Some of the gods, finding human females most appealing, intermarried with them (breaking, of course, a major taboo within their own culture), and creating a race of human/god hybrids. However, these actions (the interbreeding and sharing of secrets with humans) incurred the wrath of the Most High God, and a number of other gods who were disgusted by this interracial breeding. This sparked the massive and devastating battle of the gods that has come down to us in the legends of both the War in Heaven, and the Deluge. Then, in order to cleanse the Earth,s surface of the curse of humanity, they covered it with a flood. Interestingly, this flood is mentioned in the legends of almost every ancient culture on Earth. These Anunnaki are said to occupy another planet in our solar system (known to scientists as ‘Planet X’). This planet is called Nibiru, and is situated somewhere beyond Pluto. This planet, unlike other planets in our solar system, moves clockwise, rather than counter clockwise. It was a collision of Nibiru with another planet in our solar system which created Earth. Nibiru’s orbit passes through our solar system only once every 3,600 years. Based on the Planet X Video by Robert Sepehr: http://www.planetxvideo.com
http://tinyurl.com/survive2012-1 —– In 2012, Planet X will cause mass devastation on Earth. Tsunamis, hurricanes, and extreme freezing and boiling temperatures will kill off a major portion of the human race. The survivors will be the ones who are prepared with knowledge and a strategy. If you want to be prepared and live to see 2013, 2030, and enjoy a fulfilling life, then you need to visit this link!! —–http://tinyurl.com/survive2012-1
Many now believe that the Anunnaki of Nibiru are coming back to Earth soon. They believe that Planet X is going to pass by Earth on its 3,600 year orbit around our sun. Such believers are terrified of the consequences that a close pass by Nibiru might bring. They fear this will cause earthquakes, tidal waves, severe flooding, food shortages due to climatic conditions, diseases, meteor fire storms, volcanic eruptions and the like. They are afraid that it will result in a great catastrophic infliction on Earth. Highly advanced civilizations have been here before us, just to be destroyed by some great global catastrophy. But for each race that has died out another has taken its place with a selected few holding on to the memories and sacred knowledge of the past race. In our vanity we think we have discovered some of the great truths of science and technology.. but we are in fact just beginning to re-discover the wisdoms and technologies past races. The discovery of new planets in the last two hundred years owes more to mathematics than to bigger telescopes. Mathematical irregularities in the orbits of the outer planets, in particular, strange wobbles and gravitational anomalies noted in the orbits of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, have prompted astronomers over the past hundred years to search for a large planetary body in the outer solar system. Based on mathematical evidence, astronomers have been so sure of the reality of this planet that they named it Planet X. The name stands for the tenth planet, as well as the mathematical symbol for an unknown quantity. Why are our astronomers not aware of the existence of this planet? Even an orbit half as long as that of the comet Kohoutek (7,500 years) would take the 12th Planet about 6 times further away from us than Pluto. At this distance, the planet would not be visible from Earth. The ancient tale of Nibiru’s Celestial Battle is actually scientifically sophisticated, and current advances in astronomy have recently corroborated certain aspects of the Sumerian mythology http://www.planetxvideo.com nibiru, mountains, movies, theory, planet, ancient, sitchin, creation evolution garden of eden, climate change, 2012, nephilim, creation, evolution, sitchin, icke, giants, enoch, bible, book of revelations, gods, god, slaves slave slavery, tall, grey gray, blonde, star moon sun solar, alien, aliens ufo, mayan, sumerian, ancient egypt, dna, manipulation change alter force trick, abduct implant, contact contactee
Complete video at:http://fora.tv/2010/04/24/David_Morrison_Surviving_2012_and_Other_Cosmic_Disa&#8230; NASA astronomer David Morrison debunks conspiracy theories surrounding the “discovery” of Planet X, or Nibiru. Photoshop and a creative imagination, Morrison explains, lead many to believe in this fictional planet and the doomsday predictions for 2012. —– This program was recorded in collaboration with the 2010 SkeptiCal Conference, in Berkeley, CA, on April 24, 2010. Dr. David Morrison is the Director of the NASA Lunar Science Institute and Senior Scientist for Astrobiology at the NASA Ames Research Center. He holds a Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard and is internationally known for his research on small bodies in the solar system, including advocacy for developing plans to defend the Earth from impacts by comets and asteroids. A Fellow of CSI, he has written extensively on such fringe science topics as Velikovsky, cosmic catastrophes, UFOs, the creation science movement, and most recently the climate crisis caused by global warming. For the past two years he has been the primary scientist critic of the widespread fear that the world will end in 2012, and of the doomsday sleaze artists who use the Internet, blogs, and cable TV to frighten people for profit. Dr. Morrison’s discussion largely centers around the hoax of 2012. – SkeptiCal Conference David Morrison is the senior scientist at the NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., where he participates in a variety of research programs in astrobiology — the study of the living universe. Dr. Morrison obtained his doctorate in astronomy from Harvard University. He is the author of more than 155 technical papers and has published a dozen books. He has been a science investigator on NASA’s Mariner, Voyager and Galileo space missions. Morrison is recipient of the Dryden Medal for research of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Sagan Medal of the American Astronomical Society for public communication, and the Klumpke-Roberts award of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for contributions to science education. He has received two NASA Outstanding Leadership medals and he was awarded the Presidential Meritorious Rank for his work as director of space at NASA Ames. Morrison was a founder of the multidisciplinary field of astrobiology, and he provides on-line answers to questions from the public sent to “Ask an Astrobiologist,” found at: http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/astrobio/ Morrison is perhaps best known for his leadership since 1991 in defining the hazard of asteroid impacts and seeking ways to mitigate this risk. Asteroid 2410 Morrison is named in his honor. Category: Science & Technology Tags: nibiru hoax myth conspiracy theory theories fake psuedo science astronomy astronomers 2012 fora.tv foratv fora tv
NOTICE TO OUR VIEWERS: This is our last Planet X disclosure analysis. We stand by our reporting and encourage you to become self-informed.-Marshall Masters ******************* ORIGINAL ABOUT TEXT ******************* PLEASE DOWNLOAD THIS VIDEO: Note, the NibiruShock2012 account was closed by the impostor but copies of the first two videos were re-posted by another user. They match with what we have. Nibiru/Planet X photos taken January 2008 http://youtube.com/watch?v=2835QkjzaEQ Nibiru/Planet X update February 1 2008 http://youtube.com/watch?v=XJb0Uu0_HP8 This summary video discusses the events surrounding two very short-lived YouTube disclosure videos. Both revealed images of Planet X that were sourced to the South Pole Telescope (SPT) in Antarctica. Since our last major South Pole Telescope disclosure analysis article in April titled, First Two Planet X SPT Leaked Image Videos by NibiruShock2012 Now Seen as Highly Credible we’ve noticed the following three trends: * Frequency and number of disclosures. * More heavy-handed disinformation attacks. * Whistle blowers are falling on their swords. As the frequency and pace of disclosures increases, the disinformation attacks are becoming more heavy-handed. Back in March of this year, the disinformation was being played with the sophistication of a championship chess match, and the moves were played with finesse. However, this month this chess game has evolved into a bizarre Internet version of Whack ‘em All. Supporting Analysis Articles http://yowusa.com/planetx/2008/planetx-2008-05c/1.shtml
http://doomsday.atspace.org FREE DOWNLOAD OF ALL MY VIDEOS!!! Planet X Nibiru Nasa 2012 Doomsday Info Leaked Planet PlanetX Nibiru Nasa 2012 Doomsday Info Leaked Prophecy Armageddon End Times Days Jesus Christ God Messiah Bible Heaven Hell Devil Satan Lucifer New World Order Fema Martial Law Demon Demons Ghost Ghosts Spirit Spirits Concentration Camps America Coffins 666 Antichrist Conspiracy Illuminati Freemason NWO 2009 Alien Aliens Giant Giants Ufo Ufos Barack Obama Joe Biden US USA China Russia Economy Economic Dollar Collapse Alex Jones Ron Paul
Nibiru video – Second Sun – Planet X Light from the sun reflects off Nibiru’s massive dust cloud, creating a second sun.
DISCOVERY CHANNEL
It now seems that our entire universe is living on borrowed time. How long it can survive depends on whether Stephen Hawking’s theory checks out. Special thanks to Ivan Bridgewater for use of footage. Time is flying by on this busy, crowded planet… as life changes and evolves from second to second. And yet the arc of human lifespan is getting longer: 65 years is the global average … way up from just 20 in the Stone Age. Modern science, however, provides a humbling perspective. Our lives… indeed the life span of the human species… is just a blip compared to the age of the universe, at 13.7 billion years and counting. It now seems that our entire universe is living on borrowed time… And that even it may be just a blip within the grand sweep of deep time. Scholars debate whether time is a property of the universe… or a human invention. What’s certain is that we use the ticking of all kinds of clocks… from the decay of radioactive elements to the oscillation of light beams… to chart and measure a changing universe… to understand how it works and what drives it. Our own major reference for the passage of time is the 24-hour day… the time it takes the Earth to rotate once. Well, it’s actually 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds… approximately… if you’re judging by the stars, not the sun. Earth acquired its spin during its birth, from the bombardment of rocks and dust that formed it. But it’s gradually losing that rotation to drag from the moon’s gravity. That’s why, in the time of the dinosaurs, a year was 370 days… and why we have to add a leap second to our clocks about every 18 months. In a few hundred million years, we’ll gain a whole hour. The day-night cycle is so reliable that it has come to regulate our internal chemistry. The fading rays of the sun, picked up by the retinas in our eyes, set our so-called “circadian rhythms” in motion. That’s when our brains begin to secrete melatonin, a hormone that tells our bodies to get ready for sleep. Long ago, this may have been an adaptation to keep us quiet and clear of night-time predators. Finally, in the light of morning, the flow of melatonin stops. Our blood pressure spikes… body temperature and heart rate rise as we move out into the world. Over the days … and years… we march to the beat of our biology. But with our minds, we have learned to follow time’s trail out to longer and longer intervals. Philosophers have wondered… does time move like an arrow… with all the phenomena in nature pushing toward an inevitable end? Or perhaps, it moves in cycles that endlessly repeat… and even perhaps restore what is there? We know from precise measurements that the Earth goes around the sun once every 365.256366 days. As the Earth orbits, with each hemisphere tilting toward and away from its parent star, the seasons bring on cycles of life… birth and reproduction… decay and death. Only about one billionth of the Sun’s energy actually hits the Earth. And much of that gets absorbed by dust and water vapor in the upper atmosphere. What does make it down to the surface sets many planetary processes in motion. You can see it in the annual melting and refreezing of ice at the poles… the ebb and flow of heat in the tropical oceans… The seasonal cycles of chlorophyll production in plants on land and at sea… and in the biosphere at large. These cycles are embedded in still longer Earth cycles. Ocean currents, for example, are thought to make complete cycles ranging from four to around sixteen centuries. Moving out in time, as the Earth rotates on its axis, it completes a series of interlocking wobbles called Milankovic cycles every 23 to 41,000 years. They have been blamed for the onset of ice ages about every one hundred thousand years. Then there’s the carbon cycle. It begins with rainfall over the oceans and coastal waves that pull carbon dioxide into the sea.

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The Anunnaki and Nephilim

the creation

The Biblical verses dealing with the fashioning of The Adam are condensed renderings of much more detailed Sumerian and Akkadian texts, found etched on clay tablets, in which the role of the Elohim in Genesis is performed by the Anunnaki “Those Who From Heaven to Earth Came.” Inscribed in Cuneiform, the worlds first written language, these Sumerian tablets and cylinder seals have been available since the 1800’s and are currently dispersed among many museums worldwide.

In his Earth Chronicles series, Zacharia Sitchin, an expert in ancient Semitic and Hebrew languages, offers the premise that mythology is the repository of ancient memory, the Bible is a historic and scientific document, and ancient civilizations were the product of knowledge given to the people by the Anunnaki. In Sitchin’s words, “The Anunnaki came to Earth some 450,000 years ago from the planet Nibiru, a member of our own solar system whose great orbit brings it to our part of the heavens once every 3,600 years. They came here in need of gold, with which to protect their dwindling atmosphere. Exhausted and in need of help in mining the gold, their chief scientist Enki suggested that they use their genetic knowledge to create the needed Primitive Workers…. to upgrade genetically the existing hominids, who were already on Earth through Evolution, by adding some of the genes of the more advanced Anunnaki.”

As outrageous as this sounds, Sitchin’s interpretations do something that few religions are able to do… bridge the gap between creation myths and modern evolutionary theories. Having mapped the human genome and conducted genetic engineering ourselves, it is now plausible to consider that another race had fashioned us in a similar manner. This interpretation not only clarifies the origin of creation stories in many subsequent religions, but also solves the problem of the “missing link” which still plagues Darwinists to this day.

The Anunnaki and Nephilim

The recovered records place the location of the Anunnaki laboratory where the first humans were said to have been literally produced in central Africa. Indeed, Mitochondria DNA places the first homo-sapiens sapiens in the same time frame and location; in east central Africa just above their gold mines.

In a lecture at New York University in 1993, Sitchin further outlined his theory about human origins and our link with the Anunnaki by saying, “Ancient history and legend around the world, as well as the Bible, attest to the fact that there were once giants in the earth; men of awesome dimensions, bulk and height. In Genesis 6:1-4 we read, “And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose… There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, that they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown”.

The Book of Enoch, an ancient text discovered in Ethiopia in 1773 (and because of references to it in ancient Hebrew writings considered to be among the oldest manuscripts in existence) speaks about 200 angels who came down to earth to mate with the “daughters of man”. Led by a high angel named Azazyel, the angels produced giant men. During this strange occupation, Enoch writes that humans were taught to make swords, knives, shields, breastplates, mirrors, jewelry, paints and dyes, make cosmetics, and use valuable stones. The people also learned sorcery, use of roots and plants for medicine, astronomy, astrology and other “signs”, and the importance of the motion of the celestial bodies.

http://www.planetxvideo.com/observation2.php

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Noted Researchers

Sitchin

Zacharia Sitchin “That Mankind’s progression from Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) to Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) to Neolithic (New Stone Age) and then the great Sumerian civilization, had occurred in intervals of about 3600 years is a fact. That Anu visited Earth, approved the grant of civilization (knowledge, science, technology) to Mankind is certain. But as I have tried to explain in my recent Seminars (though not yet in a full length book), the visits to Earth and the nearing (at what is called perihelion) of Nibiru do NOT coincide. This is a point of immense significance, which those who have only read my first book somehow ignore.” – Sitchin

Immanuel Velikovsky: “In the fields of archaeology, geology, and astronomy the last few years have brought a vast array of facts to corroborate the claims that there were physical upheavals of a global character in historical times; that these catastrophes were caused by extraterrestrial agents; and that the nature of these agents may be identified. The memory of the cataclysms was erased, not because of lack of written traditions, but because of some characteristic process that later caused entire nations, together with their literate men, to read into these traditions allegories or metaphors where actually cosmic disturbances were clearly described.” – Immanuel Velikovsky

Velikovsky

Harrington

Dr. Robert Harrington: Dr. Robert S. Harrington, former chief of the Equatorial Division of the Astrometry Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory, , calculated several parameters of Planet X and its orbit. Harrington started from the perturbatians in the orbits of Neptune and Uranus, knowing that Pluto could not be responsible for them. The observations he used were supplied by the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory and go back as far as 1833 for Uranus and 1846 for Neptune. Harrington Paper

Albert Einstein: Concluding ‘one of the least-known correspondences of the history of science’, in January 1955, only months before his death, Einstein remarked that: “A great many empirical data indicate that at each point of the earth’s surface that has been carefully studied, many climatic changes have taken place, apparently quite suddenly. This is explicable if the virtually rigid outer crust of the earth undergoes, from time to time, extensive displacement …” Albert Einstein

Einstein

John Matise

Professor John J. Matese: In 1999, U.K. and U.S. astronomers independently reported finding evidence that a large planet or brown dwarf gravitationally bound to the Sun may be perturbing the orbits of long-period comets at the outer reaches of the Oort Cloud into the inner Solar System with the assistance of galactic tidal forces. The U.S. team was led by Professor John J. Matese, Professor of Physics University of Louisiana at Lafayette. ABC News Article

Father Malachi Martin: “Knowledge of what is going on in space and of what is approaching us could be of great import in next 5 – 10 years.” This statement was made by the late Father Malachi Martin in response to a question pertaining to the purpose of the Vatican owned Mount Graham International Observatory. From 1958 to 1964 he served in Rome, where he was a close associate of the Pope. Father Malachi Martin passed away in 1999. Audio Clip

Charles Hapgood: In 1958 Charles Hapgood suggested that the Earth’s crust had undergone repeated displacements and that the geological concepts of continental drift and sea-floor spreading owed their secondary livelihoods to the primary nature of crustal shift. According to Hapgood, crustal shift was made possible by a layer of liquid rock situated beneath the surface of the planet. A pole shift would thus displace the Earth’s crust in around the inner mantle, resulting in crustal rock’s being exposed to magnetic fields of a different direction. Earth Crust Displacement

Hapgood

Looking down on the current North Pole, we can identify at least 3 previous positions of the pole, according to Hapgood. These are shown roughly by the numbered red dots on the globe.

Position #1 – Yukon area of North America moving east.
Position #2 – Greenland Sea moving south-west.
Position #3 – Hudson Bay area moving to its present location.

John Murray: According to UK astronomer, Dr. John Murray, there seems to be a huge, massive planet in the midst of the Oort cloud, which is “shepherding” the comets. If he’s right, the planet would be incredibly far from Earth, which would explain how it could have eluded most astronomers for so long. Murray also says Planet X orbits in the opposite direction to the other planets, suggesting it was captured from outside the solar system at some time and could even be a brown dwarf star. BBC Article

Catastrophes of global proportions, not witnessed in the two millennia of our own age, took place even in recorded history. These were not isolated disasters in different parts of the world, but global geological events felt world wide. Many cultures describe the events, their sequence and outcome, in the same way. The catastrophe is recorded in religious traditions, superstitions and the great works of almost every significant culture but remains mostly unacknowledged by the sciences of our own day. 3600 Year Pattern

Cayce

Edgar Cayce: Besides tales of the lost sunken city of Atlantis, Edgar Cayce is best known for his predictions regarding coming earth changes. Among other things, Cayce warned of a pole shift who’s process would start in 2001-2002. “If there is the greater activities in theVesuvius, or Pelee then the southern coast of California and the areas between Salt lake and the southern portions of Nevada may expect within the three months following same, an inundation by the earthquakes.” – Cayce Predictions

plato

Plato: If we are to look into the myths of catastrophism throughout the world, the story is often strangely similar. Of all the keepers of ancient knowledge Egypt and Greece are the best known. In Plato’s two last books, Critias and Timaeus, Plato records the story heard by Solon, the great Athenian law-giver. On his visit to Egypt, Solon questioned the priests on early history. He told them what his people knew about the Flood. One of them, an elderly priest known as Sonchis of Sais spoke up and mocked Solon and his city-state’s ignorance of the ancient past. Sonchis explained the following:

“There have been and there will be many and divers destructions of mankind, of which the greatest are fire and water, and lesser ones by countless other means. For in truth the story that is told in your country as well as ours, how once upon a time Phaethon, son of Helios, yoked his father’s chariot, and, because he was unable to drive it along the course taken by his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth and himself perished by a thunderbolt – that story, as it is told, has a fashion of a legend, but the truth of it lies in the occurrence of a shifting of the bodies in the heavens which move around the earth, and a destruction of the things on the earth by fierce fire, which recurs at long intervals.”

“You remember only one deluge, though there have been many..You and your fellow citizens are descended from the few survivors that remained, but you know nothing about it because so many succeeding generations left no record in writing .the change in the rising and setting of the sun and the other heavenly bodies, how in those times they used to set in the quarter where they now rise, and used to rise where they now set… Of all the changes which take place in the heavens this reversal is the greatest and most complete ..There is at that time great destruction of animals in general, and only a small part of the human race survives.”

Charles Darwin: Charles Darwin, who denied the occurrence of continental catastrophes in the past, in a letter to Sir Henry Howorth admitted that the extinction of mammoths in Siberia was for him an insoluble problem. J.D. Dana, the leading American geologist of the second half of the last century, wrote: “The encasing in ice of huge elephants, and the perfect preservation of the flesh, shows that the cold finally became suddenly extreme, as of a single winter’s night, and knew no relenting afterward.” In the stomachs and between the teeth of the mammoths were found plants and grasses that do not grow now in northern Siberia. “The contents of the stomachs have been carefully examined; they showed the undigested food … which was a proof of a sudden death.”

http://www.planetxvideo.com/observation.php

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Quotes and Facts

Quotes From the Bible:

“From a far away land they came, from the end-point of Heaven do the Lord and his weapons of wrath come to destroy the whole Earth. Therefore will I agitate the Heaven and Earth shall be shaken out of its place. When the Lord of Hosts shall be crossing, the day of his burning wrath.” Isaiah 13:1

“…For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day the Noah entered the ark.”
“And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.” St. Matthew 24: 38-39

Pliny’s Natural History, reads:

“A terrible comet was seen by the people of Ethiopia and Egypt, to which Typhon, the king of that period, gave his name; it had a fiery appearance and was twisted like a coil, and it was very grim to behold; it was not really a star so much as what it might be called a ball of fire.” A time no more distant perhaps than 3,500 years ago.

Caius Julius Solinus wrote of the Egyptians:

‘The inhabitants of this country say that they have it from their ancestors that the sun now sets where it formerly rose,’

Quote from Pomponius Mela, a Latin author of the first century:

“The Egyptians pride themselves on being the most ancient people in the world. In their authentic annals … one may read that since they have been in existence, the course of the stars has changed direction four times, and that the sun has set twice in that part of the sky where it rises today.”

Immanuel Velikovsky [Worlds in Collision, p.136]

“The fact I hope to establish is that from the fifteenth century to the eighth century before the present era the astronomical year was equal to 360 days; neither before the fifteenth century, nor after the eighth century was the year of this length.”

In Tractate Sanhedrin of the Talmud it is said:

‘Seven days before the deluge, the Holy One changed the primeval order and the sun rose in the west and set in the east.

The Aztecs Indians Related:

‘There had been no sun in existence for many years ..[The Chiefs] began to peer through the gloom in all directions for the expected sight, and to make bets as to what part of heaven [the sun] should first appear … but when the sun rose, they were all proved wrong, for not one of them had fixed upon the east.’

Quote by Edgar Cayce:

“If there is the greater activities in the Vesuvius, or Pelee then the southern coast of California and the areas between the Salt lake and the southern portions of Nevada may expect within the three months following same, an inundation by the earthquakes.” – Edgar Cayce.

Quote from a Hopi Elder:

“Nature and the spirit of our ancestors are giving you loud warnings. Today you see increasing floods, more damaging hurricanes, hail storms, climate changes and earthquakes as our prophecies said would come. Why do animals act like they know about the earth’s problems and most humans act like they know nothing? If we humans do not wake up to the warnings, the great purification will come to destroy this world just as the previous worlds were destroyed.” -Thomas Banyacya, HOPI Nation address to United Nations, December 10th, 1992

Immanuel Velikovsky [Worlds in Collision, p.126]

In the Ancient Syrian city Ugarit (Ras Shamra) was found a poem dedicated to the planet-goddess Anat, who ‘massacred the population of the Levant,’ and who ‘exchanged the two dawns and the positions of the stars.’

Ancient Judaism

Hai Gaon, the rabbinical authority who flourished between 939 and 1038, in his Responses refers to cosmic changes in which the sun rose in the west and set in the east.

Eskimo Folklore

The Eskimos of Greenland told missionaries that in an ancient time the earth turned over and the people who lived then became antipodes.

Aborigines of Western Brazil

The tradition of the Cashina, it is narrated as follows; ‘the lightnings flashed and the thunders roared terribly and all were afraid. Then the heaven burst and the fragments fell down and killed everything and everybody. Heaven and earth changed places. Nothing that had life was left upon the earth.’

China:

At the time of the miracle is said to have happened that the sun during a span of ten days did not set, the forests were ignited, and a multitude of abominable vermin was brought forth.’In the lifetime of Yao [Yahou] the sun did not set for full ten days and the entire land was flooded.’ [Worlds in Collision, p.114]

Immanuel Velikovsky [Worlds in Collision, p.120]

The real meaning of ‘the irrational orientation of the southern panel’ and the ‘reversed position of Orion’ appears to be this: the southern panel shows the sky of Egypt as it was before the celestial sphere interchanged north and south, east and west. The northern panel shows the sky of Egypt as it was on some night of the year in the time of Senmut.

Plato

Plato wrote in his dialogue, The Statesman (Politicus): ‘I mean the change in the rising and the setting of the sun and the other heavenly bodies, how in those times they used to set in the quarter where they now rise, and they used to rise where they now set..’

Quote from Carl Sagan

Quote from Carl Sagan, in his book Cosmos, 1980, page 91 : The worst aspect of the Velikovsky affair is not that his hypotheses were wrong or in contradiction to firmly established facts, but that some who called themselves scientists attempted to suppress Velikovsky?s work. Science is generated by and devoted to free inquiry: the idea that any hypothesis, no matter how strange, deserves to be considered on its merits. The suppression of uncomfortable ideas may be common in religion and politics, but it is not the path to knowledge; it has no place in the endeavor of science. We do not know in advance who will discover fundamental new insights.

Science

Whales in the Mountains, Bones of whale have been found 440 feet above sea level, north of Lake Ontario; a skeleton of another whale was discovered in Vermont, more than 500 feet above sea level; and still another in the Montreal- Quebec area, about 600 feet above sea level. Although the Humphrey whale and beluga occasionally enter the mouth of the St. Lawrence, they do not climb hills.

Times and Dates

Careful investigation by W.A. Johnston of the Niagara River bed disclosed that the present channel was cut by the falls less than 4,000 years ago. And equally careful investigation of the Bear River delta by Hanson showed that the age of this delta was 3,600 years. The study by Claude Jones of the lakes of the Great Basin showed that these lakes, remnants of larger glacial lakes, have existed only about 3,500 years. Gales obtained the same result on Owen Lake in California and also Van Winkle on Abert and Summer lakes in Oregon.

Extintictions in Cycles

Radiocarbon analysis by Libby also indicates that plants associated with extinct animals (mastodons) in Mexico are probably only 3,500 years old. Similar conclusions concerning the late survival of the Pleistocene fauna were drawn by various field workers in many parts of the American continent. Suess and Rubin found with the help of radiocarbon analysis that in the mountains of the western United

Extinctions During the Last Cycle

The Florida fossil beds at Vero and Melbourne proved – by the artifacts found there together with human bones and the remains of animals, many of which are extinct – that these fossil beds were deposited between 2,000 and 4,000 years ago. From observations on beaches in numerous places all over the world, Daly concluded that there was a change in the ocean level, which dropped sixteen to twenty feet 3,500 years ago. Kuenen and others confirmed Daly’s findings with evidence derived from Europe.

Dropped Ocean Level

Dropped Ocean Level, R.A. Daly observed that in a great many places all around the world there is a uniform emergence of the shore line of 18 to 20 feet. In the southwest Pacific, on the islands belonging to the Samoan group but spread over two hundred miles, the same emergence is evident. Nearly halfway around the world, at St. Helena in the South Atlantic, the lava is punctuated by dry sea caves, the floors of which are covered with water-worn pebbles, now dusty because untouched by the surf. The emergence there is also 20 feet. At the Cape of Good Hope caves and beaches also prove recent and sensibly uniform emergence to the extent of about 20 feet.

Dating of Previous Shift

Marine terraces, indicating similar emergence, are found along the Atlantic coast from New York to the Gulf of Mexico; for at least 1,000 miles along the coast of eastern Australia; along the coasts of Brazil, southwest Africa, and many islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. The emergence is recent as well as of the same order of magnitude, (20 feet). Judging from the condition of beaches, terraces, and caves, the emergence seems to have been simultaneous on every shore. In (Daly’s) opinion the cause lies in the sinking of the level of all seas on the globe. Alternatively, Daly thinks it could have resulted from a deepening of the oceans or from an increase in their areas. Of special interest is the time of the change. Daly estimated the sudden drop of oceanic level to (have occurred) some 3,000 to 4,000 years ago.

The Ivory Islands

In 1797 the body of a mammoth, with flesh, skin, and hair, was found in northeastern Siberia. The flesh had the appearance of freshly frozen beef; it was edible, and wolves and sled dogs fed on it without harm. The ground must have been frozen ever since the day of their entombment; had it not been frozen, the bodies of the mammoths would have putrefied in a single summer, but they remained unspoiled for some thousands of years. In some mammoths, when discovered, even the eyeballs were still preserved. (All) this shows that the cold became suddenly extreme .. and knew no relenting afterward. In the stomachs and between the teeth of the mammoths were found plants and grasses that do not grow now in northern Siberia .. (but are) .. now found in southern Siberia. Microscopic examination of the skin showed red blood corpuscles, which was proof not only of a sudden death, but that the death was due to suffocation either by gases or water.

Myth and Folklore Remains

‘Nothing’ perhaps but the few survivors who were able to carry the tradition of this cataclysm to us today. Myths relating to the falling sky may be found amongst not only the Celts, but the Lapps of Finland, Eskimos of Greenland, the ancient peoples of Mexico, China, Tibet, the tribes of Samoa, and those of eastern and western Africa. Obviously not all life that was left on earth perished during this series of cataclysms, but accounts of those who did are plentiful.

Plato

Plato wrote in his dialogue, The Statesman (Politicus): ‘I mean the change in the rising and the setting of the sun and the other heavenly bodies, how in those times they used to set in the quarter where they now rise, and they used to rise where they now set..’

Extintictions in Cycles

Radiocarbon analysis by Libby also indicates that plants associated with extinct animals (mastodons) in Mexico are probably only 3,500 years old. Similar conclusions concerning the late survival of the Pleistocene fauna were drawn by various field workers in many parts of the American continent. Suess and Rubin found with the help of radiocarbon analysis that in the mountains of the western United States ice advanced only 3000 years ago.

http://www.planetxvideo.com/past.php

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Nibiru – 4th March has arrived!

Is today the day when we finally learn our fate – 4th March is the day we are supposed to see Nibiru break through the solar ecliptic plain. This guy appears to have an angle on it. Taken from usmessageboard.com – watch the sky you folks with your telescopes.
Better still watch out for rising seas etc.,
Quote:
From:Terral …mail.com)Sent:Tue 2/15/11 11:05 AMTo: news@wfla.com;
WFLA News Tip Line:
My name is Terral … writing to report that a brown dwarf with 3 moons is currently located between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars set to break through the solar ecliptic plane on March 4, 2011. A multi-planetary/Solar alignment will take place on March 15, 2011, when the Earth passes through the gravity trough/trench connecting the Sun to the approaching brown dwarf. The coordinates of the brown dwarf are 5h 53m 27s -6 10′ 58 in the Constellation Leo. The NASA orbit diagram/chart for the comet Elenin shows the tracking data for the incoming brown dwarf that will pass 22.3 million miles from the Earth on October 17, 2011. Google has blacked out Google Sky images of this exact location, which you can read about in my USMB posting here:
Google Is Deliberately Hiding Nibiru Images @ 5h 53m 27s -6 10′ 58
That post has pictures of the inbound brown dwarf and multiple moons. Follow the link to my Brown Dwarf Timeline here:
The Planet X/Nibiru/ELEnin Brown Dwarf Timeline
The first Gov link in that post shows you the NASA tracking data for the incoming brown dwarf, but cleverly disguised as a harmless comet.
JPL Small-Body Database Browser
The data says the brown dwarf will break through the solar ecliptic plane into the northern hemisphere on March 4, 2011, when the earth change ‘events’ will begin to escalate out of control. In that event, people must evacuate the coasts in anticipation of severe rogue tides and tidal waves associated with the anticipated March 15, 2011 ‘pole shift event.’ The magnetic shift since 2004 is actually magnetic pole migration in response to the gravity well, massive magnetism and polarity of the approaching brown dwarf that orbits near the sun just once every 3600 years. I realize that this News Tip seems outrageous, but this is what all the evidence in my investigation is saying and the people have a right to see the evidence and decide for themselves. In other words, this is the very reason the Tip Line was created in the first place and pushing this under the carpet makes WFLA part of a very big Global Conspiracy to hide ‘the truth’ like Google. This is what Google is hiding:
i29.photobucket.com…
Now this is what you see at 5h 53m 27s -6 10′ 58:
i29.photobucket.com…
Now you tell me why the only place on Google Sky that is blacked out just happens to be the same exact location of the recently-discovered ELEnin Comet? Your meteorologists are smart people. Have them look these things up. I am not saying this is doomsday, but the people had better be prepared:
100 miles from coasts.
200 feet above sea level.
away from fault zones.
away from volcanoes.
away from Yellowstone.
away from New Madrid Fault Zone.
away from Mississippi River Valley from Louisiana to Michigan.
Peoples have survived Nibiru for hundreds of thousands of years, but they were prepared. You have been given sufficient information to get the warning out, or to shove this News Story under the rug.
Terral …
terral…mail.com
USMB

http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread670038/pg1

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SURVIVING NIBIRU 2012
Comprehensive Guide To What You Need Know To Surviving Both The Solar Strom & Nibiru 2012.


Is Nibiru the greatest hoax ever portrayed? More and more amateur photos and satellite images of Nibiru keep coming forward.

Then there is another issue that US governments have swept under the rug where NASA has been warning everyone man,

woman and child to get ready for a once in a life time super solar storm event. Trouble is, NASA does not tell us how to

prepare, or what exactly to prepare for. But on the other hand… planet-x is an equally, if not far greater concern then

this coming x-class solar storm based upon science. However, the National Academy of Science says a super solar

storm can arrive anytime between now and 2013, causing the united states to be locked down for months

in a world wide power blackout. The ungodly amounts of electromagnetic radiation emitted from such

a prolong event will cause nearly all electronics to break down, even if it’s not plugged into the wall.

This means no cell phones, no computers, no web, no banking system, no cars, trucks or

planes will operate. You and I will all be on our own to fend for food and water as well as

medical supplies and shelter. After the first two months, most will either have begun to

run out of food and water or have long since run out. This will make people desperate

and anarchy above ground, and the fittest will rule over the land. Here we will

present you proof that not only NASA but other agencies all around the

world have long since prepared for the coming of a great solar storm.

The good news is that there is a simple way you and I can keep

our electronics from breaking down once the solar storm

arrives. There is also a new way to makes your own

electricity once the blackout begins without fuel.

Do your own research and be amazed.

Then come back and learn…

How best to Survive 2012.
.

We will be posting new footage of Nibiru by 01/31/2011.

http://www.surviving-nibiru.com/

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NASA Predicts A Solar Flare Will Knock Out All Electricity in 2012

sci_spw7

Newly discovered evidence by NASA predicts that a super solar storm coming in mid-May 2012, which occurred on Earth in 1805, could occur again and knock out all electricity on the planet, taking us back 100 years.
Prior to 2006, researchers at NASA and other similar think-tanks discovered strong evidence that a solar storm is coming–and this week the most intense solar maximum in fifty years has been detected. The facts are starting to grow.
The prediction has been issued by a team led by Mausumi Dikpati of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Dikpati’s prediction is unprecedented.
According to Dikpati “The next sunspot cycle will be 30% to 50% stronger than the previous one,” she says. If correct, the next solar maximum forecast for 2012 would be a global catastrophe–second only to the historic Solar Max of 1958 and 1805.
However, in 1958 and 1805 humans didn’t rely as much on technology as we do now. The entire economy and communications network of the world is dependent on these technologies–in a nutshell a solar flair would cripple us.
So what can we expect?
The first signs of the sun storm would be noticed by its effect on mobile and land-line phones, internet, GPS, weather satellites and a host of other modern technologies–we take for granted.
According to the site TMGNOW.com “Roughly once or twice a decade, the eruption of [the Sun's] stellar material is powerful enough to send huge electric currents racing around the Earth’s upper atmosphere, disrupting power grids and communications satellites. In 1989, one such explosion knocked out a power grid in Quebec…..A superflare on the Sun would be about 10,000 times as powerful as the explosion that caused the Canadian blackout…Although life on Earth would survive, the atmosphere would glow very brightly and half the ozone layer would be destroyed.”
The solar storm would act like an electro-magnetic pulse traveling at the speed of light. The superflare EMP would behave like a huge ripple in the earth’s electromagnetic field. When that ripple hits electrical systems, it would be amplified and in less than a millisecond, the combined power grids through out the globe would be destroyed.
And if the power goes, everything goes: electricity, communications, financial records, transport, water, food, gas… EVERYTHING! Economies would fail, communications would cease, and starvation would ensue–we would be taken back 100 years. Think of the Sci-fi film’s ‘The Day After Tomorrow’ or ‘The Road’ and you’ll get an idea…
Perhaps it’s time to freeze dry our food, purchase Swiss army cards, construct bomb shelters, and pack away those spare socks

Long Range Solar Forecast

Solar Cycle 25 peaking around 2022 could be one of the weakest in centuries.

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May 10, 2006: The Sun’s Great Conveyor Belt has slowed to a record-low crawl, according to research by NASA solar physicist David Hathaway. “It’s off the bottom of the charts,” he says. “This has important repercussions for future solar activity.”

see captionThe Great Conveyor Belt is a massive circulating current of fire (hot plasma) within the Sun. It has two branches, north and south, each taking about 40 years to perform one complete circuit. Researchers believe the turning of the belt controls the sunspot cycle, and that’s why the slowdown is important.

Right: The sun’s “Great Conveyor Belt” in profile.

“Normally, the conveyor belt moves about 1 meter per second—walking pace,” says Hathaway. “That’s how it has been since the late 19th century.” In recent years, however, the belt has decelerated to 0.75 m/s in the north and 0.35 m/s in the south. “We’ve never seen speeds so low.”

According to theory and observation, the speed of the belt foretells the intensity of sunspot activity ~20 years in the future. A slow belt means lower solar activity; a fast belt means stronger activity. The reasons for this are explained in the Science@NASA story Solar Storm Warning.

“The slowdown we see now means that Solar Cycle 25, peaking around the year 2022, could be one of the weakest in centuries,” says Hathaway.

This is interesting news for astronauts. Solar Cycle 25 is when the Vision for Space Exploration should be in full flower, with men and women back on the Moon preparing to go to Mars. A weak solar cycle means they won’t have to worry so much about solar flares and radiation storms.

see caption

Above: In red, David Hathaway’s predictions for the next two solar cycles and, in pink, Mausumi Dikpati’s prediction for cycle 24.

On the other hand, they will have to worry more about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from deep space; they penetrate metal, plastic, flesh and bone. Astronauts exposed to cosmic rays develop an increased risk of cancer, cataracts and other maladies. Ironically, solar explosions, which produce their own deadly radiation, sweep away the even deadlier cosmic rays. As flares subside, cosmic rays intensify—yin, yang.

Hathaway’s prediction should not be confused with another recent forecast: A team led by physicist Mausumi Dikpata of NCAR has predicted that Cycle 24, peaking in 2011 or 2012, will be intense. Hathaway agrees: “Cycle 24 will be strong. Cycle 25 will be weak. Both of these predictions are based on the observed behavior of the conveyor belt.”

How do you observe a belt that plunges 200,000 km below the surface of the sun?

see caption“We do it using sunspots,” Hathaway explains. Sunspots are magnetic knots that bubble up from the base of the conveyor belt, eventually popping through the surface of the sun. Astronomers have long known that sunspots have a tendency to drift—from mid solar latitudes toward the sun’s equator. According to current thinking, this drift is caused by the motion of the conveyor belt. “By measuring the drift of sunspot groups,” says Hathaway, “we indirectly measure the speed of the belt.”

Right: Hathaway monitors the speed of the Conveyor Belt by plotting the drift of sunspot groups from high to low solar latitude. This plot is called “the Butterfly Diagram.” The tilt of the wings reveal the speed of the Conveyor Belt. [More]

Using historical sunspot records, Hathaway has succeeded in clocking the conveyor belt as far back as 1890. The numbers are compelling: For more than a century, “the speed of the belt has been a good predictor of future solar activity.”

If the trend holds, Solar Cycle 25 in 2022 could be, like the belt itself, “off the bottom of the charts.”

Who’s Afraid of a Solar Flare? — (Science@NASA) Solar activity can be surprisingly good for astronauts.

A word about solar cycles: Astronomers number each 11-year solar cycle, 1, 2, 3 and so on. For obscure historical reasons, Solar Cycle 1 is a nondescript cycle which peaked in 1760. The most recent cycle, Cycle 23, peaked in 2001 and is coming to an end now. Hathaway’s prediction concerns Cycle 25. “The speed of the conveyor belt predicts solar activity two cycles ahead,” he explains. “The belt was moving slowly during Cycle 23; that means Cycle 25 will be weak.”

Solar Storm Warning — (Science@NASA) Solar Cycle 24 should be intense

Scientists Issue Unprecedented Forecast of Next Sunspot Cycle — NCAR press release.

The Vision for Space Exploration

New Solar Cycle Prediction

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May 29, 2009: An international panel of experts led by NOAA and sponsored by NASA has released a new prediction for the next solar cycle. Solar Cycle 24 will peak, they say, in May 2013 with a below-average number of sunspots.

“If our prediction is correct, Solar Cycle 24 will have a peak sunspot number of 90, the lowest of any cycle since 1928 when Solar Cycle 16 peaked at 78,” says panel chairman Doug Biesecker of the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center.

Right: A solar flare observed in Dec. 2006 by NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite.

It is tempting to describe such a cycle as “weak” or “mild,” but that could give the wrong impression.

“Even a below-average cycle is capable of producing severe space weather,” points out Biesecker. “The great geomagnetic storm of 1859, for instance, occurred during a solar cycle of about the same size we’re predicting for 2013.”

The 1859 storm–known as the “Carrington Event” after astronomer Richard Carrington who witnessed the instigating solar flare–electrified transmission cables, set fires in telegraph offices, and produced Northern Lights so bright that people could read newspapers by their red and green glow. A recent report by the National Academy of Sciences found that if a similar storm occurred today, it could cause $1 to 2 trillion in damages to society’s high-tech infrastructure and require four to ten years for complete recovery. For comparison, Hurricane Katrina caused “only” $80 to 125 billion in damage.

Above: This plot of sunspot numbers shows the measured peak of the last solar cycle in blue and the predicted peak of the next solar cycle in red. Credit: NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center. [more]

The latest forecast revises an earlier prediction issued in 2007. At that time, a sharply divided panel believed solar minimum would come in March 2008 followed by either a strong solar maximum in 2011 or a weak solar maximum in 2012. Competing models gave different answers, and researchers were eager for the sun to reveal which was correct.

“It turns out that none of our models were totally correct,” says Dean Pesnell of the Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA’s lead representative on the panel. “The sun is behaving in an unexpected and very interesting way.”

Researchers have known about the solar cycle since the mid-1800s. Graphs of sunspot numbers resemble a roller coaster, going up and down with an approximately 11-year period. At first glance, it looks like a regular pattern, but predicting the peaks and valleys has proven troublesome. Cycles vary in length from about 9 to 14 years. Some peaks are high, others low. The valleys are usually brief, lasting only a couple of years, but sometimes they stretch out much longer. In the 17th century the sun plunged into a 70-year period of spotlessness known as the Maunder Minimum that still baffles scientists.

Above: Yearly-averaged sunspot numbers from 1610 to 2008. Researchers believe upcoming Solar Cycle 24 will be similar to the cycle that peaked in 1928, marked by a red arrow. Credit: NASA/MSFC

Right now, the solar cycle is in a valley–the deepest of the past century. In 2008 and 2009, the sun set Space Age records for low sunspot counts, weak solar wind, and low solar irradiance. The sun has gone more than two years without a significant solar flare.

“In our professional careers, we’ve never seen anything quite like it,” says Pesnell. “Solar minimum has lasted far beyond the date we predicted in 2007.”

In recent months, however, the sun has begun to show timorous signs of life. Small sunspots and “proto-sunspots” are popping up with increasing frequency. Enormous currents of plasma on the sun’s surface (“zonal flows”) are gaining strength and slowly drifting toward the sun’s equator. Radio astronomers have detected a tiny but significant uptick in solar radio emissions. All these things are precursors of an awakening Solar Cycle 24 and form the basis for the panel’s new, almost unanimous forecast.

According to the forecast, the sun should remain generally calm for at least another year. From a research point of view, that’s good news because solar minimum has proven to be more interesting than anyone imagined. Low solar activity has a profound effect on Earth’s atmosphere, allowing it to cool and contract. Space junk accumulates in Earth orbit because there is less aerodynamic drag. The becalmed solar wind whips up fewer magnetic storms around Earth’s poles. Cosmic rays that are normally pushed back by solar wind instead intrude on the near-Earth environment. There are other side-effects, too, that can be studied only so long as the sun remains quiet.

Meanwhile, the sun pays little heed to human committees. There could be more surprises, panelists acknowledge, and more revisions to the forecast.

“Go ahead and mark your calendar for May 2013,” says Pesnell. “But use a pencil.”

Solar Storm Warning

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March 10, 2006:
It’s official: Solar minimum has arrived. Sunspots have all but vanished. Solar flares are nonexistent. The sun is utterly quiet.

Like the quiet before a storm.

This week researchers announced that a storm is coming–the most intense solar maximum in fifty years. The prediction comes from a team led by Mausumi Dikpati of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). “The next sunspot cycle will be 30% to 50% stronger than the previous one,” she says. If correct, the years ahead could produce a burst of solar activity second only to the historic Solar Max of 1958.

see captionThat was a solar maximum. The Space Age was just beginning: Sputnik was launched in Oct. 1957 and Explorer 1 (the first US satellite) in Jan. 1958. In 1958 you couldn’t tell that a solar storm was underway by looking at the bars on your cell phone; cell phones didn’t exist. Even so, people knew something big was happening when Northern Lights were sighted three times in Mexico. A similar maximum now would be noticed by its effect on cell phones, GPS, weather satellites and many other modern technologies.

Right: Intense auroras over Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1958. [More]

Dikpati’s prediction is unprecedented. In nearly-two centuries since the 11-year sunspot cycle was discovered, scientists have struggled to predict the size of future maxima—and failed. Solar maxima can be intense, as in 1958, or barely detectable, as in 1805, obeying no obvious pattern.

The key to the mystery, Dikpati realized years ago, is a conveyor belt on the sun.

We have something similar here on Earth—the Great Ocean Conveyor Belt, popularized in the sci-fi movieThe Day After Tomorrow. It is a network of currents that carry water and heat from ocean to ocean–see the diagram below. In the movie, the Conveyor Belt stopped and threw the world’s weather into chaos.

see caption
Above: Earth’s “Great Ocean Conveyor Belt.” [More]

The sun’s conveyor belt is a current, not of water, but of electrically-conducting gas. It flows in a loop from the sun’s equator to the poles and back again. Just as the Great Ocean Conveyor Belt controls weather on Earth, this solar conveyor belt controls weather on the sun. Specifically, it controls the sunspot cycle.

Solar physicist David Hathaway of the National Space Science & Technology Center (NSSTC) explains: “First, remember what sunspots are–tangled knots of magnetism generated by the sun’s inner dynamo. A typical sunspot exists for just a few weeks. Then it decays, leaving behind a ‘corpse’ of weak magnetic fields.”

Enter the conveyor belt.

see caption“The top of the conveyor belt skims the surface of the sun, sweeping up the magnetic fields of old, dead sunspots. The ‘corpses’ are dragged down at the poles to a depth of 200,000 km where the sun’s magnetic dynamo can amplify them. Once the corpses (magnetic knots) are reincarnated (amplified), they become buoyant and float back to the surface.” Presto—new sunspots!

Right: The sun’s “great conveyor belt.” [Larger image]

All this happens with massive slowness. “It takes about 40 years for the belt to complete one loop,” says Hathaway. The speed varies “anywhere from a 50-year pace (slow) to a 30-year pace (fast).”

When the belt is turning “fast,” it means that lots of magnetic fields are being swept up, and that a future sunspot cycle is going to be intense. This is a basis for forecasting: “The belt was turning fast in 1986-1996,” says Hathaway. “Old magnetic fields swept up then should re-appear as big sunspots in 2010-2011.”

Like most experts in the field, Hathaway has confidence in the conveyor belt model and agrees with Dikpati that the next solar maximum should be a doozy. But he disagrees with one point. Dikpati’s forecast puts Solar Max at 2012. Hathaway believes it will arrive sooner, in 2010 or 2011.

“History shows that big sunspot cycles ‘ramp up’ faster than small ones,” he says. “I expect to see the first sunspots of the next cycle appear in late 2006 or 2007—and Solar Max to be underway by 2010 or 2011.”

Who’s right? Time will tell. Either way, a storm is coming.

http://science.nasa.gov

The next peak in the sunspot cycle will happen in 2012 and might be 30-50% stronger than the last one, according to a breakthrough forecast using a computer model of solar dynamics developed by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). http://www.ucar.edu/news/releases/2006/sunspot.shtml http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/10mar_stormwarning.htm On top of that, NASA has found two large leaks in Earth’s magnetosphere, the region around our planet that shields us from severe solar storms.http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/081216-agu-solar-storm-shield-break.html And then there is also the Collapse of Earth’s Upper Atmosphere A Puzzling Collapse of Earth’s Upper Atmosphere http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2010/15jul_thermosphere/ So all in all 2012 could become a very thrilling year :) http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,478024,00.html http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20127001.300-space-storm-alert-90-secon
The next peak in the sunspot cycle will happen in 2012 and might be 30-50% stronger than the last one, according to a breakthrough forecast using a computer model of solar dynamics developed by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). http://www.ucar.edu/news/releases/2006/sunspot.shtml http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/10mar_stormwarning.htm On top of that, NASA has found two large leaks in Earth’s magnetosphere, the region around our planet that shields us from severe solar storms.http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/081216-agu-solar-storm-shield-break.html And then there is also the Collapse of Earth’s Upper Atmosphere A Puzzling Collapse of Earth’s Upper Atmosphere http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2010/15jul_thermosphere/ So all in all 2012 could become a very thrilling year :) http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,478024,00.html http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20127001.300-space-storm-alert-90-secon
Want more? Subscribe to NASA on iTunes! http://phobos.apple.com/WebObjects/MZStore.woa/wa/viewPodcast?id=283424434 NASA’s THEMIS mission has overturned a longstanding belief about the interaction between solar particles and Earth’s protective magnetic field. This new discovery could help scientists predict when the solar storms that can disrupt power grids, satellites and even GPS signals, could be especially severe. For more information: www.nasa.gov/themis

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earth planet x orbit

CCT NibiruGreetings and Welcome to the Planet X Files!
The equations that follow are real. The numbers have not been changed to protect the innocent. The consequences will be real. I’ve done my very best to keep it simple so anyone can follow along and understand. There are no “doomsday” predictions here, but this event will take place. Knowing this can save the life of you and yours. My personal advice should headlines start creeping around by 2010? By late 2012 = stay away from the coasts.
Click here for complete 2012 scenario
Utilizing several timeline scales – pick what works for you: – tya = thousand years ago
Age of Taurus = 4500 BC = {4,286 – 2,143 bce} = (4-6 tya)
Age of Gemini = 7500 BC = {6,429 – 4,286 bce} = (6-8 tya)
Age of Leo = 11,500 BC = {10,715 – 8,572 bce} = (10-12 tya)
Age of Virgo = 14,500 BC = {12,858 – 10,715 bce} = (12-15ya and on)
Nibiru – Sumerian Definition 4200 BCish
Tzoltze ek’ - Mayan Definition 3800 BCish
Planet X – Modern Astronomy Science
“modern day definition”: Planet X aka Nibiru:
A large scale hypothetical planet that’s part of our solar system with an orbit beyond that of Neptune. Was first hypothesized in 1841 when astronomers noticed Uranus did not move as predicted in it’s orbit. Based on these residuals, the search for Planet X began.
Please keep in mind, I’m not a graphic artist. (doh) But most importantly, the dates illustrated below are just to ROUND OFF for purpose’s of simplicity. The current figure generally accepted by science is that planet x/nibiru is on a 3600 year elongated (elliptical) solar orbit.
My personal calculations put this at 4320.26 years <—!!!Wrong!!! (See Below). Since this is closest to 4000 years I thought it would be fair enough when referring to a chronological scale of human/earth history.
This means that PlanetX/Nibiru is visible every 2000 (2,160) years during its orbital pass. ( Sumerian and Mayan text both state that Nibiru is clearly visible by day as well as night )
That being said, all science arenas confirm that the below charted events took place in the past at around those periods. The debate of course, is when exactly they occurred, and what exactly caused them to occur which isn’t relevant for our purpose. You’ll clearly see that the timeline’s show something happens on a catastrophic scale every 4000 years (or so).
The sumerians told us that Nibiru wreaks havoc with the earth’s axis every second orbital pass. (Every 4000 years or so). Basically, Earth’s axis precessed from a right tilt forward and probably 180 to the left in around 10 or 20 hours due to the gravational “jolt” that takes place.Hmmmmm…

Sumerian Mathmatics 101 The Sumerian sexigesimal system of numbers works with changing factors that increase by 6 and 10.

The formula equates as follows:
1, 10, 60, 600, 3,600, 36,000, 216,000 bla bla so on, etc.
Every other preceding number is multiplied by 6 or 10.
The number 5,000 is written as 12,320 in Sumerian.
3,600 600 60 10 1
——————————
1 2 3 2 0
—- thus,
1×3600 + 2×600 + 3×60 + 2×10 + 0x1 = 5,000. Still hanging with me?
If we look at the number 3,600 and write it
down the Sumerian way, we see that the result is 2,160.
3,600 600 60 10 1
——————————–
N/A 3 6 0 0
—- thus,
3×600 + 6×60 + 0x10 + 0x1 = 2160.

The Sumerian mathmatics system might seem odd at first, but it’s actually ideal for geometry, calculation with fractions, and time. The hour was divided into 60 minutes of 60 seconds each by the Mesopotamians using their sexagesimal system of counting.
scientific factSumerians state that Geometry and Astronomy was the language bestowed upon them by the gods (flesh and blood gods) and is still used by freemason architects today gaining knowledge on their Templar crusades in the Middle East. (The Templars disbanded and later reappeared as Freemasons).
Hmmmmm… So, are the Sumerians lying and it’s actually just a myth as modern religion would have you think? Only problem is, they have this documented 4000 years before Chirstians even exsisted. Anyway, its clear I back up this claim. Me and that pesky science fella. :)
Various studies of Sumerian mathematics point out that the numerals are intimately connected to the precessional cycle. The unusual alternating structure of the Sumerian sexagesimal system throws special emphasis on the number 12,960,000, which represents exactly 500 great precessional cycles of 25,920 years.
The lack of any connotations, other than astronomical, for the multiples of 25,920 and 2,160 can only suggest a deliberate design for astronomical purposes, yes? I think we can all agree on that.
Therefore, my suspicions strongly indicate that the revolutionary orbit of this 12th planet Nibiru could not consist of 3,600 years, but of 4,320 years. Assuming that’s correct, then what would the consequences be?
If a whole new calculation is performed from the time of the great flood, which according to Alford occurred in 10,983 BCish, with the new orbital pass every 2,160 years then we get a whole new series of data, namely:

10,983 – 8,823 – 6,663 – 4,503 – 2,343 – 183 BC and 1977 AD.

Alford also describes the arguments between the two gods known as Thoth and his brother Marduk. These two conflicted over the fact as to when the precession of the Earth exactly started. Thoth was able to convince Marduk that it occurred one and a half degrees later than what Marduk had calculated. A degree and a half of the precession cycle is 108 years (a very sacred number in itself!). If we add this number to 1977 then we come up with the year 2085. Hmmm, No sweat, old coot here by then!
Still conflicted (nag nag), and after a couple solid sleepless nite weeks of continued research, I came across yet another precession article promoting facts that the current data on the precessional cycle does not consist of 25,920 years as the Sumerians had recorded. (doh)!
In ancient times the precessional length was 25,920 years, but now, due to the increased speed of precession, it is now closer to 25,776 years.

Sooooo…
The number 2,160 is the twelfth fraction of a precessional cycle that takes 25,920 years.
If we divide 25,776 by twelve we get 2,148 years.
We now conclude that the bi-orbital timeline of P-X is 2,148 years, not 3,600 or 2,160 years.
If we proceed to calculate in periods of 2,148 years starting at 10,983 BC,
then add another degree and a half of 25,776 to that:
{ meaning 107.4 years } thus/and/or
————————————-
{ A degree and a half of 25,920 is 108 years},
-gulp- we then come up with a result of… 2012 AD! … Yikes!

scientific factHmmm…. The Mayan’s, Egyptians, Zulu, Hindu, Incas, Aztecs, Dogon (Africa), Cherokee, Pueblo, Tibetan’s bla bla bla.. all have the same calander target year! We can safely take “coincidence” off the table.
I challange you to calculate the odds of 2012 being a target year for all these cultures as coincidental. It’s a number you couldn’t even define. But if you’re mathmatical minded, have a go! :)
So, this is also the end of the Mayan calendar, the end of the month Pisces (2148 years), and the end of the cycle known as the “Platonic Year or Great Year” which we now know lasts 25,776 years.
scientific factKeep in mind that the Maya and Sumerians we’re the two “Dawn of Civilizations”, that spawned all other cultures thereafter. And yep, they of course lived on different continents and had No Idea each other existed.
Although Nibiru now passes every 2,148 years it only orbits close enough to cause a pole shift every other time. Unfortunalty the numbers indicate last time it passed beyond Jupiter or Saturn resulting only in magnetic fluctuations and severe weather patterns. So this next pass should be between Mars and Jupiter. That can’t be good folks. And the fact that both Maya and Sumer cultures (and about ten others), claim that their Gods told them this exact same timeline?

Historic time table map of world history

huh? Question mark indicates “what exactly” caused the above events, not if they actually took place – we know they did…
The last ‘Major’ passage, which caused noticeable catastrophe, was during the Age of Taurus, 4,286 – 2,143 bce – the two before that would have been in the Ages of Leo (10,500 BC.) and Scorpio (14,500 BC.) – (see chart above for “years ago” timeline ).
The Gnostic authors of the Bible were also aware of these hallmark conjunctions, and wrote them into the New Testament. The four beasts of the Apocalypse, the Lion, Ox, Man and Eagle, correspond to the four zodiac signs Leo, Taurus, Aquarius and Scorpio, in which the Grand Cross conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn takes place in 6,444 year intervals.
Even if the authors of the Bible didn’t know what exactly would happen at this time (which they probably did) they appear to have used this event as a point for triangulating many prophetic statements. The sign of Taurus, named by the Sumerians ‘GU.ANNA’, meaning the “Heavenly Bull”, also represented the Sumerian God Ishkur, a.k.a Teshub the storm God!
So my conclusion is that we experience catastrophe approximately every 4200 years (2 x 2,148 = 4200) and 3 times within a precessional time scale of 25,776 years. Mayan Elder, Hunbatz Men, also revealed that the Mayans have known about Tzoltze ek’ (Nibiru) for many years. They say “The planet has a period of 6,500 years, not 3,600, and visits us 4 times every 26,000 year precessional cycle” (Platonic Year or Great Year, that ends on 21st December 2012). If we go back 6,444 years (3 x 2,148) from 2012 AD, then it brings us to 4,432 BC, when the Antarctic ice cap formed.
There is much controversy over the dating of the Biblical Flood, but if we look at archaeological data for 10,983 BC and 4,432 BC, we see evidence of major flooding and catastrophic climate change. There is also evidence of a flood around 2,200 BC, leading bible scholars to conclude this was the Biblical Flood. But I suggest this flood was much more localized than the great flood, due to the passage of Nibiru at a reasonably safe distance.

Sooooo… Just a coincidence that these other cultures have a 2012 target?

  • Hopi Predict a 25yr period of purification followed by End of Fourth World and beginning of the Fifth.
  • Mayans Call it the ‘end days’ or the end of time as we know it.
  • Maoris Say that as the veils dissolve there will be a merging of the physical & spiritual worlds.
  • Zulu Believe that the whole world will be turned upside down.
  • Hindus Kali Yuga (end time of man). The Coming of Kalki & critical mass of Enlightened Ones.
  • Incas Call it the ‘Age of Meeting Ourselves Again’.
  • Aztec Call this the Time of the Sixth Sun. A time of transformation. Creation of new race.
  • Dogon Say that the spaceship of the visitors, the Nommo, will return in the form of a blue star
  • Pueblo Acknowledge it’ll be the emergence into the Fifth World
  • Cherokee Their ancient calendar ends exactly at 2012 as does the Mayan calendar.
  • Tibetan Kalachakra teachings are prophesies left by Buddha predicting Coming of the Golden Age.
  • Egypt According to the Great Pyramid (stone calendar), present time cycle ends in year 2012 AD

Yeah, I’m just a tad concerned. I hope this is not the case and that I’m just completely nuts, but data + data + data = science. I never thought I’d be relaying any sort of Doomsday scenario. And chance’s are, these very same Gods will help us out a bit. I just hope we as a species are seen as worthy of such action.
Ok Ok! Some of you might be thinking; “that was just to easy, can this be right? That’s the way to think! Obviously, there was mucho more mathmatics that got me to this point in the proof. You just saw the end results. For you math heads that might be curious, here’s some of the abstract, is that the correct terminology? (just some notes) that got us to the end result.
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Hundreds of Planet X Research Documents from Harvard

This Is only For those of You that Wish to Continue Down the Rabbit Hole = “Yawn”

Fundamental – a3 = p2
where a is the semimajor axis, and p is the period. In this case, a is measured in units of the Earth-Sun distance, called an Astronomical Unit, or AU for short. 1 AU is about 150 million kilometers. The period is measured in years. Planet X is alleged to have a period of 3600 years. By plugging it into that equation, we can solve for a. In this case, a = 235 AU, or 35 billion kilometers. That’s a long way! Pluto, on average, is about 35 or so AU away, or only 5 billion kilometers. Planet X, if it orbits on an ellipse, can get as far as 235 AU away, 7 times the distance of Pluto.
But wait! Most people claim it’s on a very elliptical orbit. That means it can get close to Earth. The diameter of the orbit must be 2 x a = 470 AU. If it gets as close to the Sun as the Earth does, 1 AU, then it must get about 469 AU away from the Sun at its farthest point. It then takes half a period, or 1800 years, to come back into the solar system from that point.
An ellipse stretched this thin is practically a straight line. At aphelion, or farthest point from the Sun, it’s velocity is so low that it might as well be zero. It then spends 1800 years falling toward the Sun, and whips around it tremendously fast, only to head out into deep space again.
Now I will digress very briefly into escape velocity. When you throw a rock in the air, it goes up some distance, slowing all the way up. It stops, then falls back down, accelerating all the way. If you throw it harder, it goes faster and gets higher, but it will always fall back down.
Unless, that is, you throw it really hard. Remember, the gravity of the Earth weakens as you get farther from it. If you throw that rock high enough, the gravity it feels from the Earth will get weaker. If you throw it hard enough, the weakening gravity will not be able to get the rock to fall back to the Earth. The velocity at which this happens is called the escape velocity.
For the Earth, this velocity is about 11 kilometers/second. A rock thrown this hard will go up, slowing all the time. But the gravity of the Earth is never quite enough to make it stop, so it always slows, but never falls back. In a sense (mathematically this is exact) the rock will stop at an infinite distance from the Earth.
The critical thing here is that the reverse is true as well. If you go really really far away from the Earth and drop a rock, it will impact at escape velocity! The equation for this is exactly reversible; it doesn’t care whether rock is going up or down.
Escape velocity depends on your distance form an object too. It’s much easier to throw a rock hard enough to go on forever if you are already a long way from the Earth. Earth’s gravity is weaker far away, so the escape velocity is lower. In fact, escape velocity is mathematically represented as
escape velocity = square root(2 x G x mass/distance) where G is Newton’s constant (just a number you plug into the equation), mass is the mass of the object and distance is your distance from it.
You can see that if the distance gets bigger, the escape velocity drops, just like in my example above. So why is this important to Planet X? Because at 470 AU, Planet X would be essentially infinitely far away from the Sun. If it fell toward the Sun from this distance, it will round the Sun at just a hair under the Sun’s escape velocity at that distance. This means that we can always know the velocity of Planet X everywhere in its orbit: its just a teeny bit less than the Sun’s escape velocity at that distance.
At its most distant, that’s about 1 kilometer/second. At 1 AU (the Earth’s distance), it’s about 42 kilometers/second. In general, if you know how fast something is moving, you can calculate its distance. For example, say you are in a car moving 100 kilometers per hour. How far will you move in an hour? Easy: 100 kilometers! So if a car is an hour away at that speed, you can say it is 100 km away.
A planet, though, is not moving at a constant speed. It’s accelerating as it heads toward the Sun. If you assume constant speed to get the distance, you’ll get the wrong answer. The only way to do this is with calculus. Bear with me here.
The method is described by Dr. Joseph Gallant, Assistant Professor of Physics at Kent State University, on this page. He solves the equation for time, given the mass of the Sun and the distance a planet must travel. He gets this:
In this case, a is the maximum distance of Planet X, or 469 AU. R is the distance at which you want to know the time; in this case, when Planet X passes the Earth, or 1 AU. r is a dummy variable, which means it has no value to plug in, it’s the variable you are integrating. M is mass and G is again Newton’s constant. What we want to do is assume a time of 1 year (that is, when Planet X is one year away, in May 2002) and see what R is. But first we have to integrate the equation.
It’s a difficult equation to integrate. However, computers do this kind of stuff pretty well. I used a program to integrate this for me. Just to check, I used an R of 470 AU (Planet X’s max distance from the Sun), and got a time of 1781.4 years, which is pretty close to the “correct” value of 1800 years (half the period, since it is only going half an orbit), only off by about 1%. So it looks good.
Then I put in an R of 1 AU. It got a time of 1781.2789 years. That’s how long Planet X takes to fall from the tippy top of its orbit all the way to Earth. So now all I had to do was try different values of R until I got a time of 1780.2789 years, which would put it one year from the Earth (1781.2789 – 1780.2789 = 1 year). I did this, and the best value I got was about 5.9 AU, or just under 900 million kilometers away.
So there you have it! When I originally did this calculation, I made a bad assumption and got a distance of 550 million kilometers. I assumed it was starting from there, and so it took a year to fall to Earth. But it already has built up some velocity from it’s long fall inward from 470 AU away, so at 550 million kilometers form Earth its velocity is not zero! However, note that when I correct for this, it only gets farther away by a factor of two. That’s because even after falling all that way, it still isn’t moving terribly fast when it passes 550 million kilometers away.
One more thing. We can use this equation to figure out how far away Planet X will be at a given time from closest approach. Here are my results:
Time from closest approach Distance (AU) Distance (millions of km)
6 months 2.9 435
3 months 1.7 255
2 months 1.2 180
1 month 0.64 96
3 weeks 0.45 68
2 weeks 0.3 45
1 week 0.17 26
3 days 0.07 11
2 days 0.05 7.5
1 day 0.024 3.6
TaDa!

newsHas Planet X Ever Been in the Media?
There was a big media blitz when first hypothesized back in the 1980’s. The more of a realization it became, the more nervous many started to become. After all, this planet was already identified over 6000 years ago. When the possible ramifcations became apparant, the whole science of Astronomy seemed to fall out of sight. So, here’s so clues as to if Planet X could be out there, just like the Sumerians and Maya say it is.
Astronomy – Search for the Tenth Planet Dec 1981
Astronomers are readying telescopes to probe the outer reaches of our solar system for an elusive planet much larger than Earth. Its existence would explain a 160-year-old mystery. … The pull exerted by its gravity would account for a wobble in Uranus’ orbit that was first detected in 1821 by a French astronomer, Alexis Bouvard. Beyond Pluto, in the cold, dark regions of space, may lie an undiscovered tenth planet two to five times the size of Earth. Astronomers at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) are using a powerful computer to identify the best target zones, and a telescopic search will follow soon after. … Van Flandern thinks the tenth planet may have between two and five Earth masses and lie 50 to 100 astronomical units from the Sun.
(An astronomical unit is the mean distance between Earth and the Sun.) His team also presumes that, like Pluto’s, the plane of the undiscovered body’s orbit is tilted with respect to that of most other planets, and that its path around the Sun is highly elliptical.
New York Times June 19, 1982
A pair of American spacecraft may help scientists detect what could be a 10th planet or a giant object billions of miles away, the national Aeronautics and Space Administration said Thursday. Scientists at the space agency’s Ames Research Center said the two spacecraft, Pioneer 10 and 11, which are already farther into space than any other man-made object, might add to knowledge of a mysterious object believed to be beyond the solar system’s outermost known planets.
The space agency said that persistent irregularities in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune “suggest some kind of mystery object is really there” with its distance depending on what it is. If the mystery object is a new planet, it may lie five billion miles beyond the outer orbital ring of known planets, the space agency said. If it is a dark star type of objet, it may be 50 billion miles beyond the known planets; if it is a black hole, 100 billion miles. A black hole is a hypothetical body in space, believed to be a collapsed star so condensed that neither light nor matter can escape from its gravitational field.
Newsweek Does the Sun Have a Dark Companion?June 28 1982
When scientists noticed that Uranus wasn’t following its predicted orbit for example, they didn’t question their theories. Instead they blamed the anomalies on an as yet unseen planet and, sure enough, Neptune was discovered in 1846. Now astronomers are using the same strategy to explain quirks in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune.
According to John Anderson of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., this odd behavior suggests that the sun has an unseen companion, a dark star gravitationally bound to it but billions of miles away. … Other scientists suggest that the most likely cause of the orbital snags is a tenth planet 4 to 7 billion miles beyond Neptune.
A companion star would tug the outer planets, not just Uranus and Neptune, says Thomas Van Flandern of the U.S Naval Observatory. And where he admits a tenth planet is possible, but argues that it would have to be so big – a least the size of Uranus – that it should have been discovered by now. To resolve the question, NASA is staying tuned to Pioneer 10 and 11, the planetary probes that are flying through the dim reaches of the solar system on opposite sides of the sun.
New York Times January 30, 1983
Something out there beyond the farthest reaches of the known solar system seems to be tugging at Uranus and Neptune. Some gravitational force keeps perturbing the two giant planets, causing irregularities in their orbits. The force suggests a presence far away and unseen, a large object that may be the long- sought Planet X. … The last time a serious search of the skies was made it led to the discovery in 1930 of Pluto, the ninth planet.
But the story begins more than a century before that, after the discovery of Uranus in 1781 by the English astronomer and musician William Herschel. Until then, the planetary system seemed to end with Saturn.
As astronomers observed Uranus, noting irregularities in its orbital path, many speculated that they were witnessing the gravitational pull of an unknown planet. So began the first planetary search based on astronomers predictions, which ended in the 1840’s with the discovery of Neptune almost simultaneously by English, French, and German astronomers.
But Neptune was not massive enough to account entirely for the orbital behavior of Uranus. Indeed, Neptune itself seemed to be affected by a still more remote planet. In the last 19th century, two American astronomers, Willian H. Pickering and Percival Lowell, predicted the size and approximate location of the trans-Neptunian body, which Lowell called Planet X. Years later, Pluto was detected by Clyde W. Tombaugh working at Lowell Observatory in Arizona. Several astronomers, however, suspected it might not be the Planet X of prediction.
Subsequent observation proved them right. Pluto was too small to change the orbits of Uranus and Neptune, the combined mass of Pluto and its recently discovered satellite, Charon, is only 1/5 that of Earth’s moon.
Recent calculations by the United States Naval Observatory have confirmed the orbital perturbation exhibited by Uranus and Neptune, which Dr. Thomas C Van Flandern, an astronomer at the observatory, says could be explained by “a single undiscovered planet”. He and a colleague, Dr. Richard Harrington, calculate that the 10th planet should be two to five times more massive than Earth and have a highly elliptical orbit that takes it some 5 billion miles beyond that of Pluto – hardly next-door but still within the gravitational influence of the Sun.
US News World Report Planet X – Is It Really Out There? Sept 10, 1984 Shrouded from the sun’s light, mysteriously tugging at the orbits of Uranus and Neptune, is an unseen force that astronomers suspect may be Planet X – a 10th resident of the Earth’s celestial neighborhood. Last year, the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS), circling in a polar orbit 560 miles from the Earth, detected heat from an object about 50 billion miles away that is now the subject of intense speculation.
“All I can say is that we don’t know what it is yet,” says Gerry Neugesbeuer, director of the Palomar Observatory for the California Institute of Technology. Scientists are hopeful that the one-way journeys of the Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes may help to locate the nameless body.

http://churchofcriticalthinking.org/planetx.html

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Gizmo

Large-Scale Methamphetamine Manufacture

Reductive Amination of P2P through Catalytic Hydrogenation Using Adams Catalyst

Text and Photos by Louis Freeh, HTML by Rhodium

 

Table of Contents

1.0 Purpose:

To describe the manufacture and application of platinum dioxide, commonly known as Adams catalyst or platinum black, with the goal of opening alternative synthesis procedures for the manufacture of illicit recreational drugs. It is this writer’s hope that these procedures will result in the undermining of the Drug Inquisition, which has caused the loss of freedom for many good people. A further goal is to demonstrate to those in law enforcement that knowledge is, in fact, the ultimate power and that no number of self-righteous goons with guns can defeat a resourceful and knowledgeable mind. There is no new chemistry here; in fact, most of it is almost 100 years old. The contribution this writer hopes he is making is in simplifying the equipment and procedures to the point where those without extensive chemistry backgrounds will be able to manufacture high-quality phenethanamines in high volume to compete with the poisonous stuff one finds on the street. The text is aimed at those who have completed a college level organic chemistry course and have some experience and an interest in laboratory equipment and procedures.

1.1 Scope

The following procedures will be described.

  • Dissolution of platinum metal in aqua regia to produce chloroplatinic acid, then ammonium chloroplatinate.
  • Oxidation of ammonium chloroplatinate to platinum dioxide.
  • Reductive amination of P2P using platinum dioxide catalyst.
  • Manufacture of methylamine using formaldehyde and ammonium chloride.
  • Manufacture of 1-Phenyl-2-Propanone using benzaldehyde and nitroethane.
  • Practical manufacture of 70% nitric acid

1.2 Acknowledgements

This writer thanks Uncle Fester, whose widely read books on methamphetamine manufacture have provided an invaluable source of research information collected in one volume. In addition, this writer thanks Dr. Alexander Shulgin, whose practice of the purest sort of science-that motivated by curiosity and a deep thirst for knowledge-in the face of government oppression has earned him my deepest admiration and respect. This document is dedicated to Senators Orrin Hatch and Diane Feinstein, whose tireless efforts to eliminate the vestigial remains of our civil liberties in the cause of state expediency has pissed me off enough to take the time and effort to produce this text. In fact, I have named the reductive amination step the Hatch-Feinstein Reduction.

2.0 Manufacture of Platinum Dioxide

2.1 Discussion

As those familiar with clandestine drug manufacture are aware, the traditional catalysts used in reductive amination procedures, Raney nickel and palladium-on-carbon, are no longer available due to essential-chemical prohibition by the anti-drug thugs. Thus the need for an alternative catalyst which can be manufactured utilizing common materials and equipment. Platinum dioxide has many advantages in it’s application to reductive aminations:

It can be made using common materials and easily obtainable equipment.

Reactions are performed at room temperature and at low pressure (<30 psi), thus eliminating the requirement for simultaneous heating and agitation and opening the door to simple high-volume manufacturing. One can easily perform 25-30 mole reactions using a 5 gallon paint shaker for agitation.

  • The catalyst is reusable up to six times.
  • Requires a catalyst density of only 1g/mole of precursor.
  • Provides a product yield of approximately 1kg/g of catalyst, and a 75% mole-to-mole yield from precursor-to-product (the reaction yield is 90%, the balance being lost during processing and crystallization) when manufacturing methamphetamine.
  • Is used with common ethanol solvent, eliminating odd smells and fire hazards.
  • Platinum dioxide catalyst also performs well in the manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but under slightly different conditions.

2.2 Review of alternative procedures

We will focus upon the manufacture of methamphetamine due to the current high volume requirement and the increasing attention it is drawing from the government antidrug machine.

  • The best route for manufacturing methamphetamine is the direct reduction of the hydroxyl on the L-ephedrine sulfate sidechain in glacial acetic acid using 70% perchloric acid as a promoter and 5% palladium-on-carbon as the catalyst. Vigorous agitation, pressurization with hydrogen to 30 psi, and heating to 90°C results in an 85-90% yield of non-racemic methamphetamine, with a 70% yield-to-product. Due to it’s non-racemic chirality, this meth is stronger than that produced by any other non-stereospecific reduction technique. Typically, this reaction is performed in a 4000ml filter flask placed into a 6 gal aluminum pot containing water. The pot is heated on a stirring hotplate and agitation is provided by a stirring bar magnetically coupled through the non-ferrous aluminum. A solution of 1.25 liters of glacial acetic acid, 120ml of 68-72% perchloric acid, 166g (one mole) of L-ephedrine sulfate, and 16g of 5% palladium-on-carbon is pressurized to 20-30psi with hydrogen gas and reduced for 2-3 hours. The catalyst is filtered out, the filtrate made basic with 50% lye solution then extracted with toluene and stripped of solvent, the base is purified by distillation and crystallized in acetone for the hydrochloride salt. Despite what has been written by others, this reaction does not work with ephedrine hydrochloride because the hydrochloride ion poisons the catalyst, whereas the sulfate ion may actually act as a promoter (I have not tried it, but in theory sulfuric acid may be substituted for perchloric acid as a promoter). This reaction will, however, perform well using any ephedrine base. Due to the requirement for simultaneous heating, stirring, and pressurization, this reaction is limited to 1-3 mole batches. In addition, the palladium-on-carbon catalyst is not reusable without processing.
  • The most common current method of meth production is the direct reduction of the ephedrine hydrochloride hydroxyl using 57% hydriodic acid and red phosphorous in a 4-1-1 formula (4 lb ephedrine, 1 gal 57% hydriodic acid, 1 lb red phosphorous). This is an inefficient method, yielding 55% d-methamphetamine at the very best, which has been exploited as far as it can go due to the attention paid to the precursor and essential chemicals used in this reaction and the increasing diversion of Chinese ephedrine supplies to our industrious neighbors in Mexico. In it’s favor, however, is the fact that one person can manufacture 4 lb of very poisonous meth per day if they skip the purification step. This is a perfect example of Gresham’s Law at work (the cheap bad stuff drives out the expensive good stuff).
  • The P2P reaction, for many years the preferred method for making methamphetamine, requires 1-Phenyl-2-Propanone (impossible to buy, easy to make), 40% methylamine solution (impossible to buy, easy to make), large amounts of Raney nickel (hard to buy, difficult to make) and approximately 2000 psi of hydrogen along with simultaneous agitation and heating. There are many limitations in this process, not least of which is equipment construction. [This is a very limited truth, as there are many other ways of reductively aminate P2P with methylamine which uses much more readily available materials than Raney-Nickel/hydrogen gas /Rhodium]
  • The lithium-in-ammonia reduction. This is an elegant, high-yield reduction, but it is gawdawful stinky and must be done a long way from civilization. The volume of anhydrous ammonia required per mole of ephedrine relegates this procedure to the low-volume category.

2.3 Equipment

The following equipment is required:

  • A stirring hotplate.
  • A 2″ Teflon-coated magnetic stirring bar with a center lifting ridge. This is simply a ridge around the center of the stirring bar that raises it above the bottom surface, thus decreasing friction and providing for easier stirring of thick solutions/suspensions. A 2.5-3.0″ stirring bar will also be used and one should also have a Teflon-coated stirring bar chaser which allows one to retrieve stirring bars from solutions. This is an invaluable item for general lab work.
  • 1000ml and 5000ml Pyrex graduated beakers. The 1000ml beaker should be thick-walled Pyrex as it needs to be slightly more heavy-duty. Do not use ordinary glass or Mason jars as we will be heating it directly on the hotplate.
  • A jewelers oven. These ovens are available from jeweler’s supply companies. Look in the yellow pages. They typically have a meter which monitors the temperature from 0-1200°C and a rotary adjustment knob which controls the temperature. The inside is lined with firebrick, as is the door, and there is a small vent hole at the top. Buy one with an interior width and depth of at least 9″. They cost about $400 and can be purchased by anyone. An extra firebrick may be required to center the oxidation vessel. Firebricks can be found at most fireplace/woodstove stores.
  • One 1000ml round-bottom flask.
  • An 8″x8″x2″ Corningware casserole dish with Pyrex top. This item is important because it is the vessel we will use to perform the oxidation procedure, which takes place at 520°C. Ordinary glass will shatter at these temperatures, and Pyrex does not hold up much better. Corningware will stand up to these temperatures and heating cycles, but just barely. The Pyrex tops that come with the casserole dish often crack or break after only one or two reactions, so extra tops should be purchased. A ceramic or clay vessel would be better, but are difficult to find in the correct size. The Corningware dishes are cheap, disposable, and can be purchased anywhere.
  • A 4″ diameter Buchner.
  • A 1000ml filter flask.
  • Whatman Qualitative 5 filter papers. Purchase the size that fits your largest Buchner and cut to fit for the smaller Buchners. These filters will catch the finest particles of catalyst. Equivalent filter paper is made by other manufacturers.
  • A mortar-and-pestle set, medium sized. These can be found at many organic food and food-supplement stores, as well as in children’s science shops.

2.4 Chemicals

The following chemicals will be used:

Laboratory grade 37% hydrochloric acid. One can try hardware store muriatic acid if it is 30% or better. It is unknown what the impurities in the cheap hardware-store stuff may do to the catalyst, but many times the only difference between laboratory grade chemicals and commercial grade stuff is the fact that the laboratory grade chemicals have been tested to make sure there’s nothing strange in it. It may have come out of the same tanker car, but it was tested.

One will need 200ml of 70% nitric acid in order to make aqua regia. Jewelers can buy this in very small quantities for making aqua regia, which is required to dissolve metals like platinum and rhodium for alloying or plating. Otherwise, one can whip up a batch fairly easily. SeeSection 6.0 for instructions.

About 3 kg of sodium or potassium nitrate. This is our oxidizer, and it is used at a 10:1 weight ratio with ammonium chloroplatinate (which we will make). It is also used to manufacture 70% nitric acid. Sodium nitrate is preferred, but only because this writer has used it extensively. Use the powdered form as it requires less grinding and seems to work better than the beaded form often found in university labs.

About 3 kg of ammonium chloride will be used. This common salt is used for metal preparation and making chilling solutions. It should not be difficult to find. Try the drugstore or pharmacy.

2.5 Dissolution of Platinum in Aqua Regia

The first step is to dissolve the platinum, either in coin form or as spent catalyst, in aqua regia to make chloroplatinic acid. This is not as easy as may first appear. Platinum coins are especially difficult to dissolve. Left on it’s own, it could take months for the platinum to completely dissolve. Heating to just below the boiling point of the acid will increase the activity of the acid many times and will let the chemist dissolve his platinum coins in 3-4 days. Spent catalyst may also be recycled, and will dissolve much more quickly than coins. This procedure must be performed inside a properly functioning fume cabinet or the fumes will kill you. See the appendix for construction details.

Place a 1000ml Pyrex beaker on the stirring hotplate. Place a 2″ Teflon-coated stirbar with a center ridge inside the beaker. If one is using fresh 1oz platinum coins, gently place two of them (64g) in the beaker. There should be room for the stirbar to turn without touching the coins. Two coins is the very most one should attempt to dissolve in 800ml of aqua regia as additional platinum will not dissolve and react but will remain as unreacted particles in suspension, screwing up subsequent procedures. (If one is recycling spent platinum dioxide catalyst, wait until after the aqua regia is made and stirring, but not heating, is begun before adding the spent catalyst in small portions.) Add 200ml of 70% nitric acid. Add 600ml of laboratory grade 37% hydrochloric acid. Once the platinum and aqua regia are inside the beaker, fill a 1000ml round-bottom flask half full of cold tap water, dry the outside with a paper towel, and carefully place it on top of the beaker. Make sure there is an air-gap at the pouring lip of the beaker so no pressure builds up. This is our makeshift condenser, designed to condense and recycle the aqua regia while the platinum dissolves. Without the condenser, the aqua regia will quickly boil off without dissolving much platinum. Do not fill the 1000ml flask to more than 1/3 or ½ full or it will become top-heavy and tip over from the vibration. Begin heating while stirring, slowly raising the temperature over several hours until the first signs of boiling begin. On my stirring hotplate, an 800watt unit, the heat setting is 3.5-3.75. The solution will turn orange, and then a very deep ruby red. Do not leave the reaction unattended for more than a few minutes, and turn it off at night. When recycling spent catalyst, a small amount of contaminant may appear on the surface. Let the beaker cool until it can be handled and then filter the liquid through your 4″ Buchner using filter paper, holding the coins in place with the Teflon-coated stirbar chaser. Do not use any metal, as it can contaminate the batch. A more porous grade of filter paper may be used. Pour the filtrate back into the beaker with the coins and continue the heating and stirring. It should take 3-4 days to dissolve two coins. The variables affecting dissolution speed are surface area, acid temperature, and stirring effectiveness.

One needs to mix up a saturated solution of ammonium chloride in distilled water. Pour 3000ml of distilled water into a 5000ml beaker (or a 1gal pickle jar) along with a 3″ stirring bar. Place on a stirplate if available, otherwise stir using a clean spatula from the kitchen. With stirring, slowly add ammonium chloride to the water until it will not dissolve any more. Continue stirring occasionally until the solution comes up to room temperature once again, then add more ammonium chloride until no more will dissolve. Repeat one more time. When finished, the chemist should have a room temperature solution with a little undissolved ammonium chloride at the bottom.

Once the platinum is completely dissolved, remove the condenser flask and allow the remaining acid to boil off until it is all gone and there remains in the bottom of the beaker a grayish-red-black layer of ugly metallic stuff. This is chloroplatinic acid. Be aware that the fumes created when boiling off the acid will create large, very visible clouds of acid-laced fog if exhausted into cool, still air. In addition, all nearby plant life will turn brown and quickly die. If performed while a stiff breeze is blowing, this hazard is eliminated. Let the beaker cool down, add 500ml of 37% hydrochloric acid, let it react with the chloroplatinic acid, then boil off the acid almost to dryness. Do this three times to remove any trace of nitric acid, boiling off the acid to dryness on the third boil. Once cool, add small portions of ammonium chloride solution and work it with the end of a stirbar chaser. Continue adding ammonium chloride solution until all of the chloroplatinic acid has reacted and there are no solid chunks left. Decant into another clean beaker or jar as the beaker fills. A bright yellow suspension will form as the chloroplatinic acid reacts with the ammonium ion to make ammonium chloroplatinate. Do not get in a hurry. It can take over an hour for the chloroplatinic acid to completely react. Black particles or other discoloration is a sign of incomplete dissolution of the platinum. Remove the water by vacuum filtering through the 4″ Buchner with Qualitative 5 filter paper using a water aspirator or vacuum pump. This also may take several hours. Remove the pasty ammonium chloroplatinate cake and break it up as finely as possible using a clean razor knife in a glass bowl or plate. It will be difficult to handle and a little sticky. At this point one must improvise a little. I use a vacuum oven purchased at a mining equipment sale (mines do a lot of inorganic chemistry) to gently vacuum dry the ammonium chloroplatinate overnight at low heat. Those without vacuum ovens should use an infrared lamp placed near the plate and be patient. Do not overheat, as ammonium chloroplatinate will decompose. Look for any brown or black discoloration as a sign of excess heat. Break up into smaller chunks as the paste dries. Dried ammonium chloroplatinate is hard, granular, and dark yellow in color.

Ammonium chloroplatinate is a convenient form in which to store catalyst, as platinum dioxide catalyst can be extremely pyrophorric (this stuff explodes!). Store in a cool, dry place and oxidize it as the need for fresh catalyst arises. If one started with 64g of platinum coins (Pt, 195g/mole, 0.328mole), one should end up with slightly less than 0.328 mole of ammonium chloroplatinate ((NH4)2PtCl6, 443.9g/mole), or about 140g. This is enough to make about 50g of useful catalyst, which translates to 150-300 moles worth of reactions, or about 40-80lb of very pure methamphetamine, depending upon how many times one is able to reuse the catalyst.

2.6 Oxidation of Ammonium Chloroplatinate to Platinum Dioxide

This is where the rubber meets the road in this procedure. We must mix our ammonium chloroplatinate with sodium nitrate, our oxidizer, and burn it. In the old days, when Adams invented this catalyst, they used a copper-alloy block with a crucible and a hole drilled for the insertion of a thermometer to measure the temperature. Our procedure isn’t much better, but if Adams could do it with crude equipment, perhaps we can optimistically expect to do as well. At this point, your humble writer must point out that he has never made a batch of catalyst that did not work, even though experiments were performed over the temperature range of 480-530°C. This is not due to some extraordinary intelligence or experience. It is because this is easy to do. The accompanying poor quality picture shows new brown catalyst on the left and spent black catalyst on the right.

The ammonium chloroplatinate must come into “intimate contact” with the oxidizer, according to Adams. To accomplish this, place 50g of sodium nitrate in a layer at the bottom of your mortar-and-pestle set. Add 5g of ammonium chloroplatinate chunks to the bed and grind until all chunks are thoroughly blended into a homogenous yellow powder. Be thorough here, as it will pay off in catalyst yield. Shake the mixture into the 8″x8″ Corningware casserole dish. Do this five times for a total of 25g of ammonium chloroplatinate and 250g of sodium nitrate. Do not attempt to do more than this-it makes a terrible mess inside the oven. A safer amount is 20g, but 25g batches will work reliably if the oven is controlled properly.

Spread the yellow powder evenly across the bottom of the casserole dish, replace the Pyrex cover, and place the dish into the jeweler’s oven. The idea here is to place the dish so the temperature on the front meter accurately reflects the temperature inside the vessel. If one has a large oven with the temperature sensor in the center, adjust the position of the dish with varying thicknesses of firebrick. If the heating element runs directly beneath the dish, spot heating should be avoided by placing a thin firebrick across the bottom. We are operating close to the temperature limits of the vessel material, so a little diligence is required. The oven should be placed inside the fume cabinet where the noxious fumes produced can be exhausted, preferably into a stiff wind at night. Secure the latch on the oven. On my oven, the temperature control is graduated from 1 to 10. I set the control on 3.75, having learned the hard way that too-rapid heating will shatter the casserole dish. The temperature will slowly climb over a period of 2.5-3.0 hours to 520°C, at which point the heating element is turned off and the chemist leaves the oven to cool down overnight. He does not open the door of the oven, even a crack, until the temperature is all the way down. Failure to exercise patience will be swiftly punished with a shattered dish and a nasty mess. One should watch the oven carefully, noting that the heating element cycles on and off and correlating that with changes on the temperature indicator. This will improve one’s precision in controlling the oven temperature in the event one should desire to experiment, which this writer encourages. A plume of brown fumes should begin to rise from the exhaust hole at the top as the oxidation begins. This usually occurs starting at 380-400°C and can continue all the way up to about 500°C, but not always, and not predictably. This writer has discovered empirically that the temperature range over which catalyst can be successfully produced is 490-520°C, with the best catalyst being made at 510°C. As the meters used on these ovens are the inexpensive current-shunt type, they are accurate to about ±2%, which is about 10°C either way, so there can be as much as 20°C variance in the temperature indicator from unit to unit. In addition, the temperature sensors used have tolerances that can stack up in the wrong direction. The point here is that your oven may read differently than mine, so one should be observant and adjust the setting based upon the results of the previous oxidation. If the stuff turned out burnt, lower the temperature.

Open the door-latch of the cold oven and remove the casserole dish. Pry the top off gently with a screwdriver, as it will be fused with white sodium nitrate residue. Inside will be a layer of hardened sodium nitrate mixed with and covering a layer of brown-black powder which will have spattered and coated the inside surface. Pour some distilled water into the top and gently work it with a plastic spoon to dissolve the sodium nitrate and free up the platinum dioxide particles. Carefully pour the resulting liquid into the clean 5000ml beaker. Repeat to recover the last traces of catalyst stuck to the cover. Pour distilled water into the casserole dish until the bottom layer is covered and break up the hard layer as gently as possible with a clean screwdriver. Work the chunks until they are broken up into pieces small enough to handle. Using surgical gloves, very carefully place the larger pieces into the 5000ml beaker, rinsing one’s fingers with distilled water into the beaker. Once the large pieces have been removed, add water and work the dish until one is satisfied as much catalyst as possible has been recovered. Add distilled water to the large beaker until it is almost full and stir until all of the sodium nitrate has dissolved and one is left with a dark brown suspension that gradually settles to the bottom of the beaker. Let it settle overnight then carefully decant the water without disturbing the catalyst layer at the bottom. Decant as much water as possible without losing catalyst, then refill with more distilled water, stir thoroughly for 15 minutes, then let it settle overnight once again. Do this four times to insure all the nitrate is dissolved and removed. Successive washings will result in the catalyst taking longer and longer to settle out, until, on the fourth one, the catalyst may become colloidal and not settle out completely. Using the Whatman Qualitative 5 filter paper and a clean Buchner, filter the catalyst suspension, washing the beaker with distilled water to catch the last grains. One should now have a layer of wet, medium-to-dark brown catalyst in the Buchner. Gently work the small cake loose onto a small glass or porcelain plate and spread it out using a fine-tipped razor-knife. Let it dry in a warm, but not hot, place. Once dry, carefully scrape the loose powder into a clean spice bottle, which makes an ideal container. Do not let it fall freely through the air more than a few inches as this can, and will, result in a display of pyrotechnics as your catalyst explodes while you watch. This is especially true when the temperature drops below freezing or one is in a very dry area. One should now have about 11g of platinum dioxide (PtO2, 227.09g/mole, 0.048mole) for a yield of about 85%.

Repeat the above three steps until all the ammonium chloroplatinate is used. One should have 50-60g of catalyst in the form of a very finely divided dry brown powder. Store in a cool, dry place and avoid static discharges. There is some debate about whether or not this catalyst decreases in activity level over periods of time exceeding 6-12 months. It has been this writer’s experience that the catalyst itself maintains it’s activity level as long as it has not been pre- reduced or otherwise exposed to concentrated hydrogen. There are many other factors that can easily cause a decrease in yield or an increase in reduction time that can be misinterpreted as a change in catalyst activity. This catalyst is very sensitive to the level of self-oxidation or residual acids in the P2P. In addition, slight variations in agitation effectiveness can appear to be catalyst-related.

3.0 The Hatch-Feinstein Reduction

Application of Platinum Dioxide Catalyst to the Reductive Amination of 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P). In this section the chemist pre-reduces the catalyst and reductively aminates both test and production quantities of P2P.

3.1 Discussion

The prudent chemist always runs a small test batch before using fresh chemical components, in this case either P2P, methylamine, or catalyst. In addition, there is a requirement for a pre-reduction vessel for the catalyst. This writer will tell you flat-out that the literature on the subject of pre-reduction is wrong. First of all, this catalyst must be pre-reduced in distilled water, not ethanol. Dropping this catalyst into alcohol is an excellent way to start a fire. Although this catalyst is gradually reduced down to platinum during it’s exposure to hydrogen, only in the very poorest of catalyst does this occur in less than three uses. In every case, however, the catalyst required pre-reduction. The amount of pre-reduction required varies from batch to batch and the chemist must learn to tell from observation when the catalyst is ready for use.

3.2 Test-vessel construction

One must construct some simple equipment in order to run test-batches and pre-reduce catalyst in appropriate amounts.

Fortunately, the equipment can be fairly simple because we are only required to provide agitation and low pressurization. Eliminating the requirement for heating simplifies things immensely. As one can observe in the accompanying picture, this writer constructed a vessel out of an old 3000ml reagent flask. It has the advantages of being narrow, thick-walled, and having a flat top. The bottom plate is 3/16″ aluminum plate , the connecting rods are 3/16″ all-thread found at the auto parts store. The top plate is ¼” aluminum plate recovered from the scrapyard. The gauge is a -30″Hg to +30″Hg, liquid-filled, combination vacuum/pressure unit. They cost about $30 at industrial equipment supply stores. The pipe is common ¼” NPT wrapped in Teflon tape. Everything is connected together with a brass 4-way fuel block with ¼” NPT thread available at the auto parts store. The valves on either end are common gas valves found at welding equipment suppliers. One can use oxyacetylene valves as they are ¼” NPT on one side and gas thread on the other. This allows one to make a direct connection between the hydrogen tank regulator and the vessel using the red hose of an oxyacetylene torch set. The same valve on the other end is fitted with a 3/8″ nipple for pulling a vacuum. The rubber gasket used to seal the aluminum top-plate and the bottle-top is cut from 1/8 ” rubber gasket material found in the plumbing department of the hardware store. One must adapt this design to the equipment available. A 2000ml filter-flask can be made into an excellent vessel by sealing off the side-nipple (hose, screw, and clamps) and using a modified rubber stopper on the top opening.

A smaller glass vessel is also required for pre-reducing 1g batches of catalyst. The vessel should be about 500ml or less in volume. This is necessary because of the physical limitations of attempting to pre-reduce tiny volumes of catalyst in a large vessel, especially considering the fact that one must determine visually the pre- reduction state of the catalyst. The bottom plate must be made of aluminum so a magnetic stirring bar can be used for agitation. The unit is placed on a stir-plate, the air evacuated, then charged with hydrogen and agitated until the catalyst is pre-reduced.

3.3 Pre-reduction of platinum dioxide

Much of the existing literature concerning Adam’s catalyst describes pre-reducing the catalyst in ethanol and/or allowing the catalyst to pre-reduce in situ. My experience indicates both techniques are wrong. Attempting to pre-reduce this catalyst in ethanol resulted in several small fires and explosions. Attempting to pre-reduce the catalyst in situ worked on only one batch of catalyst, which was the poorest catalyst made.

The procedure that works reliably, every time, is to pre-reduce in distilled water. The pre-reduction process involves exposing the catalyst to hydrogen gas under pressure, resulting in a change in both color and character of the platinum dioxide. Carefully weigh out 1g of catalyst on a triple-beam scale. Place the catalyst into a small (50ml) beaker and add 10ml of distilled water. Carefully pour the resulting slurry into the small pre-reduction vessel through a small funnel, chasing the slurry into the vessel with an additional 10ml of distilled water. Place a small Teflon-coated stirbar into the vessel and seal by carefully cinching down on the retaining nuts on the top plate. Make sure the hydrogen gas valve is closed and the vacuum valve with the nipple is open. Attach the 3/8″ hose from your vacuum aspirator and pull a vacuum in the vessel to about 25″Hg. Close the vacuum valve and watch the gauge for a minute. If it doesn’t move, your vessel is holding a vacuum. Now open the hydrogen tank valve and increase the pressure at the second stage of the regulator to 30psi maximum. Open the hydrogen inlet valve on the catalyst vessel, pressurizing to 30psi. Close the vessel hydrogen valve and watch the gauge for a drop in pressure. If there is a leak, one can find it rapidly using dishwashing soap mixed with water in a squirt bottle. Once the vessel is pressurized with no leaks, begin stirring as rapidly as possible. The catalyst will be thrown against the interior wall of the vessel as it is splashed around. Adjust the position of the vessel on the stir-plate to maximize the splash. The catalyst will begin to turn from brown to black in color. After an additional amount of time, small particles of catalyst will begin “sticking” to the vessel wall, soon forming a “ring” of tiny black flakes or particles. Once most of the catalyst is in the “flake” form and all of the catalyst has turned from brown to black, it is pre-reduced.

Over-reduction can easily take place, and as this drastically decreases the activity level of the catalyst and reduces it’s useful life, this is to be avoided. The catalyst will pre-reduce more quickly during warm weather, but the pre- reduction time varies more from batch-to-batch than with any other factor. One should use 20ml of distilled water for every gram of catalyst. Using less increases the chance of over-reduction while excessive water requires the addition of more ethanol to the reaction solution to maintain homogeneity, thus decreasing catalyst density and increasing reduction time. Typical pre-reduction times are 10-25 minutes.

Once the chemist is satisfied that his catalyst is pre-reduced, he makes sure all hydrogen valves are closed and then slowly opens the vacuum valve to release the excess hydrogen. One should keep in mind that hydrogen reacts with oxygen to make water, with an accompanying release of energy–one should be careful when opening hydrogen gas valves into an atmosphere containing oxygen. Once the pressurized hydrogen has been released, it is time to move the catalyst to the reaction vessel. The best way to do this is to partly fill the pre-reduction vessel with 95% ethanol, then pour the slurry into the reaction vessel using a funnel. Repeat until all the catalyst is picked up. The chemist is now ready to make his product.

3.4 Primary reaction vessel construction

The design of one’s primary reduction vessel should be tailored to the batch sizes and the quality of agitation one desires.

This writer constructed an adequate reaction vessel using a section of 8″ stainless-steel pipe found at the scrapyard along with some stainless plate and threaded fittings (see pix).

In addition, a rocker was constructed using common steel plate, a gearmotor, and some pulleys purchased at the hardware store. A cyclic rate of 100 RPM was chosen arbitrarily (I guessed) and provision made in the design to allow one to swap pulleys and change the cyclic rate. A throw(rock) of 3″ was determined to be the most one could expect given the motor torque (32 in-lb) and the weight of the vessel when fully charged (about 10lb). The motor used is a gearmotor from a scrapped copier which one can readily find at electronics surplus houses along with the required capacitor for less than $100. A new gearmotor of the proper size will cost 4-5 times that much. These are very useful, reliable motors that this writer uses for many purposes. Try to find ones with a machined face so they can be quickly mounted to brackets, etc. The resulting rocker provides a rocking rate of 110 rpm and completes a reaction in six hours.

Our stainless reaction vessel has an internal capacity of 7000ml, of which only 3500ml is used when fully charged with a 6.5-mole batch. This batch size was selected because of equipment and time restrictions-one can squeeze a 3500ml reaction into a 5000ml round-bottom flask for solvent stripping and the resulting 900g of methamphetamine base divides conveniently into two 450g portions for crystallization, which will take about 4 hours to perform. This is a full day’s work for one person, resulting in 2lb of product.

An improved reaction vessel can be constructed using a paint shaker for optimum surface-area creation. These units hold one-gallon paint cans, which, when full of paint, weigh much more than our reaction solution, eliminating concerns about exceeding any weight limitations on the machine. One may have a reaction vessel made which will fit into the machine clamps and have the following properties; 1) it will be constructed of thin-wall 316 stainless steel and stand up to 100psi when sealed and will not collapse when a 29″Hg vacuum is pulled (this means a round body and thick ends), 2) it will have a threaded opening about 1.5-2″ at one end to pour stuff into, and, 3) it will have an internal volume of at least 4000ml. The best way to do this is to have a machine shop roll a sheet of 0.065in 316 stainless sheet into a cylinder and then weld the seam. End pieces are cut from 0.375in 316 stainless and tig-welded to our thin-wall pipe. Prior to welding to the cylinder body, one end-piece is drilled out and a 1.5″ stainless coupling with NPT thread is welded on. The unit is then pressure tested to 100psi and vacuum tested to 29″Hg. The threaded coupling is fitted with a bushing that allows a gas fitting to be attached. Use Teflon tape to seal all threads, including the gas fittings. Leaks must be avoided. This one gallon (4liters) vessel can hold 3500ml of reactants with ease, resulting in the same product volumes as one obtains using the rocker. The improvement comes in the vigorous agitation provided by the paint shaker; by making sure that the hydrogen inlet hose rises straight up from the vessel to avoid losing reactants into the hose, the reaction will reach completion in 3 hours instead of 6 using the same catalyst density of 1g/mole. Using very little ingenuity, one can obtain a paint shaker that holds 5-gallon pails and construct a reaction vessel which will do 30-mole batches in a few hours, resulting in about 10lb of finished product after processing. The batch can be processed in 22- liter glassware by reducing the ethanol volume slightly, but will require a high-volume vacuum source to do the distillation. The main drawback to doing huge batches is that if one makes a mistake, he has just blown a whole lot of very valuable precursor material. The prudent chemist does not bite off more than he can chew up in one day.

3.5 Reductive amination of P2P using Adam’s catalyst

While the catalyst is pre-reducing, the chemist must prepare a Schiff’s base from his P2P and methylamine solution.

For a 1-mole test batch using 1g of catalyst, one pours 150ml of 37-40% methylamine solution into a 1000ml beaker along with a stirring bar. With stirring, 134g(1mole) of 1-phenyl-2-propanone is added. This should be done inside the fume cabinet to avoid the strong smell of decaying fish that accompanies methylamine solutions. Cover the beaker with a clean shop rag while stirring continues. In a separate container, measure out 250ml of 95% ethanol. 95% ethanol can be purchased as very strong vodka under various brand names (Everclear?), but my favorite source of ethanol is found in almost every supermarket and drugstore. It is called Rubbing Alcohol Compound. This is very different from Rubbing Alcohol, which is the trade name for isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing Alcohol Compound has replaced isopropyl alcohol on grocery shelves because the ethanol subsidies provided by the feds allow the use of cheap subsidized ethanol instead of the more expensive isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing Alcohol Compound is 93% ethanol along with 2% ethyl acetate or some other denaturant that makes you sick if you drink it. Fortunately, the denaturants do not affect our reaction and now one has an inexpensive source of reaction solvent upon which no liquor taxes are paid. This writer has tried every brand available in my area and they all worked just fine. In a serious pinch, the chemist can use methanol instead of ethanol, although the reaction will take three times as long to complete with a similar yield. When the catalyst is ready, slowly add, with stirring, enough ethanol to clarify the solution. This should take about 125ml for a 1-mole batch, leaving 125ml to use in retrieving the catalyst from the pre-reduction vessel. Add the clarified P2P/methylamine solution to the reaction vessel and rinse the beaker with a dash of ethanol, adding the rinse to the reaction. One should now have a reaction vessel containing 20ml of water, 250ml of ethanol, 150ml of methylamine solution, and 135ml of P2P for a total volume of about 550ml. Keep this number in mind when designing a larger reaction vessel. Seal the reaction vessel, pull a 25″ vacuum using a water aspirator, pressurize to 5psi with hydrogen, pull another 25″ vacuum, and then pressurize to 25-30psi with hydrogen. Do not pull a vacuum harder than 25″Hg or the methylamine will boil off. Check for leaks. If no leaks are found, begin the agitation by turning up the stirring to full blast.

Agitation is important because it creates surface area. For the reaction to take place, the catalyst, a molecule of our Schiff’s base, and an atom of hydrogen must come into contact simultaneously. Since we are dealing with solid, liquid, and gas phase materials, this can be difficult. The splash, or agitation, is the single most important physical variable affecting this reaction. The more surface area one can create, the better the chances are of our three reactants meeting and making meth.

At this point, one would like to know if the reaction is proceeding correctly and at what rate so one knows when the reaction is done. Our pressure/vacuum gauge along with our gas valve will provide this information. Once the reaction vessel is pressurized to 30psi, close the hydrogen valve and begin the agitation; the reading on the pressure gauge should drop over a short period of time. In my test vessel, a pressure drop of 10psi occurs in 11-16 minutes, depending upon how good the agitation is. Yours may be different. Once the pressure has dropped 10psi, open the hydrogen valve again and re-pressurize to 30psi. By precisely recording the amount of time it takes to cause a pressure drop of 10psi, the chemist can tell whether the reaction is proceeding or stopped for some reason, how well (quickly) the reaction is going, and when it is done. This can be vital information if something is going wrong. Typically, a 1-mole reaction in this writer’s test vessel will use a 10psi gulp of hydrogen every 13 minutes for 10 gulps, and then begin to slow down as the reaction begins to have difficulty finding unused reactants. A total of 18 10psi gulps of hydrogen are required to complete a 1-mole batch in my test vessel. The last hydrogen gulp takes well over an hour to finish, with a total elapsed time of about 4-6 hours to complete the reaction. Using a known volume and pressure, one can calculate how many pressure drops it will take to use up a mole of hydrogen.

With the reaction done, the chemist pours the reaction solution into a 1000ml beaker and rinses the vessel out with a little ethanol, adding the rinse to the beaker. One must now remove the catalyst before processing. This is accomplished by using a small(2″) Buchner along with Qualitative 5 filter paper and filtering into a 1000ml filter flask. Capture the remaining particles of catalyst in the beaker with ethanol. At this point, the chemist must be on his toes because the catalyst in the Buchner will catch the alcohol on fire if it is not quickly quenched. This is done by pouring a layer of distilled water over the catalyst and allowing the vacuum suction to pull it through, taking the alcohol with it.

One must always keep in mind that this catalyst is very pyrophoric, meaning it will burst into flames or explode at the slightest provocation. Things one should never do with this catalyst at any time, but especially once it has been pre- reduced, are; 1) allow it to fall freely through the air for more than a few inches, 2) allow it to come into intimate contact with flammable solvents such as ethanol, methanol, etc., and, 3) expose it to open flame. We have forced hydrogen atoms into the lattice structure of the platinum dioxide crystals, and that hydrogen reacts with oxygen both in the air and the platinum dioxide (reducing it over time to platinum), and this reaction creates heat which will catch things on fire. A static charge of sufficient intensity, such as that picked up when falling freely through dry air, will cause the catalyst to explode, although not with an intensity that will damage anything but one’s dignity.

Now that the catalyst is removed, pour the filtrate into a 1000ml round-bottom (RB) flask and distill the ethanol and methylamine off until the temperature reaches 90-92°C. Turn off the heat, attach an empty receiving vessel, then slowly apply a vacuum by gradually closing the bleeder valve on the water-aspirator system. When the temperature has dropped and the vacuum is down to 28-29″Hg, turn on the heat again and vacuum distill off the residual water until the condenser is clear, which will occur between 50-60°C. Remove the heat and allow the remaining meth base to cool a little. With fresh boiling stones and a clean receiver that has been weighed, reapply the vacuum and distill the meth base over a 10°C range. Adjust the vacuum using the bleeder valve so that the meth base distills over at 95-105°C. Meth base is a clear, colorless liquid. If it is anything but clear and colorless, it contains contaminants. The accompanying picture shows the result of a 6.5 mole batch, which produces about 900g of meth base.

A one-mole batch of P2P with 100% conversion would result in 149g (one mole) of methamphetamine base, but the typical yield is 90-93%, resulting in 134-140g of base. Meth base will quickly react with carbon dioxide in the air to form the carbonate, so it is advisable to crystallize the base as soon as possible. Crystallization is performed by adding 450g(3 moles) of meth base to a 1000ml Pyrex beaker and placing the beaker on a stirring hotplate. Carefully drop in a Teflon- coated stirring bar and begin stirring. One now adds 37% hydrochloric acid in 15ml portions. A graduated 15ml test-tube makes an ideal dispenser. A great deal of heat is generated as the acid reacts with the meth base and will result in boiling if added too quickly. Add 15ml of acid at intervals of 1 minute until 19 portions (285ml) have been added, then add acid in smaller portions and watch the color carefully. If the meth base was clean to begin with, it will turn light pink when the pH reaches 3-4. Test with pH strips(Colorphast 0-14 strips) or a meter. Stop adding acid when the pH reaches 3.

Now we must boil off the water contained in the acid, as water solvates meth very efficiently. Turn the heat on the hotplate to 4.5 while stirring continues and place a thermometer that reaches 150°C into the beaker on the bottom. Over the next 1.5 hours, the temperature will climb to 110°C where boiling begins, then gradually rise as the water is boiled off. When the temperature reaches 130°C, turn off the heat and remove the thermometer. Using a dishtowel, grip the beaker with both hands and quickly pour it into a 5000ml plastic bucket containing 4.5 liters of acetone which has been frozen for 2 weeks. Retrieve the stir-bar with a chaser, replace the lid and return to the deep freeze for 1 week to allow complete crystallization. Clean, freshly distilled acetone will retain about ¼ lb of product the first time it is used, which is why one should recycle one’s acetone. Alternatively, one can pour the hot methamphetamine hydrochloride into a 5-gal plastic bucket containing 4.5-gal of acetone that has been frozen for about a month (it takes a long time to pull the heat out of a large mass). The meth will crystallize the instant it hits the frozen acetone, although about 25% will remain in the acetone and must be frozen to crystallize.

Paradoxically, dirty meth crystallizes better than pure meth because the crystals quickly grow around a particle of impurity, forming nice large, hard crystals. The meth crystals are filtered out using a large Buchner, two 4000ml filter flasks, and a high-volume vacuum aspirator. An 18cm porcelain Buchner will hold a little over 1 lb of filtered product. Do not use Qualitative 5 filter paper for this filtration. This writer has found that the filters used in milk processing equipment are ideal for meth harvesting. A lot of money has been spent by the dairy industry over the years figuring out how to quickly filter solids out of mixed-phase solutions. These filters will allow liquids, both water and oils, to pass freely while trapping the finest solids, making them ideal for rapid filtering. The problem with the fine paper filters is that oil-water mixtures plug them up very quickly. Milk filters do not have this problem and they are easy to find, cheap, and suspicionless. One will need to cut-to-fit, but this is a small inconvenience. A suitable high-volume filtering setup can be easily made using 5 and 20-liter buckets, a round plastic plate, and some glue. This writer was fortunate enough to discover a large Buchner being used as a planter by a nice lady in my neighborhood. Happily paying the lady for a replacement, the retrieved treasure holds over 2lb of product and makes the chemist’s life much easier. The point is that one can find useful equipment almost anywhere. Pure meth is more difficult to crystallize, and results in a light, flaky white product with a mild scent of marzipan (actually benzaldehyde). Empty the product into a large cake tray and let the acetone evaporate in the fume cabinet for a day or two, separating it as it dries.

This product may be cut with powdered niacinamide (vitamin B3) at a 4:1 ratio (20% cut) to make a product that burns clean and is water-soluble. Do not use vitamin B-3 tablets which contain insoluble buffers that burn dirty.

4.0 Manufacture of 1-phenyl-2-propanone

The manufacture of P2P utilizing benzaldehyde and nitroethane is described. We will be using a two-stage procedure involving the Cope modification of the Knoevengel reaction and an iron-acid reduction procedure. The chemistry of this procedure has been described by Uncle Fester in his Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, 3rd ed., thus we will concentrate on scaling up the reaction to the point where it can be used for very high-volume manufacture.

4.1 Equipment

The following equipment will be required.

  • A rigid-base heating mantle with dual-element controls that holds a 22-liter round-bottom triple-neck.
  • A 22-liter, 3-neck, round-bottom reaction flask
  • A 45/50 to 24/40 glass fitting adapter
  • A Dean-Stark trap
  • Two 30cm West condensers
  • Several 5-liter and 20-liter plastic buckets
  • Fabricated equipment described below

4.2 Chemicals

Benzaldehyde
This is our basic starting material. One mole of benzaldehyde weighs close to 100g and has a density close to 1g/ml. Since we will be performing 25-mole reactions, we will use 2500ml of benzaldehyde per reaction. All other reactant quantities are derived from this figure. Purchase the chlorine-free type if available, but the standard product works fine. Store in a cool, dark place. Benzaldehyde will auto-oxidize somewhat over time, but is nothing to get excited about-this stuff will keep. The oxidation product is benzoic acid, which takes the form of well-defined white crystals at the bottom of the container. Try not to get any of the crystals into the reaction. They won’t kill it, but will reduce the yield. Benzaldehyde has a strong odor of marzipan. It can be vacuum-distilled in order to clean it up, but has a tendency to bump vigorously at vacuum levels that are high. Benzaldehyde has been relatively easy to obtain until recently.
Nitroethane (EtNO2)
This is the material we will react with the benzaldehyde molecule in order to produce 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. It supplies the carbon sidechain and nitro group that are required to produce the nitrostyrene. EtNO2 is a clear, pleasant- smelling liquid which boils at 114-115°C, has a molecular weight of 75.07g/mol, and a relative density of 1.05. It distills nicely without vacuum. Since we will be providing a 5% excess of nitroethane in order to ensure there are enough molecules available to combine with the benzaldehyde, we will require 26.25 moles of nitroethane((26.25mol x 75.07g/mol)/1.05), or 1,875ml for each batch. One can use the industrial grade nitroethane, but it must be washed and distilled before using. To clean it up, pour about 3000ml of nitroethane into a 4000ml separatory funnel, add 500ml of distilled water, shake thoroughly, allow the water to separate to the top over a 24-hour period, then drain the nitroethane and distill it, discarding anything that comes over below 110°C. It is important that the nitroethane be clean. One should be aware that nitroethane has become a high-suspicion product because it sounds much like nitromethane, which is the booster that was added to the Oklahoma City bomb. Do not confuse the two.
n-butylamine (n-BuNH2)
This is our catalyst. Do not use “sec-” or “tert-” butylamine, as they will not work(the “n-” means “straight- chain”). In addition, because n-butylamine is a very strong base which reacts with carbon-dioxide in the air and almost anything else it contacts, one must insure that the catalyst is clean. The best way to do this is to distill it. Do this inside a fume cabinet as this stuff is very ugly. Don’t breathe it and don’t touch it. One must wrap the stopper or cork on the distillation rig in Teflon tape to prevent it from being eaten. The amount of catalyst used in our 25-mole reaction is nominally 20ml/mole, but experience has shown that the actual amount is closer to 23ml/mole, so one should purchase an amount that will provide a volume of 25ml/mole of benzaldehyde. The actual amount must be determined by observation and adjusted accordingly. The use of catalyst that is not pure will result in a drastic reduction in yield.
Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)
This innocuous chemical is used in our reduction reaction in small quantities as a “steerer”, which modifies the reaction equilibrium in the direction we desire. A few kilos of this can do a lot of reactions.
Catalytic Iron Powder (Fe)
Used in the reduction procedure, the iron reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. Due to the requirement for good dispersion during the reduction, the use of a fine mesh powder is necessary, either 80 or 100 mesh. A coarser 60 mesh powder can be used, but may result in some problems if the stirring system is inadequate. The reaction requires 200g of iron powder for every mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene that is reduced. Since we will be performing 20- mole reductions, each reduction will require 4000g of iron.
Muriatic acid (HCl)
This is simply dilute hydrochloric acid, usually about 28-32% as compared with 37% HCl. It works just fine, however, and has the advantage of being available at almost any hardware store. A volume of 750ml of 37% HCl is required for every mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene that is reduced, resulting in 15 liters of acid required for every 20-mole reduction. It has been this writer’s experience that the more dilute muriatic acid performs just as well as the stronger stuff in the same volume.
Methanol (MeOH)
This is used as a solvent when processing the yellow nitropropene crystals. Purchase methanol which has not been diluted with water-some of it is only 60% methanol. Keep it in the deep freeze.
Toluene
This is our solvent for the Knoevengel reaction. It is available in every paint store, although many companies are relabeling their solvents with house names so the narcs don’t hassle them. Use the “UN” number, which must be on every container, to identify the product. Or just ask. Most paint store employees don’t know the difference between toluene and neoprene and will happily tell you anything you want. Our Knoevengel reaction requires 200ml of toluene for every mole of benzaldehyde, or 5000ml for every reaction.

4.3 Production of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene

Set up the 22-liter RB in the heating mantle. Add 10-20 PTFE(Teflon) boiling stones to the vessel. Through the wide center neck, add 5000ml of toluene, 2500ml of benzaldehyde, and 1875ml of nitroethane, in that order, with stirring. Have the fitting reducer, Dean-Stark trap, and a West condenser greased up and assembled nearby. We will need to assemble the pieces quickly once the n-butylamine is added. Using a wooden dowling rod as a stirrer, quickly add 550ml of n-butylamine with stirring. The reaction mixture will turn from clear to a milky consistency as a Schiff’s base and a molecule of water are formed(the water turns the solution milky). Assemble the fitting reducer, the Dean-Stark trap, and the West condenser on top of each other and plug the two side necks. Attach a fitting to the top of the condenser and run an exhaust line into your fume cabinet. Start the water running through the condenser. Wrap some aluminum foil around the top half of the reaction vessel and the Dean-Stark trap to avoid excessive cooling.

Turn on both heating elements and set the temperature controls at 20%. At this setting it will take a long time to heat up the solution. After one has some experience with this reaction, one can start out with the heating mantle at a higher setting(70% for 20min on my rig). One must be aware that we are using only a small West condenser for cooling and that it takes very little extra heat to blow material out the top. On my equipment, the proper setting is 18%–20% is too hot. Be very careful with the heat. The idea here is to boil the solution just hard enough to reach the bottom of the condenser where the water-toluene azeotrope can condense out into the Dean-Stark trap and be removed from the reaction solution. This occurs at 85°C.

Once the reaction reaches the condenser, the water will begin to accumulate rapidly. For a 25 mole reaction, 25 moles of water will be created and must be removed for the reaction to reach completion. This writer’s Dean-Stark trap holds 25ml of water, resulting in a total of 18 full water-traps to complete a 25-mole reaction. Use a piece of paper and make a mark every time the trap is emptied. The water will come over rapidly at first, taking only a few minutes to fill the trap, and then slows down as water molecules get harder to find. The reaction should take about five hours to complete, but one should not use time as a definitive indicator. One will do much better at judging the quality and state of one’s reaction by observing the color of the reaction mixture. As the water is removed, the solution will begin to turn a light orange color and deepen as the reaction nears completion. The use of too much catalyst, n-butylamine, will cause the reaction to polymerize to some degree, resulting in a dark brown solution color, poor quality nitropropene crystals, and a greatly reduced yield. Unfortunately, this reaction is very sensitive to the quantity and quality of the catalyst. Too little catalyst will reduce the yield significantly and too much will burn(polymerize) it. This writer advises that one do test batches of 1 and 5 moles in order to home in on the exact amount of n-butylamine required. If the reaction is allowed to continue once all the water is removed, it will begin to polymerize, so one should carefully watch the color of the reaction solution and keep careful track of the amount of water removed. Even if all of the theoretical amount of water has not been removed, if the solution color starts turning dark, pull it. Turn off the heat, allow the boiling to subside into the vessel, remove the condenser and Dean-Stark trap, then carefully lift the vessel out of the heating mantle and place it on a plastic bucket inside the fume cabinet. Leave it to cool down to room temperature overnight.

We will now strip the toluene solvent from the solution by performing a vacuum distillation. One needs a high-volume adjustable vacuum source in order to perform this distillation. Do not use a vacuum pump to strip solvents-it’s hard on the pump and poses a high fire hazard. Always use an aspirator when vacuum-distilling solvents. Your typical university aspirator that runs off 40psi of water pressure is not adequate to pull a decent vacuum in a large volume, let alone an adjustable vacuum. We will be working with a system volume of about 27 liters. Attach two West condensers in series and support them carefully with tri-grips or wooden blocks with grooves cut into the tops. Attach a 5000ml round-bottom flask that has been marked at the 5000ml level. We will use this mark to determine when we have finished. Once completely assembled, turn on the heating mantle and set the controls at 30%. Once again, the reader’s system/equipment will be slightly different from mine and he must make some minor adjustments. The idea here is to distill off the toluene at a temperature high enough to allow the condenser to liquefy the toluene so it doesn’t get sucked into the vacuum system where it can cause damage. About 26-27″Hg or thereabouts will produce a distillation temperature range of about 40-60°C, which is hot enough to be condensed out by water at 10°C. One should not attempt to distill off the toluene at a normal atmosphere because the added heat quickly polymerizes the product as the toluene is removed. One must also make sure one has removed ALL of the toluene; even a small amount will prevent the crystals from forming or will produce poor quality crystals that polymerize rapidly in the open air. Since we started with 5000ml of toluene, we need to strip off at least that much. Use a mark on the receiver.

Once the toluene has been stripped off, turn off the heat, disassemble the equipment, and then pour the hot, orange liquid remaining in the vessel into two 5-liter plastic buckets, filling each of them to about 1/3 full and then covering. Quickly rinse and wash the big reaction vessel with methanol before the residue adheres to the walls. Let the liquid nitropropene cool for a few hours, then cover and place at the bottom of the freezer overnight. In the morning, the crystals will be formed and we must remove any unreacted material and contaminants. To accomplish this, pour about one liter of methanol which has been frozen for a week or two into one of the buckets holding the solid mass of crystal and break up the mass with a big screwdriver. The yellow nitropropene crystals are only slightly soluble in cold methanol, but the undesireable reaction remnants are very soluble, so we will dissolve the gunk while leaving the crystals intact. Once converted into a slurry, filter through a Buchner. Do the same to the other bucket. Empty the bright yellow crystals into a large cake tray and let them dry. Once dry, place into a 5gal bucket, cover, and place in the deep freeze. Left in the open air, the nitropropene crystals will polymerize in about one month. Stored in the freezer, these crystals will keep nicely for at least two years.

The yield on this reaction is not 100%, as stated in other literature. The theoretical yield is 79%, but the best this writer has achieved is 74%, with 70% being the average. Since one mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene weighs 168g, one should end up with 25 moles x .7, or 17.5 moles of nitropropene crystals which weigh about 2940g. This writer advises that the chemist make and store all of his yellow nitropropene crystals before proceeding to the next step.

The chemist may wish to experiment with other strong bases in order to find an alternative to n-butylamine, which is rare enough to be a choke point.

4.4 Reduction of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene to 1-phenyl-2-propanone

4.4.1 Equipment construction

This procedure is the most difficult described. Not because the reaction is difficult to perform, but because of the equipment one must build in order to make it workable. The problem is one of scale; A two-mole reduction can be performed in 5000ml glassware using a heating mantle and standard stirring equipment. To reduce a 20-mole batch requires ten times the volume, 50 liters, a controllable heat source, and scaled-up stirring equipment. Additionally, we will perform a steam-distillation in order to extract and purify the final product, which will require a large condenser. We will want this condenser to also operate in the reflux mode during the reaction in order to keep the acid from boiling off and killing everything. To make matters worse, we will be working with 15 liters of muriatic acid, which means everything must be made of stainless-steel. Fortunately, this equipment is neither difficult nor expensive to construct. One needs to either own and be proficient with a TIG welder or find a shop that can do the work. If one must use shops, spread the work around. They will all ask what it’s for-simply tell them that you have a non-disclosure agreement and would lose your job or contract if you told them. Or make up your own story.

Our reaction vessel will be a 50-liter stainless stock-pot found at the kitchen/restaurant supply. It must be stainless, and not aluminum. High-quality stainless pots have aluminum-clad bottoms for better heat transfer-this is good. They will all be fabricated of thin-wall stainless, but look for the most heavy-duty pot you can find. This pot is the weak point in our equipment because the boiling hydrochloric acid will eat through the wall of the pot in 5-7 reactions, after which a new pot must be purchased.

In order to seal the pot, a flange must be welded onto the pot rim and provision made for attaching and sealing a top. This is done by carefully measuring the diameter of the pot rim and fabricating a flange to fit. We will be using a 3/16″ polypropylene “O” ring for a seal and a series of bolts on the outside to accomplish the sealing and attaching. The ring should be about 2″ wide, with the bolts(3/8″ stainless hardware) on the outside and a 1/16″ x 3/16″ groove machined into the flange face about ¾” from the inside rim. Polypropylene O-ring material can be found at most good hydraulics shops and machine shops. We will be using 1/8″ diameter or 3/16″ diameter O-ring material, whichever is available. Buy enough for several rings, as they wear out. Our flange must also be flat to within 1/16″ so the top isn’t warped. Do not weld the flange to the pot until the top-plate has been fabricated.

We also have a requirement for knowing the temperature of the reaction at all times. In order to do this, one must either weld a stainless bushing into the side of the pot that fits an industrial thermometer or create a fitting in the top through which one can insert a thermometer long enough to reach the reaction solution. Good luck finding a thermometer that long. This writer chose the bushing-in-the-side method with mixed results-the temperature indication worked great but the boiling acid eats the thermometers and the bushing weld creates a weak point which the acid attacks and eats through after only three reactions. Covering the weld completely with fast-drying J-B Weld after each use doubled the lifespan of the pot to six reactions. I’m sure someone out there can think of something better. A Teflon- coated pot would be nice.

Now that we have the beginnings of a reaction vessel, we will need a heat source. Fortunately, one can find propane- powered barbeques almost anywhere, including the heavy-duty one pictured, which is more than adequate. A 30lb propane tank is good for about three reactions.

Now we must design our top-plate, which is fairly complex. The first step is to have a matching circle of 3/16″ thick stainless-steel cut and drilled to fit the flange so they can be bolted together. Next, we must provide for a Teflon bearing in the middle. This writer designed a bearing machined from 3″ Teflon round stock. Since the gearmotor used to turn the stirrer has a ½” driveshaft, the bearing consisted of a ½” hole in the middle and a ¾” wide outside shoulder machined down to ½” depth. This results in a ½” thick bushing wall, which has held up without problem. Using these dimensions, a center-hole of 1.5″ diameter and four 10-32 threaded holes on the outside rim are required. It is advisable to have the Teflon bushing machined first and then fitted to the top. A shaft clearance of 0.003-5 works well. Unfortunately, one must know the diameter of the motor driveshaft in order to design the bearing. Many motors have 5/8″ driveshafts which will operate perfectly with the above bushing design by simply enlarging the center hole, leaving a 3/8″ bushing wall. The stirring shaft should be standard 316 stainless round stock with a flat machined at one end to make attaching the vanes easy.

The importance of vigorous stirring cannot be overemphasized. If too much iron remains on the bottom, it can cause a runaway reaction, which you will regret. To avoid this, keep the iron in suspension and the reactants moving. This writer has determined experimentally that about 150 rpm is a good speed for stirring, but this can vary depending upon the effectiveness of the stirring vanes. The vanes on the reaction vessel shown were a simple plate welded onto the bottom of the shaft, insuring that it did not contact the thermometer shaft inserted through the pot wall.

Now that we have a bearing and driveshaft, we must design a bracket that will hold our gearmotor firmly in line with the bearing and driveshaft. The picture above shows the gearmotor without the bracket, as the unit has been disassembled for storage. The reader will be left to his own devices in this bracket design since there is little chance that your gearmotor will be exactly like mine. Since there are two more attachments which must be placed on the top cover, one should locate an adequate gearmotor early on in the design and then wait until the end to fit the motor and bracket. The motor should have a shaft speed of about 150 rpm and a torque of 32 inch-pounds or better, keeping in mind that the more reaction mixture being turned, the more torque is required.

A 2″ stainless nipple must be welded to the top plate to accommodate the condenser and it’s fittings. In addition, a threaded ¼” hole must be placed in a location near the outside of the top plate. A ¼” NPT stainless nipple screws in here and is attached to 5/16 Tygon tubing leading to the acid reservoir. This is where the acid enters the reaction vessel.

The condenser and its fittings are fairly straightforward. Four 5′ sections of ½” thinwall stainless tubing are grouped within a 2″ diameter circle and welded into a flat flange with outside boltholes. Use ½” bolts for strength and a thick rubber gasket. The outside waterjacket is 4″ thinwall truck exhaust tubing which is light and cheap. It is fitted with ¼ ” NPT bushings at each end for water circulation. It is sealed at the end with another flange, leaving 6-9″ of tubing sticking out the end. The waterjacket should be 4′ long. Use dishwasher hoses found at the hardware store that have ¼” NPT thread on one end and hose thread on the other for circulating water through the system. The condenser will need to be supported with chains due to it’s weight when full of water. In order to use the condenser in both distillation and reflux modes, another flange must be fabricated which can be moved around in combination with standard pipe fittings. A combination of 2″ stainless “T” , a 2″ plug, and a 6″ long nipple with an angled flange of about 20°C on the end worked well for this writer. The adapter flange must mate well with the condenser flange to avoid leaks.

The following diagrams show how the condenser is configured for both distillation and reflux modes:

A container to hold and dispense the muriatic acid is required. This writer uses a small(5gal) plastic garbage can with a Tygon tubing siphon hole drilled just above the acid line. A 1/8″ stainless-steel flow valve is required to control the flow of acid into the reaction. These valves may be found at industrial supply houses like W.W. Grainger, etc. One should use only Tygon tubing as most other types will soon harden and crack.

4.4.2 Iron Reduction of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene to 1-phenyl-2-propanone

Pour 15 liters of clean tap water into the vessel. Follow this with 4000g of catalytic iron, 3400g (20mol) of 1-phenyl- 2-nitropropene and 40-50g of ferric chloride. Assemble the top with the condenser in the reflux mode, start the water running through the condenser, begin stirring, and fire up the propane burner. Watch the thermometer and turn off the heat when the temperature reaches 90°C. Slowly add muriatic acid in small doses over a 2-hour period. Watch the top of the condenser for signs things are getting out of hand. This reaction needs to be performed in a small shed or other outbuilding with good ventilation. Install a heavy-duty (500+cfm) exhaust fan in the shed. The reason for this is that the fumes from this reaction are very corrosive and if the reaction goes into runaway, one will want to abandon the shed for awhile as the fumes clear out. A total of 15 liters of muriatic acid is added. Once all of the acid has been added, allow the stirring to continue for another 2 hours before going on to the next step.

We now must extract our P2P from the nasty black mess inside the reaction vessel. We will do this through steam distillation. Disconnect the condenser, flange, and “Tee”, leaving the 2″ nipple open. The stirrer should remain turning. Next, quickly pour in about 4 liters of saturated lye solution that has cooled off overnight. Some heat and steam will be generated as the lye neutralizes the muriatic acid. Assemble the Tee, flange, and condenser in the distillation mode and start the water flowing through the condenser. Place a 20 liter bucket under the end and fire up the propane burner to high. Discontinue stirring. Distill over the water and P2P until the bucket is full, then turn off the heat.

The yield for this reduction is 75% no matter how badly one thinks he has blown it, so we should expect to obtain 15 moles, or a little over 2000g of P2P. Since P2P has a density close to that of water, this works out to about 2 liters of product.

We must now extract the P2P from the water, purify it, and store it for later use. This is accomplished by pouring 3000ml of water/P2P into each of two 4000ml separatory funnel. One then adds about 300ml of saturated lye solution to each and shakes vigorously for 3-5 minutes. This is done to insure there is no residual acid which can, and will, poison the catalyst when used. After a thorough shaking, 400ml of methylene chloride is added to each separatory funnel and shaken vigorously for 2-3 minutes. Methylene chloride is an easily obtainable solvent for most plastics. Check the plastics supply shops that sell buckets, sheet plastic, etc. Since methylene chloride is heavier than water, it will pick up the P2P and carry it to the bottom of the sep funnel. This takes some time, however, so one must not get in a hurry. This writer allows the separation to sit for 6 hours before draining the bottom layer into a one-gallon wine bottle, or even better, an amber glass bottle. Cut a square out of a plastic baggie and use it for a seal between the bottle-top and the cap. Add another 400ml of methylene chloride, shake vigorously, and let it settle out again for 6 hours before draining. This is good enough, go on to the next batch. When finished, one should have 3-4 gallons of methylene chloride/P2P solution.

We will now recover our methylene chloride solvent for reuse and distill the P2P. Use a 5000ml round-bottom vessel and distill over the methylene chloride from 39 to 60°C. Return the solvent to it’s container and continue until there is only about 2000ml of P2P left in the vessel. Add boiling stones and vacuum distill over the remnants of the methylene chloride and water until it is clear that only P2P is left. Using a clean receiver and fresh boiling stones, distill over the P2P at 105-115°C. Do not distill at a temperature lower than 105°C or the P2P will carry contaminants over with it, the contaminants being darker colored. P2P is a clear, pale-yellow liquid that smells like cat piss. P2P will auto- oxidize over a period of weeks if left at room temperature, so put it in the freezer until ready for use.

One can use toluene to extract the P2P from the water, but it must be vacuum-distilled and the separation will be to the top instead of the bottom like methylene chloride. It takes about the same amount of time to separate as when using methylene chloride.

4.4.3 Alternative reduction procedure

For those unable or unwilling to construct the admittedly large number of mechanical items described above, there is an alternative reduction procedure that the reader may or may not find more convenient. This reduction, gleaned from Dr. Alexander Shulgin’s wonderful book PIKHAL, uses glacial acetic acid instead of muriatic acid to create hydrogen by reacting with catalytic iron. It also cleans up with water and eliminates the steam distillation step used above. The downside is that, as described, it takes a much larger volume of acid to reduce an equivalent amount of nitropropene. It may be possible to reduce the amount of acid required, and I leave it those interested to develop it further.

Place a 1000ml Pyrex beaker into a pan of water and rest this on a hotplate. Add 140ml of glacial acetic acid and 32g of 80-100 mesh catalytic iron. Heat to about 85°C, just below the point where white salts begin to appear, then add 10-15g of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene crystals dissolved in 75ml of glacial acetic acid. Add slowly, allowing a vigorous reaction free from excessive frothing. Continue heating for 1.5 hours after the addition. The surface will crust up, turn whitish, and climb the walls of the beaker. Remove from heat, mix into 2000ml of clean water. Add enough concentrated lye solution to neutralize the acid, then extract with methylene chloride and distill exactly as above. One can scale this up by using a bucket made from polypropylene (try Chevron Delo 400 oil buckets). These tough buckets will stand up to 100°C temperatures without deforming. Or one can use a stainless pot either plain or Teflon coated. Glacial acetic acid has a strong vinegar smell which disperses rapidly when heated, making for an odor problem hard to disguise. But since there is no power required, one can do this in the woods somewhere. This procedure was designed by Dr. Shulgin to reduce the nitrostyrene associated with MDMA, so it can be used for both Meth and Ecstasy if one can find a supply of piperonal. The reader will find that most of the procedures described herein apply to the manufacture of both products. This writer has tried this procedure with excellent results, obtaining a 75% yield of a very pure and colorless P2P.

5.0 Manufacture of Methylamine from Formaldehyde and Ammonium Chloride

The use of phenylacetones as precursors to Meth and Ecstasy require methylamine to complete the reaction. Fortunately, it is fairly easy, if time consuming, to manufacture. Both formaldehyde and ammonium chloride are easily obtainable chemicals used extensively in industry. One can divert formaldehyde from taxidermists and ammonium chloride from many plating shops and even the drugstore. Once again, we have a two-step procedure; the first making methylamine hydrochloride crystals which are stored in the freezer until used, and a purification step where the methylamine is collected and diluted.

5.1 Equipment

To perform this procedure we will need the following equipment.

  • A rigid-base 10-liter heating mantle with dual controls.
  • Two 10-liter round-bottom 3-neck flask
  • Three 2000ml RB flasks.
  • A 30cm West condenser.
  • A 500ml dropping funnel.
  • A 75cm dual-surface reflux condenser with 24/40 joints(bottom male, top female)
  • Several clean 5-liter and 5-gal buckets with tops.
  • A fabricated condenser capable of condensing ammonia (bp -33°C). This condenser is fabricated using a 1 gallon paint can and a section of ¼” brake line found at the auto parts store. About 24″ of brake line is carefully coiled into a spiral that fits inside the paint can. An exit tube about 2″ long and an entrance are brazed to the can. There must be no leaks at the bottom. Also, the coiled brake line must not have any section that is crimped or runs “uphill” – this can cause a serious backpressure problem. When filled about 1/3 with methanol or ethanol and chilled with dry ice, this condenser will be at -75°C, which is cold enough to condense ammonia. Wrap the paint can with pipe insulation and duct tape. Without the insulation, the dry ice must be replenished at intervals short enough to be distracting. This writer attached a mounting handle but later discovered that it is much easier to simply set it on a table or bench of the proper height. Do a test run with alcohol and dry ice to see if any leaks appear when the brazing is rapidly chilled. Check to see that water runs smoothly through the condenser without any backpressure. This is not a piece of equipment one wants to test as it is used.
  • In addition to the dry ice condenser, we will need to circulate ice water through a reflux condenser in order to condense out any water vapor that may accompany the methylamine gas. This writer purchased a perfectly good circulating chiller at a mining equipment sale that pumps -20°C antifreeze solution. Otherwise, one can make a perfectly acceptable chiller out of aquarium pumps and a 10-gallon Coleman ice chest. Connect two aquarium pumps together in parallel so if one pump fails in the middle of the reaction the other can continue on until the procedure is finished. Drill holes in the top of the cooler for the pump cord and circulating lines. Add a layer of water on the bottom and drop in several bags of ice. As the ice melts, add more. This will give us about a 1°C circulating solution. If a colder solution is desired, one simply uses cheap plumbing antifreeze that won’t freeze at -30°C and chills it with dry ice instead of water ice. The pumps may become unreliable at the reduced temperature.

5.2 Chemicals

To make a useful amount of methylamine, the following is required.

  • 10-20 gallons of 35-40% Formaldehyde
  • 10kg Sodium hydroxide (lye)
  • Distilled water
  • A 40lb block of dry ice, wrapped in newspaper and stored in a good ice chest.
  • About 40lb of ice cubes or block ice from the supermarket
  • 40-50kg of ammonium chloride. Industrial grade ammonium chloride is normally mixed with a little calcium chloride to keep it from clumping up and hardening and is called “treated” ammonium chloride. The calcium chloride does not affect the reaction, so one can use the cheap industrial 50lb bags.

5.3 Methylamine Hydrochloride

Set up the 10-liter rigid base heating mantle inside the fume cabinet. We will be generating some formaldehyde gas which one does not want to breathe.

Charge the reaction vessel with 3kg of ammonium chloride and 6 liters of 35-40% formaldehyde. The ammonium chloride will not dissolve, so stir it with a section of wooden dowling. Attach a 30cm West condenser, a vacuum takeoff, and a 2000ml receiver RB flask. Lead a short section of plastic tubing from the vacuum takeoff to a small pail of water. Use a clamp to place the end of the tube just under the surface of the water. Some of the gas generated will be absorbed by the water; the rest will go out the vent. Place a one-hole rubber stopper with a thermometer in one of the side holes on the triple-neck so the solution temperature can be easily read. The chemist then turns on the heat, setting the controls on 70% full-scale for a short time. When the solution temperature reaches 60°C, reduce the heat controls to about 25% and slowly bring the temperature up to 100°C. The ammonium chloride will now start to dissolve, and can be aided with some quick stirring with a dowling rod. As the solution reaches 70°C, a little gas will begin bubbling in the water pail. As the temperature climbs towards 100°C, a lot of gas will be generated, causing pressure inside the vessel. The pressure builds up because of the back pressure created by the West condenser, which is too small. In fact, the condenser is the limiting factor in this reaction, otherwise one would use a 22-liter setup and double the volume. This writer has performed this reaction in a 22-liter rig and does not recommend it. Those familiar with methylamine manufacture will be wondering why a pot of oil warmed to the correct temperature is not used; the answer is that this writer discovered that the solution temperature can be held at 104-106°C using a carefully controlled heating mantle. One will need to play with the control adjustments a little, but it is not difficult. If the chemist experiences difficulties holding a stable temperature, simply go back to the oil pot method. Reduce the heat to about 15% when the solution temperature reaches 100°C. Once the solution stabilizes at 105°C and the gas no longer bubbles in the water pail, the chemist can apply an aspirator vacuum at 15-30 minute intervals over the next 5 hours. At the end of 5 hours, turn off the heat, remove the triple-neck from the heating mantle, and let it cool down overnight to room temperature. The cooling causes a lot of ammonium chloride crystals to precipitate out of solution. Filter out the crystals, saving them in a separate bucket for later reuse, and save the light yellow filtrate in another bucket. Repeat this procedure several more times until a 20-24 liter bucket is full of liquid.

Next, set up the 10 liter triple-neck in the same manner as before and add about 7 liters of the accumulated intermediate-stage liquid. Set the heating mantle to about 30% and apply an aspirator vacuum of -28″Hg using a bleeder on the vacuum system. One should be careful to thoroughly grease all fittings with Dow-Corning High Vacuum Grease or it’s equivalent to prevent glassware freeze-ups. The chemist now patiently distils water and acid out of the mixture until solids begin to come out of solution and strong “bumping” begins to occur inside the reaction vessel. This can take 5-6 hours or longer. At this point, turn off the heat, disassemble the rig, and pour the contents of the reaction vessel into a bucket inside the fume cabinet. Leave overnight to cool down to room temperature, at which point there will be another large slug of ammonium chloride crystals to filter out. This time, however, a little methylamine hydrochloride will be mixed in with the ammonium chloride. Because methylamine hydrochloride is very hygroscopic, the salts may be gooey. Filter through a Buchner, keeping the recovered salts in one bucket and the yellowish liquid in another. Repeat until there is enough liquid in the second-stage bucket to proceed to the third stage. One should be getting the idea now that one can increase the throughput in the system by simply setting up another 10-liter rig and processing in parallel. By organizing the separate stages properly, one person can produce about 80 liters of 40% methylamine in 9 weeks if one is dedicated. This is enough methylamine to make 175lb of pure methamphetamine.

In the third step, we use the second-stage liquid we have collected and pull more water and acid out of the solution using a vacuum of 26-27″Hg, which is slightly lower than the vacuum used during the second stage. The vacuum setting is important because if the vacuum is too strong it will induce “bumping” inside the reaction vessel and if it is too weak, not enough water will be pulled out to give us good quality crystals that do not melt the instant they contact moist air. Pull as much water as possible out of the solution before the methylamine hydrochloride crystals precipitate out of solution and strong “bumping” begins, then pull the reaction and let the hot mixture cool overnight. Using a clean Buchner, filter out the methylamine hydrochloride crystals thoroughly, then dump them into a 5 gallon bucket that has been resting in the freezer for a few days. Methylamine hydrochloride crystals are whitish platelet-type crystals. Keeping the crystals in the freezer where it is too cold for water to remain in the air prevents the crystals from picking up water from the air and melting. Throw out the residual thick golden liquid. Repeat the procedure until one has accumulated a full 5-gal bucket of frozen crystals, which is the amount that one can turn into methylamine solution in one day.

5.4 Methylamine Solution

In this step we will mix methylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide to release methylamine gas, which is then condensed with dry ice-/alcohol, allowing us to collect pure methylamine liquid and store it in a water solution.

Before one can proceed, one must do some preparatory work to make things go smoothly. About 8 liters of 50% sodium hydroxide solution must be prepared the night before. In addition, a one gallon bottle (used wine jugs) containing 2 kg of crushed ice should be placed in the bottom of the freezer several days ahead of time. We will need to dilute the liquid methylamine with distilled water unless one intends to manufacture Ecstasy, in which case one will want to mix the pure methylamine with ethanol that has been frozen for a week or so and store it in the deep freeze. Methylamine/ethanol will not keep long as the methylamine will eventually boil away even in the freezer, but it is much safer than storing pure methylamine by itself. The methylamine/alcohol solution should be used within a week. Methylamine/water will keep well for years if kept cold.

One should be aware that this step can be very dangerous to life and liberty. Done improperly, this procedure can, and will, result in extremely stinky and poisonous methylamine gas filling the structure and pouring out into the street where everyone within a mile will smell it. The building will stink until it is torn down and the unlucky chemist who experiences this will also stink of it for a long time. One must be sober and paying close attention while performing this procedure.

To set up the equipment, one places a 10-liter heating mantle on the floor near the fume cabinet so any loose fumes will get sucked out. Place a clean triple-neck into the mantle. Mount a 75cm dual-surface reflux condenser in a tri- grip attached to a 36″ lab stand. Attach the chiller lines with the input at the bottom and the output at the top and start up the chiller pump. The top of the reflux condenser should be within inches of a table or benchtop. Place the methylamine condenser on the bench and connect it to the condenser using a section of Tygon tubing and a pigtail that fits a 24/40 glass joint. Do not use rigid connections between the different mechanical assemblies. A pigtail can be made from a section of glass tubing and a 24/40 plug for those with some experience with glass. The exit end of our paint-can condenser is connected with Tygon tubing to a two-hole rubber stopper that fits snugly into a 24/40 glass joint. Inserted into the stopper are a 4″ section of glass tubing and a 3″ section. Attach the Tygon to the longer section. Cut a section of plastic tubing that leads from the short stopper tube to the inside of the fume cabinet. This is our vent. Next, carefully weigh three 2000ml RB flasks and write it down somewhere, identifying each flask with a piece of duct tape around the neck. It is important to be able to determine exactly how much methylamine one has made when it comes time to dilute it with water. Do not use markers on the flasks as they will disappear with alcohol-use duct tape on the neck. Next, place a 36″ lab stand and ring (about 6-8″) near the bench and our methylamine condenser. Use a 5-liter plastic bucket wrapped in insulation on the sides and place it at a height where the 2000ml receiver flask will sit in it nicely without requiring a long section of tubing between the condenser and the receiver. Hook the bucket handle over the top of the lab stand for safety, then attach a tri-grip around the neck of the 2000ml receiver. The receiver must be held rigidly in place or it will float and bob around in the bucket when we add alcohol and dry ice. The receiver must be kept at -75°C or the methylamine will boil away on us. Methylamine has a boiling point of -6°C, so this stuff will boil away even when it’s kept in the deep freeze. We must also insure that our stopper will not pop out of the receiving flask by accident so one buys some Velcro strips at the variety store, slides a narrow strip between the glass tubes on the top surface of the stopper and uses another strip wrapped around the receiver neck, once the stopper is in place, to trap the ends and tie the entire works together. Tapes and other chemical-based bonding materials become fragile at -70°C. Lastly, charge both the paint can and bucket with methanol and slowly chill them down by adding chunks of dry ice, one at a time, until they no longer quickly boil away but remain solid at the bottom. The paint can should be about 75% full and the bucket filled to a point at least halfway up the receiving flask. We are now ready to rock and roll.

Using a wide-mouth funnel and a piece of wooden dowling, shove methylamine hydrochloride crystals from the freezer into the triple-neck until it is no more than 1/3 full. Attach the reflux condenser to the triple-neck and place the 500ml dropping funnel into one side neck. With the stopcock closed, charge it with 50% lye solution. Using a funnel quickly add 400g of dry sodium hydroxide to the main reaction vessel. Quickly plug the neck with a glass plug. As soon as the lye contacts the methylamine crystals it produces methylamine gas and sodium chloride(salt). After an initial burst, which one can watch run into the receiving vessel, the reaction will subside. Now is a good time to check and insure that all fittings are tight and there is no blockage in the condenser, which can be disastrous. Next, open the stopcock and allow the lye solution to stream in. It can be difficult to know when too much lye has been added because there is a delay before the reaction reaches a peak, so it is recommended that one proceed slowly, carefully watching the receiving flask for signs of too much liquid coming through. Methylamine is a clear liquid with a density of about 0.7. Keep the paint can and receiver bucket charged with dry ice and the chiller with water ice while lye solution is added at intervals. After an addition, wait until the condensation subsides before adding more lye. Eventually, adding more lye solution will not produce any more liquid methylamine and we must boil the remaining methylamine out of the solution of water, salt, methylamine, and dimethylamine. The remaining methylamine is now in a water solution, which we would prefer not to happen, but there must also be enough water to dissolve the salt and hold the dimethylamine in solution, so do not cut back on the water used in the lye solution. Turn the heating mantle to 50% and wait, keeping things cold as you do. Over the next two hours the remaining 60-70% of the methylamine will boil up through the reflux condenser, where the water and dimethylamines are condensed out, and then through the paint can and into the receiver. Watch the reflux condenser for signs of salt accumulating on the glass. This is an indication that there is not enough water in the solution, so let the boiling subside and quickly add a liter or so of distilled water before continuing the distillation. When no more methylamine comes over, or it is reduced to just a drop every several seconds, the batch is done. Turn off the heat and let things cool off for about 20 minutes until the boiling has totally subsided. During this period, detach the 2000ml receiving vessel and very, very carefully take it to the fume cabinet to be weighed. Keep in mind that if one should drop and spill the liquid methylamine, it will immediately boil into a gas, will probably kill the clumsy chemist, and will definitely make one’s lab the center of attention for weeks to come. Don’t drop it! Carry it in a frozen bucket(not a warm one). Once the methylamine has been weighed inside the fume cabinet, lower a clean thermometer into the liquid and leave it for several minutes until the temperature comes up to -30°C. This will let any liquid ammonia, which we do not want, boil away leaving only pure methylamine. Weigh it, subtract the weight of the flask, and divide the weight in grams by 0.7 to determine the volume. 1000g of methylamine will occupy about 1400ml. Very slowly and carefully add this first batch of methylamine to the 1-gal wine jug containing 2kg of crushed ice. There may be considerable fuming, in which case one should stop, stuff a rubber stopper(do not use glass) into the methylamine receiver and place the whole works into the freezer for a while.

Fortunately, one only has to perform this ugly chore once. Once we have a quantity of methylamine solution we know is 40%, one can simply add enough distilled water to accommodate the next batch and throw it into the deep freeze. The diluted methylamine solution will not freeze, thus allowing one to simply add methylamine liquid to the solution to bring it up to the required concentration. The formula is simple: equal volumes of distilled water and pure methylamine liquid will result in 40% methylamine solution. Depending upon the exact amount of crystals in the triple-neck, one should have between 900g and 1200g of pure methylamine liquid. For those manufacturing MDMA, add 100ml of pure methylamine to 250ml of ethanol that has been in the freezer for a week or so. This reduces the water content of the MDMA reductive amination, improving the yield.

Now that the first batch is complete, the chemist quickly sets up the other triple-neck and repeats the procedure. Once the chemist has some experience, he can do four batches in a single day if he starts early.

6.0 Manufacture of 70% Nitric Acid

Nitric acid is an essential chemical required for making aqua regia. It is also an essential ingredient in the manufacture of nitric ester explosives, which makes it a closely watched chemical. Jewelers are able to purchase very small amounts (50ml) to make aqua regia for dissolving gold, platinum, and rhodium. Some plating operations use nitric acid. Fortunately, 70% nitric acid is easy to make.

6.1 Chemicals

One will need to acquire the following chemicals.

  • Concentrated (98%) sulfuric acid H2SO4. This acid is used extensively in industry, the most visible use being as battery acid when diluted.
  • Sodium Nitrate. This is also a fairly closely watched chemical due to it’s application in explosives, but is so widely used in industry that it is fairly easy to obtain. One can also use potassium nitrate in equivalent molar quantities. Look in the drugstore.
  • Dry ice. A 20lb block will do nicely; chip into small flakes when used.
  • A bag of rock salt and several bags of crushed ice.

6.2 Equipment

  • A 2000ml RB flask
  • A 1000ml RB flask
  • A 30cm West condenser
  • A single-element 1000W electric hotplate from the hardware store.
  • A medium-sized kitchen pot. The 2000ml RB flask must fit into the pot.
  • A lab jack for raising and lowering the hotplate and kitchen pot. A suitable lab jack may be constructed from a scissors-type car jack that has been modified. A 10″x10″ flat top is welded on the top, a circular steel plate is welded on for height adjustment, and a nut is welded onto the back bottom surface that will accept a standard lab stand shaft. This is necessary to suspend the 2000ml flask containing our reactants.
  • A 3-4″ diameter tube about 30cm long (cut to fit). This tube will be fitted around the West condenser, plugged at the lower end, and filled with dry ice. It can be either plastic or cardboard (mailing tubes). Make sure the condenser will fit inside the tube.
  • A 2-liter plastic bucket or other container in which the 1000ml RB flask will fit comfortably.
  • A controllable vacuum source.

6.3 Discussion

This is an easy procedure to perform, allowing one to make 400ml of 70% nitric acid in one day. The basic idea is to vacuum distill over the nitric oxide created by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium nitrate, condense it into a liquid with dry ice, and then drop it into distilled water to capture and dilute the resulting acid. The final step is to boil off the excess water, leaving about 200ml of very clean acid from each batch. The tricks to making this reaction work are a controllable vacuum source and precision control of the heat source.

Set up the lab jack with the hotplate and pot resting on the top surface. Suspend the empty 2000ml RB flask above the pot with a tri-grip. Position it so the bottom of the flask is clear of the pot. Also make sure that the pot can be raised to a point where the flask will touch the bottom of the pot.

While the flask is bottomed out in the pot, add enough vegetable oil (Wesson Oil works) to reach about 1″ from the top rim of the pot. Lower the lab jack, hotplate, and pot. Wipe the 2000ml flask clean with a paper towel and remove. Turn on the hotplate to a medium setting. We wish to heat the oil to 90-100°C and no hotter, so measure it with a candy thermometer and adjust the hotplate setting accordingly. We now have a precision heat source that can be applied and removed very rapidly by raising or lowering the lab jack.

We must now prepare our condenser. Seal off one nipple of the condenser with a short piece of plastic tubing that has been sealed on one end by melting the plastic together. Fill the condenser wall with isopropyl alcohol. Seal off the remaining nipple with another section of plastic tubing. Attach the vacuum takeoff and insert into the tubing. The top end should be positioned so the 24/40 joint is even with the top of the plastic tube. When positioned correctly, stuff a little pink insulation into the bottom opening and seal the bottom end of the tube with duct tape. The vacuum takeoff should be the only thing protruding. Attach the stillhead. Fill the tube with chips of dry ice and seal with a little pink insulation material. One will need to construct some custom supports for the tube-a couple of pieces of wood with “V”s cut into them works nicely, especially if mounted to a bottom plate for rigidity.

Next, pour 300ml of distilled water into the receiver flask and position it with a tri-grip and stand so it rests inside our small plastic bucket when attached to the vacuum takeoff. Add cold water to the bucket, then add crushed ice to keep the solution cool-much heat will be generated as the nitric oxide drips into the distilled water. Add a layer of rock salt on top of the ice to further reduce the temperature.

Add 365ml (685g) of sulfuric acid to the 2000ml RB flask. Then 600g of sodium nitrate is added in small portions while swirling the acid. Do this inside a fume cabinet. There will be no visible reaction. Mount well above the heat source. Assemble all of the glassware and attach the vacuum hose with the bleeder valve open so there is no vacuum. Slowly close the bleeder valve and bring the vacuum down to 25-26″Hg on the vacuum gauge.

One must be aware that excessive heat will cause foaming and the nitric oxide to come over too fast to condense. One should slowly raise the oil pot until it barely contacts the reaction vessel. Be prepared to quickly lower the pot if excessive boiling occurs. Watch the drip-tip of the vacuum takeoff; liquid nitric oxide should drip into the distilled water at a rate of 1 drop per second, maximum. Any faster than this will result in overheating the dilute acid and suck much nitric oxide into the vacuum system. It will take 2-3 hours to complete the reaction. During this time, one must replenish the dry ice supply in the tube. Use a flour scoop to carefully add to the tube. There should be 500-600ml of liquid in the receiver when done.

The next step is to remove the excess water from the acid solution in the receiver. This is done by simply boiling the liquid in a normal distillation setup. Distill over water until the temperature climbs to 118-120°C. What is left in the vessel is very pure, clear 70% nitric acid. Store in a cool dry place that is dark. It will keep for several years.

If one’s nitric acid becomes discolored, simply distill it.

7.0 Laboratory Equipment and Procedures

Unless one has spent many hours doing organic syntheses, there are many lab techniques and procedures that that will be unknown. This section attempts to cover some of the basics applicable to clandestine labs.

7.1 Fume Hood

One must have a fume cabinet, period. Fortunately, they are easy to build. This writer constructed an integrated fume cabinet/lab that fits on a single sheet of plywood. Note the plastic sheeting used to seal the enclosure when noxious fumes are present. Not shown is the exhaust fan that runs continuously. Use a fan that moves at least 250 cfm of air.

7.2 Water Aspirator

A high volume aspirator is required for many of the procedures described in this document. Although industrial strength aspirators can be purchased, they can also be constructed from common pipe fittings found at the hardware store. Shown in the accompanying photograph is this writer’s aspirator. There is a lot of cut-and-try involved in building a homebrew aspirator, so purchase one if possible. Also required to complete an aspirator system are a pump supplying 50-70 psi of water pressure and a reservoir of cold water. The pump can be a common 1/3 HP jet pump wired to a switch in the lab. These pumps are inexpensive, but are only good for about 200 hours of hard use, so keep a spare handy. The water reservoir must hold sufficient volume to prevent rapid heating of the water and be able to absorb solvents and fumes. A good reservoir size is about 100 gallons or two fifty-gallon drums connected together at the bottom and filled to 2/3. Water temperature is very important. The colder, the better. In sub-freezing temperatures, just add some plumbing antifreeze and one’s aspirator will pull a mighty vacuum. Unfortunately, as the water temperature rises, so does it’s vapor pressure, and this imposes a limit on the vacuum one can pull. To reduce the vapor pressure of the water, lower the temperature with a block of ice from the freezer.

Another essential component of the system is the vacuum trap. The trap keeps one’s mistakes during distillation from ruining the rest of the equipment. Placed between the aspirator and the vacuum hose, it collects any liquids not condensed into the receiver. One can be made using a 1-qt. Mason jar. Using a drill press, carefully drill two holes in the top that are just big enough to accept the base of a 3/8″ brass nipple. Braze the nipples to the top. Using a gasket, seat the top on the jar. Screw the top down firmly and attach the vacuum lines (Use 3/8″ reinforced hydraulic hose, as this size fits the nipples on vacuum-takeoff glassware and doesn’t collapse under a good vacuum). Place the vacuum trap somewhere it won’t get bumped; this writer built a 3-sided wood box lined with insulation. This is because the Mason jar will easily implode under a good vacuum. Check for leaks and use some pliable external house caulking to fix it. It is a good idea to change the water in the aspirator system daily, as solvents will attack the plastic pump impellors.

The next requirement is for a vacuum distribution system. The accompanying picture shows the vacuum input from the right, a distribution hose on top that attaches to glassware at the other end, a 0-29″ Hg vacuum gauge, and an industrial strength 1/8″ bleeder valve. A more suitable bleeder valve is a needle valve with a 0.050 aperture. The entire assembly is located inside the fume cabinet. The vacuum inlet at the right comes from the vacuum trap and may be replaced as required with a vacuum pump hose.

7.3 Distillation Tips

Below are some tips that will make vacuum distillations go smoothly.

  • Always use Dow-Corning High Vacuum Grease or it’s equivalent on glass joints. Use sparingly and keep glass joints clean.
  • Use Teflon (PTFE) boiling chips. They typically come in 1 lb. Cans. Use liberally, add fresh boiling stones each time the vacuum is broken or the liquid cools down.
  • Wait until the vacuum is stabilized before applying heat, then use the minimum heat required.
  • Maintain a 30°C temperature differential between the water flowing through the condenser and the condensate. The condensation line in the condenser should be between ½ and 2/3 the way down the condenser.
  • Don’t fill the distillation vessel more than halfway full. You can cheat a little bit on this one. Another don’t is “bumping”; this is easily recognizable and if it starts, stop the distillation immediately. Some heavier compounds like P2P and benzaldehyde are naturally “bumpy”, so one has to exercise some judgement.
  • Don’t get in hurry when doing large volume distillations; the condenser throughput rate is fixed and adding more heat won’t speed things up but will send some of one’s distillate into the vacuum system.

7.4 Reference Material

The following books are essential to any clandestine lab.

Merck Index
This handy volume provides one with all the essential data on most compounds, including molecular weight, density, boiling and freezing points, common usages, and references pointing to manufacturing techniques.
Uncle Fester’s Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, 3rd and 4th ed., Loompanics.
These comprehensive books provide the references and good pointers for those reading between the lines. In reading these books, one should bear in mind that if one is a little too accurate in his technical descriptions, one could find one’s ass in a prison sling. Hooray for Cypherpunks!
A Chemical Technicians Reference Handbook.
This is a valuable reference for solvent characteristics and lab procedures.
A college level Organic Chemistry textbook for a reference to common reaction mechanisms.

8.0 Keeping Out Of Trouble

If one can observe all of the following tips, one might be able to retire to a legal occupation with a good head start.

  • Work alone and keep your mouth shut. This is the most important advice this writer can pass on, and the most difficult to follow. It is tempting to share one’s secret success with one’s closest friend, perhaps even inviting him to help. Unfortunately, he feels compelled to tell his wife, who is secretly planning to leave him for a stockbroker and wants some leverage to facilitate her stripping your friend of all his assets. Well, you get the picture. One can crow all one wants, as I am in this document, once one has disposed of both product and equipment.
  • Do not talk business on the phone. Do not even call to make an appointment to talk. Every phone call, even local calls, are logged. Each log contains the originating phone number, the destination phone number, the time the call was originated, and the completion time. From this seemingly innocuous record, Inquisition Agents can weave a pattern of times, places, and connections that will look bad in court, even if fictitious. One can establish secure communications using PGP encryption software and anonymous remailers.
  • Never, ever, ever try to sell product while a lab is operating. This is like juggling rattlesnakes – it’s easy to get bit.
  • Don’t make this a career. All of the career dope cookers are in prison. Decide ahead of time how much dope you want to make, plan it carefully, do it, and then retire. Think of it as a temporary thing one is doing to get a leg up in life. Keep in mind that your first mistake will also be your last. There is no glory in becoming a headline, only grief.
  • Acquire and store all of your essential chemicals, supplies, and equipment before trying anything. This is the most dangerous activity, legally speaking, one will perform. If one attracts some heat, one can wait it out without having an operating lab to conceal. Keep in mind that the drug inquisitors do not have the time to hang around where there are no labs to busts or assets to seize. After a few months they will go away.
  • Use intermediaries to acquire chemicals, telling them you are just an intermediary also. Never tell anyone what you are doing.
  • Never front product. Once one fronts product, one is assuming all of one’s customer’s risks. One is better off flushing product down the drain. At least it can’t come back to bite. Do not trade for stolen property or phony money.
  • Don’t listen to your non-chemist customers on quality issues, no matter how emphatic or convincing they are. Users quickly build a tolerance for the product and feel the product is no longer full strength. In addition, many users grow to enjoy the jolt received from impurities present in much of the present street product. This jolt is not present in pure meth.
  • Always act like an ignorant, low-paid middleman who has to pass messages on to his superiors. This allows one to feign ignorance on all quality issues or money disputes and agree with one’s customer. It also provides one with bargaining leverage, allowing one to claim that one’s puny cut will be gone if the price goes lower.
  • Never flash cash or start buying expensive items not in fitting with one’s usual lifestyle. If one is renting, rent a nicer place or buy a modest house. Buy used cars and repair them to perfection instead of new, flashy cars. Invest the profits in stocks, T-bills, and other liquid assets. Go into a legal business and live happily ever after, knowing that one has successfully defied the Inquisition and struck a blow for individual freedom.

Important Message for Those With a Substance Abuse Problem: If you or someone you know is suffering from an addiction they need to find a Drug Rehab or Alcohol Rehab so they can recover from their substance abuse addiction. Relapse prevention is important in theaddiction treatment process and is critical for long term sobreity. For more information on how to get help with an addiction please call 800-559-9503 to speak directly with a counselor.

G

Gobekli Tepe Constellations

Introduction
This is meant to provide a brief analysis to explain the origin of several of the animal figures from the Gobekli Tepe temple site in Turkey, arising about 9000 BC and haralded as the earliest (known) temple of the world.  Several of the images yet uncovered represent constellations, the depictions are not all dimensionally accurate, but are stylistic representations of star forms, perhaps with some line of artistic tradition behind it. It is not exactly clear after the initial analysis that all of the stars that are shown are represented within the petro glyphs.  A proper and thorough study should work from a map of stars that shows them as they appeared 11,000 years BP in order to lend greater accuracy.  In the analysis of the rock depictions that have been uncovered, the first will be referred to as the “Vulture and Scorpion” stone, the second “Boar and Birds” stone, the “Goat and Horse” stone, the”Great Lion”, the “Great Fox”, the “Lesser Fox”, the “Cow, Fox, and Crane” stone. 

The conclusions and presentation here arise purely from my own independent efforts explaining the figures as representing constellations and are not part of the interpretive work of the Gobekli Tepe project team, and also not derived from the work or suggestions of others.

Further, the main object of the study here is to correlate the figure to the proper star pattern, not to identify the figure represented.  If a figure is referred to as a fox or goat it does not imply that it has been properly identified as such by myself, the Gobekli Tepe project team, or anyone else.

 

Vulture and Scorpion Stone
A photograph of this stone is shown in Figure 1 and the relevant comparative stars are highlighted in red.  The spatial distances are not entirely accurate, which could relate to some extent to the change in relative star positions over the last 10,000 years, but is more due to an artistic or stylized representation of them. 

Figure 1.

Vulture and Scorpion stone compared to modern Star Map

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

The first interesting form is the scorpion, which might first be thought to represent is known as Scorpius, but this does not appear to be the case.  This is due to the presence of the three birds to the middle right (ABC), these three most clearly correspond to the “Summer Triangle” stars, the three birds, one represented by each star: CygnusAquila (aka Vultur volans), and Vultur cadens (Lyra).  The shape of the Aquilaconstellations holds the same general appearance as bird A, the angle of the Cygnus stars matches the shape of the body of bird B, with the feet angling off in the same direction as the neck of the Cygnus constellation.  Bird C corresponds to the star Vega and perhaps some other stars taken together.

Thus the bird D with wings rising upwards matches the shape of the constellation Pegasus taking some Andromeda stars to form the upward wings and another star of Pegasus defining the legs angled off to the right.  The head is drawn together from a bunch of lesser stars.  Notice that the two stars within the head correspond to the two eyes in the drawing.

Running underneath these two major forms is a division line, which might crudely represent either the Ecliptic or the Celestial Equator, or might simply appear in coincidence.  Beneath this dividing line is the scorpion E, which corresponds to no specific constellation, but some of the stars from Aquarius and a few others.  The bird head F beneath the scorpion also corresponds to a “hook” of stars represented mostly byPiscis Austrinus.  To the left of the scorpion is another hook that combines some stars from Aquarius along with the loop of stars fromPisces.  Some of the stars in the lower loop of Aquarius and Sculptor appear to represent the partial head and limbs of a boar H.

The bones I above all the figures is a backbone and thus would most clearly be a representation and concept of the Milky Way, but the actual course of the path of the Milky Way more closely follows the zigzag pattern M that runs above and beneath the actual bones of the backbone, which itself might indicate the “backbone of night” idea was metaphorical (although at one time might have been the Milky Way itself).  The animal J is most probably a squirrel, which would be representing the approximate position and orientation of Cassiopeia.  (TheCassiopeia constellation was known among the Norse as the squirrel Ratatosk, but they don’t appear to be related.)  The other two small figures located on either side of J within the backbone spaces represent other star formations: the bent figure on the left L is the constellationPerseus, the upside-down figure to the right N would be the constellation Hercules.

The object that poses the greatest difficulty is the circle K located right above the vulture D’s left wing.  It does not clearly correspond to any fixed star on a current star map, and might represent another object such as the full Moon or a supernova.  A supernova is possible, given the concentration of stars along the Milky Way would clearly increase the odds of a bright star at that location.  Further investigation would be required to locate the remains of such a supernova at that location.

Regardless of the mysterious identification of object K, there is abosolutely no doubt that these figures represent constellations, and an attempt to specify the stars comprising the constellations are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2.
Newly Identified Neolithic Constellations
(overlays on right have been re-scaled)
(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

 

Other Stones
A photograph of this stone is shown in Figure 3 and the relevant comparative stars are highlighted in red.  The spatial distances are not entirely accurate, which could relate to some extent to the change in relative star positions over the last 10,000 years, but is more due to an artistic or stylized representation of them. 

Figure 3.

Boar and Birds stone compared to modern Star Map

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

This is by far simpler than the “Vulture and Scorpion” stone, but this also makes the interpretation somewhat uncertain.  The most clear match here is to the Boar figure a, which matches very closely to that of Ursa Major.  Beneath this is another figure b, perhaps a smaller boar that is represented by stars in the constellation Lynx.  It appears that the simplest explanation for bright stars, like the stars of the Summer Triangle, was that they were birds, and thus explain the five birds c-g represented above.  While not entirely determined they represent stars, there are five bright stars that are clearly present in similar positions, three (cde) from Cepheus and two (fg) from Draco (however, the stars could be another two within Draco).  This is then to some extent underscored by verification of the location of the Pole Star that would occur at the point where there is a hole h made in the rock, which could be meant to represent the pivot point.  That is, the center about which the universe spins, like a wheel going around an axle.

Figure 4.

Goat and Horse stone compared to modern Star Map

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

Figure 5.

(overlay on right has been distorted to adjust for camera angle)

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

The “Goat and Horse” stone of Figure 4 is itself possessed of distinctions that are reflected within other constellations: that the Goat would primarily be the same as Bootes, while the Horse is at least Canes Venatici.  Figure 5 is an attempt to show which stars appear to comprise these constellations.

Figure 6.

The Great Lion compared to modern star map

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

Figure 7.

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

The Great Lion figure is composed mainly of Orion and Gemini as shown in Figure 6 and the new constellation with overlay in Figure 7.  Here the rear half of the lion matches well while the front half does not show the forelimbs.  Rather than thinking they are absent, when viewed in the sky the two Gemini stars Castor and Pollux most clearly resemble the mouth, which would make Canis Minor the front limbs.  So the constellation rises up towards the front rather than how it was depicted on the stone.  This is apparently due to the curvature introduced in constellations that cover a wide arc.

The Great Fox figure in Figure 8 appears to be an assemblage of mainly Leo with the tail extending out to Spica.  Albeit perhaps not established as convincingly as the stars represented by this figure, it does fit at least to assume it appears somewhere within a space not already represented within the other stones, and that it bears some semblance to the configuration of Leo.  The Lesser Fox is made up primarily of the constellation Lepus and the star Sirius, while the angle appears to be representative of the horizon and the Milky Way.  However, the foxes may not represent constellations at all, it has been suggested that the foxes are truly representative of the Moon (see p. 9 of article below).

Figure 8.

The Great Fox and Lesser Fox stones compared to modern star map

(overlays has been distorted to adjust for camera angle)

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

It must be remembered that there is no reason to believe that the artists of Gobekli Tepe were recreating their depictions based upon an entirely accurate (apparent) spacing between the stars, nor to think that these were not derived from a longer tradition of depictions.  (This at least is more feasable than to presume that it is the result of star motion between 9000 BC and today.)  It seems clear enough that those who created the structure were well aware that their figures represented constellations.

Cow, Fox and Crane Stone

This stone, shown in Figure 9, shows what appears to be a crane below a fox with a cow above.  Both the crane and the fox can be found within another region of the night sky appearing the same as the constellation Scorpius.  The shape of the crane matches perfectly from Antares as the eye down to Shaula.  The upper part of the constellation are the stars that make up the front of the fox.

Figure 9.

Cow, Fox and Crane stone and with overlying modern star map

(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

With such a good correspondence between the figures and the stars, the cow represents a particular dilemma.  The stars apparent above the fox do not well match the cow shape in terms of a constellation and this region of the sky containing Hercules and Bootes is already represented by other stones.  The orientation of the cow itself is curious, the body is seen from the side where the head is viewed from the front.  The disk above the cow’s head, however, is placed right upon the ecliptic, the path of the Sun.  This suggests that the cow was placed here to represent the Sun, which is unexpected but intriguing in regard to the association with the cow and the depiction of the horns.  The Egyptian Hathor was a goddess of the Sun represented often as a cow with the sun-disk placed between its horns, shown in Figure 10.  The disk representation is the same as the shape of the sun disk and also by its place between the cow’s horns.

Figure 10.

Hathor, Egyptian goddess of the Sun

There could be a direct connection between the cow here and Hathor, but it would been to be substantiated further.  Hathor was also viewed to be the source of the Milky Way which is to be found near to the cow of Gobekli Tepe.  There is no reason to presume that the correspondence between the sun cow here and that of Egypt shows any cultural relationship, this is both because further correspondences would need to be found and that the length of time of the culturally recognized Egyptian civilization is roughly 6,000 years younger than Gobekli Tepe.  However, there is good reason to suspect a direct connection of some sort exists.

Unanswered Questions
Some of the figures might not be clearly relatable to any set of stars.  The implement (an axe or plow perhaps) shown in Figure 11 is a case in point.  There is also the interesting inclusion of extra carvings that don’t appear to have any obvious meaning, but might well be something of significance.  As mentioned before, the circle might well be the location of a supernova.  Since the Sun is represented on another stone as the Hathor-like cow it could be that the circle here is representative of the Full Moon. 

Figure 11.
Stones that contain objects of uncertain meaning
(such objects are highlighted in red)
(Gobekli Tepe photo used with permission, copyright DAI)

There is an interesting study of these symbols on the website seschat, although I am not qualified to evauate the validity of this analysis.  Here is one image that is included in this analysis of the Gobelki Tepe symbols:

http://www.seshat.ch/home/lascaux3.htm

 

Tree, Snake and Eagle Stone
This rock was also discovered at Gobekli Tepe and shows what has been identified as a tree with a snake, with the figure on the right which could be an eagle.  The association of the snake with the eagle is common and representations of it are known to be prehistoric.  The real question is whether or not they are representative of constellations.  Certainly the tradition of the tree, snake, and eagle were captured in the constellations of Norse Myth as shown on the Constellations page, the depiction of the snake and eagle shown here cannot be taken obviously as a depiction of constellations except conceptually, the tree might then be representative of the Milky Way.
Conclusion
There is no doubt that some of the petro glyphs from the Gobekli Tepe temple site, like those included here, are representing constellations in the night sky.  It is not at all clear that all petro glyphs must represent constellations, only that each one has been identifiable as such, except one depiction that is representative of the Sun.  The areas of the celestial sphere that are covered by each of the stones shown here are represented in Figure 12. 

Figure 12.
Areas of night sky represented by different stones

It only makes sense that other figure representations found at the Gobekli Tepe site would fill in more of the missing regions, which has proven to be the case as work has progressed.  However, isolated examples are harder to identify than those shown within a context or arrangement, as is beneficial regarding the “Vulture and Scorpion” rock.

More careful analysis is required which would be somewhat aided by attaining star maps from about 10,000 years ago and to gain a better understanding of which stars would have been seen at that latitude within that era.  In addition, to explore the possibility of a supernova formed within the space between Cygnus and Pegasus, which if true should also provide an independent form of dating the pictographs.

Based upon astronomical associations there are a couple ways of approaching the dating of the site, both of which are based upon certain assumptions.  First is the location of the Sun, which is usually located along the ecliptic according to its position at the spring (or vernal) equinox.  The spring equinox is important agriculturally since it determines the time of year that planting begins.  The early Christians recognized their religion as arising during the new Age of Pisces, which explains the fish symbology within the religion, which is still a popular symbol among modern Christians.  Of course the heralding of the Age of Aquarius has come to characterize something significant in living memory.  Through reverting backwards through time, however, it will be possible to locate the era in which the Sun appeared to be located between the constellations of Libra andVirgo, which is where it appears as represented by the Hathor-like cow in the “Cow, Fox, and Crane” stone.  Currently the Sun occupies this place at the time of the autumnal equinox.
The Sun’s apparent path around the Zodiac, which arises from the procession of the equinoxes due to changes in the Earth’s rotation, completes in about 25,800 years, so dividing this around a circle subdivided into 12 signs, each era lasts approximately 2,150 years.  So tracing it backwards, before the Age of Pisces was the Age of Aeries and so on back to the start of the Age of Virgo at about 13,000 BC and Libra at about 15,000 BC.  This would indicate that the timeframe in which the design was made was roughly 13,000 BC, when the Sun was entering Virgo, if the assumptions associated with this method are valid.  Merely because the Greeks measured the Sun at the Spring Equinox does not mean that humans 10,000 years before had, however, it would have been valuable to locate this point among an agricultural community.  The archaeologically accepted date for Gobekli Tepe is actually around 9,500 BC, so this leads to a discrepancy of about 3,500 years.  Taking the archaeological date as correct, this would place the Sun between Cancer and Leo at the time of the spring equinox, which would mean that it would instead appear entering Virgo at the time of the summer solstice.[1]
Another calculation could be based upon the position of the pole, and identification of the Pole Star.  Around 12,000 BC the apparent pole star is calculated to have been Vega within Lyra (Olcott 2004: 375) this does not appear to fit the apparent position of the hub that corresponds better to Polaris, our modern Pole Star.  This either means that the identification of stars is mistaken, which is possible in this case since there is no clear way of knowing that the five birds were meant to represent five stars.  But positionally the hub appears to be correctly located above the “Great Boar” constellation which would mean Polaris.  No other star would seem to fit, unless the “hub” is not meant to represent the axis of the celestial sphere at all.[2]  The last time that Polaris appeared at the Pole position would have been 26,000 years ago or so according to the calculation method used.  Here is a discrepancy as to why a hub position would be associated with the position of the present North Star Polaris and not with the one that would appear to be fixed at that time, Vega.[3]

[1] This does not mean the summer solstice was more significant than the spring equinox, it could be that they only wished to locate the Sun where it was considered to be at its most prominent.  It could prove to be significant if it can be shown that before recognizing the value of identifying the spring equinox that calculations were done from the summer solstice.  (Although it is important not to make too many assumptions about how ancient humans designated their calendars and astronomical calculations – perhaps the Gobekli Tepe site will provide answers on this question.)

[2] The Arabs knew Polaris as “the hole in which the axle of the earth was borne”. (Olcott 2004: 374)

[3] Could there possibly be inaccuracies in the estimations of star positions predicted into the past and future?  It is difficult to reconcile this hub position with these predictions and the presumed age of the site.  If the hub is meant to represent Polaris it could mean one of three things: our calculations pertaining to star locations are in error, the Gobelki Tepe site is far younger than the date suggests, or those who built the site were representing a different era than that in which they lived.

 

Article: 

This article was brought to my attention by a reader of this page:

Sidharth, B. G.  “Procession of the Equinoxes and Calibration of Astronomical Epochs”, January 14, 2010

download

Notes:

The star charts are taken from David H. Levy’s “Guide to the Stars”, Northern Hemisphere, Latitudes 30 to 60 North, that adds this note about their projection: “Any planisphere tries to project the sphere of stars onto a flat surface.  There are many types of projections, which all result in some stretching of star patterns, especially in the south.  Our projection is designed to minimize this effect, but the southern constellations are stretched somewhat and others appear squeezed.”

As always, you can take the opportunity to look upon these constellations yourself on a clear night away from city lights.
Not only can it be as interesting to locate them but to know also that these are the same stars that were gazed upon so
many thousands of years ago by early humans, a direct and real link from their world to ours.

 

 

Dr. Mercola’s Comments:


You probably know that manganese is an essential nutrient, but were you aware that when consumed in excess, manganese becomes a potent neurotoxin?

Studies on miners and steelworkers, for example, have shown that excessive exposure tomanganese can cause manganese poisoning, Parkinson’s disease, and Wilson’s disease, for example.

Manganese occurs naturally in soil and can therefore be present in groundwater to a greater or lesser degree. Hence some people who drink well water could be exposed to higher naturally-occurring levels of manganese.

But there is another source of manganese that many people are completely unaware of, which may be even more significant than groundwater, and that is soy infant formula!

Soy formula is frequently used when a baby is allergic to milk, or if the parents are somehow convinced that soy is a healthier alternative. Unfortunately, nothing could be further from the truth, because soy formula could easily be considered one of the most DANGEROUS food products on the market…

I always recommend breast feeding, if at all possible, but if you can’t, please educate yourself about the dangers of soy formula!

This is such an important issue because so many mothers end up using formula in lieu of breast feeding or after breast feeding for a short time, not realizing just how bad most formulas are for their baby’s health, particularly soy formula.

I’ve been concerned about this for a long time, and my team has now been working on an infant formula for an entire year. We still have about another year to go, but once we’re done we should be able to offer the best commercial infant formula available in the US.

Soy Infant Formula is LOADED with Manganese!

Yes, researchers have found that soybean plants absorb manganese from the soil and concentrate it, so that its use in soy-based infant formula can result in as much as 200 times the level found in natural breast milk!

Such high concentrations can wreak havoc on your baby’s immature metabolic systems.

I rarely talk about absolutes but this is one instant where I will say: NEVER give your child soy formula. (I guess the only exception would be if there was a catastrophe and soy formula was the only food source temporarily available to keep your baby alive.)

Because just like this latest study confirms, high concentrations of manganese, such as those found in soy formula, can lead to brain damage in infants and altered behaviors in adolescents.

In the study reported by Science Daily, researchers discovered that higher concentrations of manganese in groundwater significantly lowered the IQ of the children who drank it, even though the levels were below current guidelines.

A total of 362 children, aged six to 13, living in homes with individual or public wells were examined to test cognition, motor skills and behavior.

Science Daily reports:

“The average IQ of children whose tap water was in the upper 20% of manganese concentration was 6 points below children whose water contained little or no manganese.

The analyses of the association between manganese in tap water and children’s IQ took into account various factors such as family income, maternal intelligence, maternal education, and the presence of other metals in the water.

… For co-author Donna Mergler, “This is a very marked effect; few environmental contaminants have shown such a strong correlation with intellectual ability.”

The authors state that the amount of manganese present in food showed no relationship to the children’s IQ.”

For Maximum Health Hazard, Just Add Fluoridated Water…

As if that wasn’t bad enough, there are a number of other factors that make soy formula an even more dangerous option.

One of these factors is the fact that fluoride can increase manganese absorption, so if you mix the powdered- or concentrated soy formula with fluoridated water, you’re worsening matters even further!

Fluoride and manganese interact in a number of ways through various pathways.

For example, fluorides can cause zinc deficiency which in turn can cause damage to your brain by altering your manganese levels.

This is because fluorides act as a TSH (thyroid-stimulating-hormone) analogue, and along with iodine, zinc and selenium are also controlled by TSH. And when you’re deficient in zinc, the manganese levels in your brain become altered.

Other Health Dangers of Soy Formula

Another significant issue is the estrogen in soy.

A soy-fed baby receives the equivalent of five birth control pills’ worth of estrogen every day! These babies’ isoflavone levels are typically anywhere between 13,000 to 22,000 times higher than in non-soy fed infants.

Unfermented soy is not a healthy option for anyone, but when you’re feeding soy to an infant, you’re really setting the stage for a number of health problems.

Dr. Kaayla Daniel, author of The Whole Soy Story, points out thousands of studies linking soy to malnutrition, digestive distress, immune-system breakdown, thyroid dysfunction, cognitive decline, reproductive disorders and infertility—even cancer and heart disease.

For more information about the many ways soy can damage your health – and certainly your baby’s, if you’re feeding them soy formula – please review this recent report.

It’s also worth noting that at least 91 percent of soy grown in the US is also genetically modified (GM), and this too can have serious health effects.

Not only is the soy loaded with toxic pesticide, the plants also contain genes from bacteria that produce a protein that has never been part of the human food supply. Hence, GM soy has been linked to an increase in allergies.

Disturbingly, the only published human feeding study on GM foods ever conducted verified that the gene inserted into GM soy transfers into the DNA of our gut bacteria and continues to function. This means that years after you stop eating GM soy, you may still have a potentially allergenic protein continuously being produced in your intestines.

Even more frightening is the potential for GM soy to cause infertility in future generations, which has been evidenced by recent Russian research.

Soy-based formula also typically includes cornstarch, cornstarch hydrolysate (remember, any corn derivatives are also suspect of being GM), tapioca starch, or sucrose instead of lactose.

(Did you know that many infant formulas actually have MORE sugar than a can of soda? Do you really feel comfortable giving your precious newborn a can of soda for EVERY meal?  If not, then it would sure seem best to avoid them ALL like the plague.)

All these things considered, it’s truly shocking that soy formula is even allowed on the market.

The Benefits of Breast Feeding, and Healthier Alternatives

One of the best gifts you can give your child is to start out their life with a sound nutritional foundation, and the best way to do this is by breastfeeding. In fact, statistics show a clear correlation between feeding infants artificial formula and increased infant mortality within the first year.

It’s important to realize that there are at least 400 nutrients in breast milk that are NOT found in formula. Of course, the healthier that a new mom eats, the healthier her breast milk will be, too.

While any amount of breastfeeding is better than none at all, it is clearly to your advantage, and best for your baby’s health, tobreastfeed exclusively for at least the first 6 months. Then, at the age of 6 or 9 months, you can begin to supplement with solid foods(while still continuing to breastfeed as well).

What exactly does your baby stand to gain by being breastfed?

  • Lower risk of respiratory tract and middle ear infections
  • Lower risk of eczema
  • Lower risk of obesity
  • Added protection against heart disease, diabetes, asthma, and allergies
  • Improved brain function and immune system function

There are benefits to mom, too. The main ones are a reduced risk of chronic diseases like cancer, a faster return to your pre-pregnancy weight, and increased bonding between you and your baby.

There are certain medical conditions that can prevent a woman from breastfeeding, however the majority of women are able to breastfeed successfully. If you need help, contact a lactation consultant in your area for tips and support. You can also visit La Leche League, which is a phenomenal resource for breastfeeding moms.

If for some reason you’re not able to breastfeed, or you have adopted a baby, your next best option is to make a healthy infant formula using raw milk. You can find homemade formula recipes here.

As I stated at the beginning of this article, we’re also in the process of producing the finest infant formula on the market. I’m hoping to have it available in about a year.

How Can You Protect Your Child from Excessive Manganese Exposure?

First and foremost, do not give your child soy formula or other unfermented soy foods.

As for manganese in your well water, your best bet is to use a high quality filtering system using activated carbon. A well designed activated carbon filter system is the simplest, most convenient, and most user friendly option to purify your drinking water.

A good system will likely consist of multiple filter cartridges; one to protect the carbon from larger contaminants in the water, and another containing carbon designed to remove trihalomethanes – a dangerous disinfection byproduct. Some systems also contain a backup carbon filter to ensure that all contaminants have been filtered out.

For more information about filtering systems and water quality, please see this previous article.

If you were to carefully review the thousands of studies published on soy, I strongly believe you would reach the same conclusion as I have—which is, the risks of consuming unfermented soy products FAR outweigh any possible benefits.

Notice I said unfermented soy products.

For centuries, Asian people have been consuming fermented soy products such as natto, tempeh, and soy sauce, and enjoying the health benefits. Fermented soy does not wreak havoc on your body like unfermented soy products do.

Unfortunately, many Americans who are committed to healthy lifestyles have been hoodwinked and manipulated into believing that unfermented and processed soy products like soymilk, soy cheese, soy burgers and soy ice cream are good for them.

How Did Soy Foods Become So Popular?

If it seems like soy foods appeared out of nowhere to be regarded as the “miracle health food” of the 21st Century, it’s because they did.

From 1992 to 2006, soy food sales increased from $300 million to nearly $4 billion, practically overnight, according to the Soyfoods Association of North America. This growth came about due to a massive shift in attitudes about soy. And this shift was no accident—it was the result of a massive investment in advertising by the soy industry that’s been wildly successful.

Soy is indeed big business, very big business.

From 2000 to 2007, U.S. food manufacturers introduced more than 2,700 new soy-based foods, and new soy products continue to appear on your grocer’s shelves.

According to the survey Consumer Attitudes About Nutrition 2008 (by the United Soybean Board):

  • As of 2007, 85 percent of consumers perceive soy products as healthful
  • 33 percent of Americans eat soy foods or beverages at least once a month
  • 70 percent of consumers believe soybean oil is good for them
  • 84 percent of consumers agree with the FDA’s claim that consuming 25 grams of soy protein daily reduces your risk of heart disease

This is a tragic case of shrewd marketing and outright lies taking root among the masses with the end result of producing large profits for the soy industry and impaired health for most who have been deceived into using unfermented soy long-term..

As you can see from the extensive list of articles below, there is a large amount of scientific research showing that soy is not the nutritional panacea of the 21st Century.

The Dark Side of Soy

The vast majority of soy at your local market is not a health food. The exception is fermented soy, which I’ll explain more about later and even worse GMO soy that is contaminated with large pesticide residues as the reason it is GMO is so they can spray the potent toxic herbicide Roundup on them to improve crop production by killing the weeds.

Unlike the Asian culture, where people eat small amounts of whole non-GMO soybean products, western food processors separate the soybean into two golden commodities—protein and oil. And there is nothing natural or safe about these products.

Dr. Kaayla Daniel, author of The Whole Soy Story, points out thousands of studies linking soy to malnutrition, digestive distress, immune-system breakdown, thyroid dysfunction, cognitive decline, reproductive disorders and infertility—even cancer and heart disease.

Here is just a sampling of the health effects that have been linked to soy consumption:

Soy proponents will argue that soy-based foods (they lump the fermented ones with the unfermented) will protect you from everything from colon, prostate and breast cancer to strokes, osteoporosis, and asthma.

But said enthusiasts never mention the studies that illuminate soy’s downside and all of the dangers posed to your health, which are based on sound research.

Another unfortunate fact is that 80 percent of the world’s soy is used in farm animal feed, which is why soy production is contributing to deforestation. Some soy propagandists have suggested that the solution to this is for all of us to become vegetarians—a reckless recommendation rooted in total ignorance about nutrition—whereas a far better solution is a major overhaul in how farm animals are fed and raised.

The Whole Soy StoryThe Whole Soy Story

In The Whole Soy Story, you’ll find:

  • The real reasons why soy is NOT a health food
  • Shocking personal accounts of real people whose health
    and lives were put at risk from eating soy products
  • Hard evidence linking soy to malnutrition, digestive
    problems, thyroid dysfunction, cognitive decline,
    reproductive disorders, immune system breakdowns–even
    heart disease and cancer
  • That soy has NEVER been proven safe, and learn the
    truth about how misleading propaganda played a huge
    role in how it became so popular in America
  • Get more critical advice about the dangers of soy as author Dr. Kaayla Daniel shares her insights in this exclusive interview with Dr. Mercola.

What Makes Soy Such a Risky Food to Eat?

Here is a summary of soy’s most glaring problems.

  1. 91 percent of soy grown in the US is genetically modified (GM). The genetic modification is done to impart resistance to the toxic herbicide Roundup. While this is meant to increase farming efficiency and provide you with less expensive soy, the downside is that your soy is loaded with this toxic pesticide. The plants also contain genes from bacteria that produce a protein that has never been part of the human food supply.GM soy has been linked to an increase in allergies. Disturbingly, the only published human feeding study on GM foods ever conducted verified that the gene inserted into GM soy transfers into the DNA of our gut bacteria and continues to function. This means that years after you stop eating GM soy, you may still have a potentially allergenic protein continuously being produced in your intestines.Even more frightening is the potential for GM soy to cause infertility in future generations, which has been evidenced by recent Russian research.
  2. Soy contains natural toxins known as “anti-nutrients.”Soy foods contain anti-nutritional factors such as saponins, soyatoxin, phytates, protease inhibitors, oxalates, goitrogens and estrogens. Some of these factors interfere with the enzymes you need to digest protein. While a small amount of anti-nutrients would not likely cause a problem, the amount of soy that many Americans are now eating is extremely high.
  3. Soy contains hemagglutinin.Hemagglutinin is a clot-promoting substance that causes your red blood cells to clump together. These clumped cells are unable to properly absorb and distribute oxygen to your tissues.
  4. Soy contains goitrogensGoitrogens are substances that block the synthesis of thyroid hormones and interfere with iodine metabolism, thereby interfering with your thyroid function.
  5. Soy contains phytates.Phytates (phytic acid) bind to metal ions, preventing the absorption of certain minerals, including calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc — all of which are co-factors for optimal biochemistry in your body. This is particularly problematic for vegetarians, because eating meat reduces the mineral-blocking effects of these phytates (so it is helpful—if you do eat soy—to also eat meat).
  6. Soy is loaded with the isoflavones genistein and daidzeinIsoflavones are a type of phytoestrogen, which is a plant compound resembling human estrogen. These compounds mimic and sometimes block the hormone estrogen, and have been found to have adverse effects on various human tissues. Soy phytoestrogens are known to disrupt endocrine function, may cause infertility, and may promote breast cancer in women.Drinking even two glasses of soymilk daily for one month provides enough of these compounds to alter your menstrual cycle. Although the FDA regulates estrogen-containing products, no warnings exist on soy.
  7. Soy has toxic levels of aluminum and manganeseSoybeans are processed (by acid washing) in aluminum tanks, which can leach high levels of aluminum into the final soy product.Soy formula has up to 80 times higher manganese than is found in human breast milk.
  8. Soy infant formula puts your baby’s health at risk.Nearly 20 percent of U.S. infants are now fed soy formula, but the estrogens in soy can irreversibly harm your baby’s sexual development and reproductive health. Infants fed soy formula take in an estimated five birth control pills’ worth of estrogen every day.Infants fed soy formula have up to 20,000 times the amount of estrogen in circulation as those fed other formulas!

There is also the issue of pesticides and genetic modification.

Soy foods are both heavily sprayed with pesticides and genetically modified (GM). More than 80 percent of the soy grown in the United States is GM. And more than 90 percent of American soy crops are GM.

Since the introduction of GM foods in 1996, we’ve had an upsurge in low birth weight babies, infertility, and other problems in the U.S. population, and animal studies thus far have shown devastating effects from consuming GM soy.

You may want to steer clear of soy products for no other reason than a commitment to avoiding GM foods… unless you wish to be a lab animal for this massive uncontrolled experiment by the biotech industry.

What Soy Products are Good For You?

I want to be clear that I am not opposed to all soy. Soy can be incredibly healthful, but ONLY if it is organic and properly fermented.

After a long fermentation process, the phytate and “anti-nutrient” levels of soybeans are reduced, and their beneficial properties become available to your digestive system.

You may have heard that Japanese people live longer and have lower rates of cancer than Americans because they eat so much soy—but it’s primarily fermented soy that they consume, and it’s always been that way.

Fermented soy products are the only ones I recommend consuming.

These are the primary fermented soy products you’ll find:

  • Tempeh a fermented soybean cake with a firm texture and nutty, mushroom-like flavor.
  • Miso, a fermented soybean paste with a salty, buttery texture (commonly used in miso soup).
  • Natto, fermented soybeans with a sticky texture and strong, cheese-like flavor.
  • Soy sauce, which is traditionally made by fermenting soybeans, salt and enzymes; be wary because many varieties on the market today are made artificially using a chemical process.

Please note that tofu is NOT on this list. Tofu is not fermented, so is not among the soy foods I recommend.

Vitamin K2: One of the Major Benefits of Fermented Soy

One of the main benefits of fermented soy, especially natto, is that it is the best food source of vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 is essential to preventing osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and diseases of the brain such as dementia, and protecting you from various cancers including prostate, lung, liver cancer and leukemia.

Vitamin K acts synergistically with vitamin D to keep you healthy.

Vitamin K is sometimes referred to as the “forgotten vitamin” because its benefits are often overlooked. It was named after the word “Koagulation,” to reflect its essential role in blood clotting. In fact, the enzyme nattokinase—derived from natto—is safer and more powerful than aspirin in dissolving blood clots, and has been used safely for more than 20 years.

If you enjoy natto or some of the other fermented soy foods, you can get several milligrams of vitamin K2 from them each day (this level far exceeds the amount of vitamin K2 found even in dark green vegetables).

Unfortunately, the health benefits of many of the fermented soy foods fall by the wayside because many Americans do not enjoy their flavor.

If you don’t want to consume natto to get your vitamin K2, the next best thing would be to get use supplemental Vitamin K2 (MK-7). Remember, vitamin K must be taken with a source of fat in order to be absorbed.

I suggest adults consume about 150 mcg of vitamin K2 daily.

Medical Problems
Caused by Soy:
Legal Action Request

Tips for Avoiding Unwanted Soy Foods

For a simple rule of thumb, just remember that unless soy is fermented (tempeh, miso, natto, or traditionally made soy sauce), you’re better off avoiding it.

Soy foods to avoid include:

Tofu

TVP (texturized vegetable protein) or soy protein isolate, which contains a large amount of msg, which you should definitely not consume

The best way to eliminate non-fermented soy from your diet is to avoid all processed foods and instead purchase whole foods that you prepare yourself.

If you do buy packaged foods, you can check the label to see if it contains soy. The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act, which took effect in January 2006, requires that food manufacturers list soy on the label, because it’s one of the top eight food allergens.

So, even if soy is hidden in colors, flavors, or spice blends added to foods, it must be clearly stated on the label.

One other common source of soy is lecithin which is used as a emulsifier in many foods and supplements. Most lecithin in the US is derived from soy but there are some newer products that extract it from organic sunflower. We switched over to the organic sunflower lecithin a few years ago in all of our products.

If you wish to know more about soy, I have provided a list of links below to the many articles I’ve posted over the years on this subject. Remember, the only way to avoid falling victim to shrewd marketing and misinformation is to become knowledgeable about what the research actually says, and this is often different from what is commonly passed around as “fact.”

Soy is NOT a Health Food

The Danger of Soy for Infants, Children and Pregnant Women

How Soy Infant Formulas Can Devastate Your Child’s Health

Government and Agribusiness Shenanigans

Soy and Your Reproductive System

Soy and Your Thyroid

Soy and Your Brain

Soy and Your Kidneys

Soy and Cancer Risk

Soy and Allergies

Other Soy Issues

The Real Nuclear Threat

by Dan Eden for viewzone.com

 

In 2009, the following story escaped most news outlets but was widely reported on the Russian and European press:

 

KIEV, Ukraine — Ukraine’s security service says it has arrested a regional lawmaker and two companions for trying to sell radioactive plutonium for $10 million.A ring of weapons-grade electrorefined plutonium-239 [right], with 99.96% purity. This 5.3 kg ring is enough plutonium for use in an efficient nuclear weapon.

The service says the legislator and two businessmen from the western Ternopyl region were detained last week in possession of a suspected 3.7 kilograms (8.2 pounds) of plutonium-239, which can be used to make a so-called dirty bomb. Such a bomb spreads radioactive material over a wide area.

The service said in a statement Tuesday it believes the material was produced in Russia during the Soviet era and smuggled into Ukraine through a neighboring country. Ukraine renounced nuclear weapons after the Soviet Union’s collapse.

What you need to know about nuclear bombs

If you look in a physics book, you will be told that you need 10 kilograms (22 pounds) of weapon grade plutonium-239 to make a supercritical mass (nuclear explosion). For Uranium-235 it’s even more — about 33 pounds. But there’s a lot of information about nuclear material that gets left out of the books. I hope to share some of this with you in this article even though I know it will scare you.

The truth is that by using something called a neutron reflector, the radiation coming from both plutonium and uranium can be sent back in to the radioactive material, greatly reducing the amount needed to form a critical mass by a little more than a half.

What’s even more horrific to learn is that this small amount of fissionable material can either be used in a low yield “atomic bomb” — like the one’s we dropped on Japan in WWII — or they can be used as a detonator in a fusion hydrogen bomb.

Atom Bomb or H-Bomb… What’s the difference?

An atomic bomb takes advantage of something called critical mass. This is the amount of radioactive material that, when brought together, will cause the material to suddenly explode.

Uranium and plutonium are unstable, or radioactive. This means that they are always shedding neutrons, a particle in their atomic nucleus, at a slow but steady pace. These neutrons usually fly off harmlessly into space at the speed of light but can be harmful if they strike a living organism. Their energy can burn cells and cause damage and mutations to DNA. When enough uranium or plutonium atoms are brought close together, their neutrons bump into other radioactive atoms and cause them to instantly shed more neutrons. So the pace of shedding neutrons can speed up.

If a certain number of radioactive atoms are in close proximity to each other this shedding of neutrons can multiply exponentially. This is called a “chain reaction.” Allowed to continue the radioactive material will explode. The amount of material needed to do this is known as the “critical mass.”

For natural weapons grade (99% pure) uranium this critical mass is about 33 pounds or a chunck the size of a soccer ball. Plutonium requires about 11 pounds to achieve critical mass.

The typical fission bomb is designed so that the critical mass of uranium is separated into several smaller pieces, then suddenly brought together for detonation. The principle is simple and effective.

The preferred technique forms the uranium or plutnium in the shape of a hollow sphere, so that the empty space in the center effectively separates the nuclear material and keeps it sub-critical. Explosive charges surround the sphere and, upon detonation, instantly implode and compress the material so that it reaches critical mass in the center of the sphere and explodes.

 

Scientists soon discovered that materials like Baryllium can reflect the neutrons, like a mirror reflects light. They found that if they enclosed the sphere of uranium or plutonium in a neutron reflective sphere upon detonation the amount of fissible material needed was significantly less. Neutrons that would usually fly off into space were directed back into the material, where they acted like additional mass.

After WWII, weapon production soon moved from Uranium to the lighter Plutonium, but the total weight needed for fission bombs dramatically limited their explosive size. The explosive effect is directly related to the amount of fissible material and even with the use of neutron reflectors the nuclear weapons were extremely heavy.

The H-Bomb

The next big improvement in nuclear bombs was the hydrogen bomb. Here the main source of the explosive reaction is not fission — the breaking down of radioactive atoms and the release of energy — but fusion, where atoms are forced together to form new elements with the release of even greater energy.

 

The main reaction in a hydrogen bomb is, of course, hydrogen. This is the lightest atom — number 1 on the periodic table of elements. It has one electron orbiting its nucleus but the nucleus can exist with either one proton, a proton and a neutron, or a proton and two neutrons. The last two configurations are not usually found in nature and are the result of something either natural or artificial adding neutrons to the nucleus.

Hydrogen with a proton and neutron, call deuterium is created in the atmosphere from bombardment by cosmic radiation and is found in relative abundance in the ocean. Hydrogen with a proton and two neutrons in the nucleus is called tritium and is rarely found in nature. Tritium has a short life and degrades back to regular hydrogen in nature. To obtain a supply of tritium, scientists had to be very clever.

The exlosive power of a hydrogen bomb comes from the interaction — fusion — of a deuterium and tritium atom. The fusion reaction results in the formation of a Helium atom (number 2 on the periodic table) plus a free neutron and, here’s the important part, the release of an amazing 17.6 MeV of energy!

Secrets Inside the H-Bomb

The nuclei of tritium and deuterium both have a positive charge and naturally repel eachother. Enormous pressure and energy must be used to compress them and allow the “strong nuclear force” to take over. This is achieved by detonating a small fission atomic bomb in the confined space of the bomb casing and designing special reflecting surfaces to focus the intense x-rays and neutrons from this primary explosion to the secondary cylinder where the hydrogen will fuse.

 

One of the main problems with the H-bomb was obtaining the tritium. Scientists found that they could generate this on-the-spot with a compound combining lithium (number 3 on the periodic table of elements) and deuterium, obtained from heavy water used to cool a reactor. The result was a dry, solid powder called Lithium-deuteride.

When a neutron (from the primary explosion) combines with a lithium atom, the result is a helium atom and a tritium atom. The tritium quickly finds and fuses with the deuteritium atom to fuse into a Helium atom and shoots a free neutron to start the reaction all over again. The fusion reaction causes the plutonium rod and the uranium cylinder case to contribute additional neutrons from fission and the resulting explosion is many magnitudes greater than an atomic bomb.

 

A:The stable bomb. B:The explosive charges surrounding the plutonium sphere detonate and compress against the barrylium reflector. C: The reflector compressed the plutonium sphere to critical mass where it ignites the tritium gas and causes a fission explosion. X-rays and heat cause the styrofoam to turn to plasma and reflect off the baryllium lined walls and focus on the secondary cylinder. D: The plasma and explosion compress the secondary cylinder causing the lithium-deuteride to react, releasing tritium and resulting in a fusion reaction. E: The uranium casing and plutonium rod contribute to the flux reaction and a fireball explodes.

 

The worlds most powerful hydrogen bomb was detonated on the 30th of October 1961. The bomb had an explosive force of 58 megatons, or almost 6,000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb. The bomb was dropped by an aircraft, and detonated 365 metres (1,200 feet) above the surface. The shock wave produced by this bomb was so powerful, it went thrice around the earth. The mushroom cloud extended almost 60 kilometres into the atmosphere. Resulting downfall was measured over the entire northern hemisphere. A flash of light could be observed all the way to Hopen in the Norwegian Sea, Sor-Varanger in the Norwegian county of Finnmark and by the Inari Lake in Finnish Lappland.

The REAL threat in 2010

 

The main purpose of this article is to make you aware that a hydrogen bomb is just a very small, low yieldatom bomb which has been combined with a non-radioactive compound that is readily available and plentiful. The compound is made from lithium — the same element used in your laptop and cellphone batteries — and hydrogen — plentiful in the earth’s oceans. Manufactured correctly, even a small amount of either plutonium or uranium is capable of detonating a hydrogen bomb which could vaporize everything for a 30 mile radius in less then a second.So much of what we are told through tne media assumes that the radioactive material acquired by rogue nations or terrorists will be used in a fission bomb or a so-called “dirty bomb”. The yields and limited areas of destruction are vastly out dated.

While the public’s understanding of nuclear technology has been frozen in the post WWII era, huge advances have been made under the veil of secrecy. Neutron reflectors and sophisicated detonation methods have increased the efficiency of even the most basic fission bomb while the discovery of lithium-deuteride has unfortunately made quantum leaps in the potential explosive destruction of fusion bombs.

It’s a new world — a dangerous one.

North Korea is believed to have refined both enriched uranium and plutonium. In recent underground tests it is believed that an implosion fission bomb was successfully tested, although the world press immediately claimed it must have been a failure as the yield was not large, as suggested by monitoring the surrounding seismic readings.

In fact, underground tests often are used to test small implosion devices such as would be used for a primary detonator for a much larger H-bomb. The technology for the inert uranium-328 cylinder, filled with lithium-deuteride, is so simple that it needs no test. Simple electronic instruments can determine if the x-rays, neutrons and thermal pressure are adequate to activate a fusion reaction in a large scale H-bomb.

Hypothetically, North Korea could produce around 20 kilograms of 90 percent weapons grade uranium per year. Since Pyongyang already has developed implosion-type bombs, it could theoretically also produce an implosion-type design for an H-bomb, which would save considerable amounts of uranium. For example, if Pyongyang is already capable of building a compact, lower-yield atomic fission bomb (let’s say the 4-kiloton bomb it told China it tested in 2006), it could easily use this as the primary stage of an H-bomb!

Iran is already enriching uranium and may have accumulated enough uranium for a primary trigger already. The technology for converting this uranium to an H-bomb is dangerously simple. The media and politicians warn us of rogue nations being years away from making a bomb and speak of tens of kilotons of fissionable material needed for even a low yield or “”dirty” bomb, but the truth is much more terrible. This technology is easily within reach of any nation seeking to use its apocalyptic power. The physics is well understood and the amount of fissible material for the primary detonation is within reach. It is likely that several pounds of plutonium or uranium has already been secured and an H-bomb has been assembled.

Missing Uranium & Plutonium — whose got it?

Sweden missing 100 kilograms of enriched uranium – The Swedish nuclear energy monitoring agency is currently disputing claims by the CIA that 100 kilograms of uranium have disappeared. Sweden’s nuclear inspection agency (SKI) has repeatedly recorded significant discrepencies between the wmount of waste received for recycling by the Swedish company Ranstad Minerals. The uranium has yet to be accounted for but is believed to have ended up in Syria.

CIA officials told a Swedish newspaper, “The company (Ranstad Mineral) is a security risk and we have taken the matter to top levels to get the Swedes to stop them… If it transpires that radioactive or nuclear material has been sent on from Sweden to Syria then this is a very serious matter for Sweden.”

China missing 8 kilograms of U-235 — Eight kilograms or 17 pounds of uranium has gone missing in China, delaying the verdict in a trial of four men charged with attempting to sell it on the black market, state media said. A court in Gaungzhou, capital of China’s southern province of Guangdong, heard the four tried to sell the material between 2005 anf January 2007. The men were arrested after a potential buyer in Hong Kong turned them in to the authorities. However, despite having the men in custody, they were unable or unwilling to locate the uranium. More than 20 people had fallen ill after being exposed to the enriched uranium (235) but the material remains missing.

Scotland loses 10.2 kilograms of uranium (235) — Vice President of the European Commission, Frans Andriessen, said the uranium “disappeared” from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Dounreay, Scotland. Authorities are still trying to locate the material which could be used to make a nuclear bomb.

Republic of Congo missing 100 “bars” of uranium — Arrests were made in Kenshasa, Congo, in response to the reports of the disappearance of “more than 100 bars” of uranium from the Regional Center for Nuclear Studies in Kenshasa. Arrested were the director, Fortunat Lumu, and an aide who have so far not shed light on the whereabouts of the missing uranium.

Virginia (US) site missing 55 kilograms of uranium — A reprocessing plant, BWXT, located in Mt. Athos, Virginia, reported an inventory “accounting problem” upon receipt of uranium shipped from a plant in Kazakstan. The shortfall appears to be about 55 kilograms of uranium “on the order of plus or minus 100 percent” pure. During repackaging in Kazakhstan, data was compiled on the mass of uranium in each can. The U-235 enrichment level was also determined, with two separate tests for each can. After BWXT received the material, it verified the tamper-safe seals and identified the weight and contents of the containers before securing them in a vault. NRC records show the uranium/beryllium scrap was removed from sealed containers, tested for dissolution rate, baked and returned to containers in tamper-proof seals. But one problem was noted. “During the same period, a security vulnerability existed relative to searches of personnel exiting the processing area under emergency conditions,” said the memo.

Los Alamos missing enough plutonium for 150 nuclear boombs — The beleaguered Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is unable to account for 765 kilograms of plutonium according to a statement from the nuclear watchdog froup to director G. Peter Nanos. According to the statement, “The Department of Energy (DOE) reported a discharge to waste from LANL of 610 kilograms of plutonium; Los Alamos indicates a figure of 1,375 kilograms, the equivalent of 150 nuclear weapons. This is unacceptable by any imaginable standards and constitutes a crucial safety, environmental, and security issue.”

Japan loses 206 kilograms of plutonium — Japan announced that 206 kilograms of its plutonium stockpiule — enough to make about 25 nuclear bombs — is missing. Government scientists said that 6,890 kilograms of plutonium had been extracted since 1977 from spent nuclear fuel at a processing plant about 120 kilometers north east of Tokyo. But that is 3 percent short of the amount the plant was estimated to have produced. Experts say the missing amount is disturbingly large and rumors have linkrd the missing plutonium to North Korea.

Britain missing 19.1 kilograms of highly enriched plutonium — Enough plutonium to make five nuclear bombs has gone missing from Sellafield in Cumbria in the past 12 months. The official report lists the “materials unaccounted for” seem to have disappeared from a reprocessing plant. No further details are available.

Somewhere, someone has the material for a nuclear trigger. The other components, specifically the lithium-deuteride, are relatively easy to secure. We now just wait and see if some nation or group is crazy enough to use it.

But wait!… there’s more…

Enter the DOOMSDAY BOMB!

Since the fusion reaction produces mostly neutrons and very little that is radioactive, the concept of a ‘clean’ bomb has resulted: one having a small atomic trigger, a less fissionable tamper, and therefore less radioactive fallout . Carrying this progression further would result in the suggested neutron bomb, which would have a minimum trigger and a nonfissionable tamper; there would be blast effects and a hail of lethal neutrons but almost no radioactive fallout; this theoretically would cause minimal physical damage to buildings and equipment but kill most living things.

The theorized cobalt bomb is, on the contrary, a radioactively “dirty bomb” having a cobalt tamper. Instead of generating additional explosive force from fission of the uranium, the cobalt is transmuted into cobalt-60, which has a half-life of 5.26 years and produces energetic and highly lethal (and thus penetrating) gamma rays. The half-life of Co-60 is just long enough so that airborne particles will settle and coat the earth’s surface before significant decay has occurred, thus making it impractical to hide in shelters. This prompted physicist Leo Szilard to call it a “doomsday device” since it was capable of wiping out life on earth. Such a device might be made and used as the ultimate threat in a political stand-off, effectively saying to the world, “Do as we say or we all die!”

Sleep well tonight.

 

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