Through Cross and Crown WE (royal blood and global elite scum) shall control them (you, the peasant worker Prole).

The  Illuminati /Reptilian Pact (The “Secret Pact”, the “Secret Covenant”)

An illusion it will be, so large, so vast it will escape their perception. Those who will see it will be thought of as insane. We will create separate fronts to prevent them from seeing the connection between us. We will behave as if we are not connected to keep the illusion alive. Our goal will be accomplished one drop at a time so as to never bring suspicion upon ourselves. This will also prevent them from seeing the changes as they occur. We will always stand above the relative field of their experience for we know the secrets of the absolute. We will work together always and will remain bound by blood and secrecy.  Death will come to he who speaks. We will keep their lifespan short and their minds weak while pretending to do the opposite. We will use our knowledge of science and technology in subtle ways so they will never see what is happening. We will use soft metals, aging accelerators and sedatives in food and water, also in the air. They will be blanketed by poisons everywhere they turn. The soft metals will cause them to lose their minds. We will promise to find a cure from our many fronts, yet we will feed them more poison. The poisons will be absorbed trough their skin and mouths, they will destroy their minds and reproductive systems. From all this, their children will be born dead, and we will conceal this information. The poisons will be hidden in everything that surrounds them, in what they drink, eat, breathe and wear. We must be ingenious in dispensing the poisons for they can see far. We will teach them that the poisons are good, with fun images and musical tones. Those they look up to will help. We will enlist them to push our poisons. They will see our products being used in film and will grow accustomed to them and will never know their true effect. When they give birth we will inject poisons into the blood of their children and convince them its for their help. We will start early on, when their minds are young, we will target their children with what children love most, sweet things. When their teeth decay we will fill them with metals that will kill their mind and steal their future. When their ability to learn has been affected, we will create medicine that will make them sicker and cause other diseases for which we will create yet more medicine. We will render them docile and weak before us by our power. They will grow depressed, slow and obese, and when they come to us for help, we will give them more poison. We will focus their attention toward money and material goods so they many never connect with their inner self. We will distract them with fornication, external pleasures and games so they may never be one with the oneness of it All. Their minds will belong to us and they will do as we say. If they refuse we shall find ways to implement mind-altering technology into their lives. We will use fear as our weapon. We will establish their governments and establish opposites within .  We will own both sides. We will always hide our objective but carry out our plan. They will perform the labor for us and we shall prosper from their toil. Our families will never mix with theirs. Our blood must be pure always, for it is the way. We will make them kill each other when it suits us. We will keep them separated from the oneness by dogma and religion. We will control all aspects of their lives and tell them what to think and how. We will guide them kindly and gently letting them think they are guiding themselves. We will foment animosity between them through our factions. When a light shall shine among them, we shall extinguish it by ridicule, or death, whichever suits us best. We will make them rip each other’s hearts apart and kill their own children. We will accomplish this by using hate as our ally, anger as our friend. The hate will blind them totally, and never shall they see that from their conflicts we emerge as their rulers. They will be busy killing each other. They will bathe in their own blood and kill their neighbors for as long as we see fit. We will benefit greatly from this, for they will not see us, for they cannot see us. We will continue to prosper from their wars and their deaths. We shall repeat this over and over until our ultimate goal is accomplished. We will continue to make them live in fear and anger though images and sounds. We will use all the tools we have to accomplish this. The tools will be provided by their labor. We will make them hate themselves and their neighbors. We will always hide the divine truth from them, that we are all one. This they must never know! They must never know that color is an illusion, they must always think they are not equal. Drop by drop, drop by drop we will advance our goal. We will take over their land, resources and wealth to exercise total control over them. We will deceive them into accepting laws that will steal the little freedom they will have. We will establish a monetary system that will imprison them forever, keeping them and their children in debt. When they shall band together, we shall accuse them of crimes and present a different story to the world for we shall own all the media. We will use our media to control the flow of information and their sentiment in our favor. When they shall rise up against us we will crush them like insects, for they are less than that. They will be helpless to do anything for they will have no weapons. We will recruit some of their own to carry out our plans, we will promise them eternal life, but eternal life they will never have for they are not of us. The recruits will be called “initiates” and will be indoctrinated to believe false rites of passage to higher realms. Members of these groups [Editor´s Note: the Illuminati] will think they are one with us never knowing the truth. They must never learn this truth for they will turn against us. For their work they will be rewarded with earthly things and great titles, but never will they become immortal and join us, never will they receive the light and travel the stars. They will never reach the higher realms, for the killing of their own kind will prevent passage to the realm of enlightenment. This they will never know. The truth will be hidden in their face, so close they will not be able to focus on it until its too late. Oh yes, so grand the illusion of freedom will be, that they will never know they are our slaves. When all is in place, the reality we will have created for them will own them. This reality will be their prison. They will live in self-delusion. When our goal is accomplished a new era of domination will begin. [N. of Ed.: the New World Order]. Their minds will be bound by their beliefs, the beliefs we have established from time immemorial. But if they ever find out they are our equal, we shall perish then. THIS THEY MUST NEVER KNOW. If they ever find out that together they can vanquish us, they will take action. They must never, ever find out what we have done, for if they do, we shall have no place to run, for it will be easy to see who we are once the veil has fallen. Our actions will have revealed who we are and they will hunt us down and no person shall give us shelter. This is the Secret Covenant by which we shall live the rest of our present and future lives, for this reality will transcend many generations and life spans. This covenant is sealed by blood, our blood. We, the ones who from heaven to earth came. This covenant must NEVER, EVER be known to exist. It must NEVER, EVER be written or spoken of for if it is, the consciousness it will spawn will release the fury of the PRIME CREATOR upon us and we shall be cast to the depths from whence we came and remain there until the end time of infinity itself.



from FordhamUniversity Website

This is perhaps the most famous forgery in history. For centuries, until Lorenzo Valla proved it was forgery during the Renaissance it provide the basis for papal territorial and jurisdictional claims in Italy. Probably at least a first draft of it was made shortly after the middle of the eighth century in order to assist Pope Stephen II in his negotiations with the Frankish Mayor of the Palace, Pepin the Short.

The Pope crossed the Alps to anoint the latter as king in 754, thereby enabling, the Carolingian family, to which Pepin belonged, to supplant the old Merovingian royal line which had become decadent and powerless and to become in law as well as in fact rulers of the Franks. In return, Pepin seems to have promised to give to the Pope those lands in Italy which the Lombards had taken from Byzantium. The promise was fulfilled in 756. Constantine’s alleged gift made it possible to interpret Pepin’s grant not as a benefaction but as a restoration.

In the name of the holy and indivisible Trinity, the Father, namely, and the Son and the Holy Spirit. The emperor Caesar Flavius Constantine in Christ Jesus, the Lord I God our Saviour, one of that same holy Trinity,-faithful merciful, supreme, beneficent, Alamannic, Gothic, Sarmatic, Germanic, Britannic, Hunic, pious, fortunate, victor and triumpher, always august: to the most holy and blessed father of fathers Sylvester, bishop of the city of and to all his successors the pontiffs , who are about to sit upon Rome and pope, the chair of St. Peter until the end of time – also to all the most reverend and of God beloved catholic bishops, subjected by this our imperial decree throughout the whole world to this same holy, Roman church, who have been established now and in all previous times-grace, peace, charitv, rejoicing, long-suffering, mercv, be with you all from God the Father almighty and from Jesus Christ his Son and from the Holy Ghost.

Our most gracious serenity desires, in clear discourse, through the page of this our imperial decree, to bring to the knowledge of all the people in the whole world what things our Saviour and Redeemer the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the most High Father, has most wonderfully seen fit to bring about through his holy apostles Peter and Paul and by the intervention of our father Sylvester, the highest pontiff and the universal pope. First, indeed, putting forth, with the inmost confession of our heart, for the purpose of instructing the mind of all of you, our creed which we have learned from the aforesaid most blessed father and our confessor, Svlvester the universal pontiff; and then at length announcing the mercy of God which has been poured upon us.
For we wish you to know,, as we have signified through our former imperial decree, that we have gone away, from the worship of idols, from mute and deaf images made by hand, from devilish contrivances and from all the pomps of Satan; and have arrived at the pure faith of the Christians, which is the true light and everlasting life. Believing, according to what he-that same one, our revered supreme father and teacher, the pontiff Sylvester – has taught us, in God the Father, the almighty maker of Heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible; and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord God, through whom all things are created; and in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and vivifier of the whole creature. We confess these, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, in such way that, in the perfect Trinity, there shall also be a fulness of divinity and a unity of power. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God; and these three are one in Jesus Christ.
There are therefore three forms but one power. For God, wise in all previous time, gave forth from himself the word through which all future ages were to be born; and when, by that sole word of His wisdom, He formed the whole creation from nothing, He was with it, arranging all things in His mysterious secret place.
Therefore, the virtues of the Heavens and all the material part of the earth having been perfected, by the wise nod of His wisdom first creating man of the clay of the earth in His own image and likeness, He placed him in a paradise of delight. Him the ancient serpent and envious enemy, the devil, through the most bitter taste of the forbidden tree, made an exile from these joys; and, be being expelled, did not cease in many ways to cast his poisonous darts; in order that, turning the human race from the way of truth to the worship of idols, he might persuade it, namely to worship the creature and not the creator; so that, through them (the idols), he might cause those whom he might be able to entrap in his snares to be burned with him in eternal punishment.

But our Lord, pitying His creature, sending ahead His holy prophets, announcing through them the light of the future life-the coming,’ that is, of His Son our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ-sent that same only begotten Son and Word of wisdom: He descending from Heaven on account of our salvation, being born of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary,-the word was made flesh and d welt among us. He did not cease to be what He had been, but began to be what He had not been, perfect God and perfect man: as God, performing miracles; as man, sustaining human sufferings. We so learned Him to be very man and very God by the preaching of our father Sylvester, the supreme pontiff, that we can in no wise doubt that He was very, God and very man. And, having chosen twelve apostles, He shone with miracles before them and an innumerable multitude of people. We confess that this same Lord Jesus Christ fulfilled the law and the prophets; that He suffered, was crucified, on the third day arose from the dead according to the Scriptures; was received into Heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father.

Whence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end. For this is our orthodox creed, placed before us by our most blessed father Sylvester, the supreme pontiff. We exhort, therefore, all people, and all the different nations, to hold, cherish and preach this faith; and, in the name of the Holy Trinity, to obtain the grace of baptism; and, with devaout heart, to adore the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour, who with the Father and the Holy Spirit, lives and reigns through infinite ages; whom Sylvester our father, the universal pontiff, preaches. For He himself, our Lord God, having pit on me a sinner, sent His holy apostles to visit us, and caused the light of his splendour to shine upon us. And do ye rejoice that I, having been withdrawn from the shadow, have come to the true light and to the knowledge of truth.

For, at a time when a mighty and filthy leprosy had invaded all the flesh of my, body, and the care was administered of many physicians who came together, nor by that of any one of them did I achieve health: there came hither the priests of the Capitol, saving to me that a font should be made on the Capitol, and that I should fill this with the blood of innocent infants; and that, if I bathed in it while it was warm, I might be cleansed. And very many innocent infants having been brought together according to their words, when the sacrilegious priests of the pagans wished them to be slaughtered and the font to be filled with their blood: Our Serenity perceiving the tears of the mothers, I straightway abhorred the deed. And, pitying them, I ordered their own sons to be restored to them; and, giving them vehicles and gifts, sent them off rejoicing to their own. That day having passed therefore-the silence of night having come upon us-when the time of sleep had arrived, the apostles St. Peter and Paul appear, saying to me: “Since thou hast placed a term to thy vices, and hast abhorred the pouring forth of innocent blood, we are sent by, Christ the Lord our God, to give to thee a plan for recovering thy health.

Hear, therefore, our warning, and do what we indicate to thee. Sylvester – the bishop of the city of Rome – on Mount Serapte, fleeing they persecutions, cherishes the darkness with his clergy in the caverns of the rocks. This one, when thou shalt have led him to thyself, will himself show thee a pool of piety; in which, when he shall have dipped thee for the third time, all that strength of the leprosy will desert thee. And, when this shall have been done, make this return to thy Saviour, that by thy order through the whole world the churches may be restored. Purify thyself, moreover, in this way, that, leaving all the superstition of idols, thou do adore and cherish the living and true God — who is alone and true — and that thou attain to the doing of His will.
Rising, therefore, from sleep, straightway I did according to that which I bad been advised to do by, the holy apostles; and, having summoned that excellent and benignant father and our enlightener – Svlvester the universal pope-I told him all the words that had been taught me by the holy apostles; and asked him who where those gods Peter and Paul. But he said that they where not really called gods, but apostles of our Saviour the Lord God Jesus Christ. And again we began to ask that same most blessed pope whether he had some express image of those apostles; so that, from their likeness, we might learn that they were those whom revelation bad shown to us. Then that same venerable father ordered the images of those same apostles to be shown by his deacon. And, when I had looked at them, and recognized, represented in those images, the countenances of those whom I had seen in my dream: with a great noise, before all my satraps*, I confessed that they were those whom I had seen in my dream.
[* there were no such Roman officials]
Hereupon that same most blessed Sylvester our father, bishop of the city of Rome, imposed upon us a time of penance-within our Lateran palace, in the chapel, in a hair garment,-so that I might obtain pardon from our Lord God Jesus Christ our Saviour by vigils, fasts, and tears and prayers, for all things that had been impiously done and unjustly ordered by me. Then through the imposition of the hands of the clergy, I came to the bishop himself; and there, renouncing the pomps of Satan and his works, and all idols made by hands, of my own will before all the people I confessed: that I believed in God the Father almighty, maker of Heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son our Lord, who was born of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary. And, the font having been blessed, the wave of salvation purified me there with a triple immersion. For there 1, being placed at the bottom of the font, saw with my own eyes a band from Heaven touching me; whence rising, clean, know that I was cleansed from all the squalor of leprosy. And, I being raised from the venerable font-putting on white raiment, be administered to me the sign of the seven-fold holy Spirit, the unction of the holy oil; and he traced the sign of the holy cross on my brow, saying: God seals thee with the seal of His faith in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, to signalize thy faith. All the clergy replied: “Amen.” The bishop added, “peace be with thee.”
And so, on the first day after receiving the mystery of the holy baptism, and after the cure of my body from the squalor of the leprosy, I recognized that there was no other God save the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit; whom the most blessed Sylvester the pope doth preach; a trinity in one, a unity in three. For all the gods of the nations, whom I have worshipped up to this time, are proved to be demons; works made by the hand of men; inasmuch as that same venerable father told to us most clearly how much power in Heaven and on earth He, our Saviour, conferred on his apostle St. Peter, when finding him faithful after questioning him He said: “Thou art Peter, and upon this rock (petrani) shall I build My Church, and the gates of bell shall not prevail against it.” Give heed ye powerful, and incline the ear of .your hearts to that which the good Lord and Master added to His disciple, saying: and I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of Heaven; and whatever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound also in Heaven, and whatever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed also in Heaven.” This is very wonderful and glorious, to bind and loose on earth and to have it bound and loosed in Heaven.
And when, the blessed Sylvester preaching them, I perceived these things, and learned that by the kindness of St. Peter himself I had been entirely restored to health: I together with all our satraps and the whole senate and the nobles and all the Roman people, who are subject to the glory of our rule -considered it advisable that, as on earth he (Peter) is seen to have been constituted vicar of the Son of God, so the pontiffs, who are the representatives of that same chief of the apostles, should obtain from us and our empire the power of a supremacy greater than the earthly clemency of our imperial serenity is seen to have had conceded to it,-we choosing that same prince of the apostles, or his vicars, to be our constant intercessors with God. And, to the extent of our earthly imperial power, we decree that his holy Roman church shall be honoured with veneration; and that, more than our empire and earthly throne, the most sacred seat of St. Peter shall be gloriously exalted; we giving to it the imperial power, and dignity of glory, and vigour and honour.
And we ordain and decree that he shall have the supremacy as well over the four chief seats Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople* and Jerusalem, as also over all the churches of God in the -whole world. And he who for the time being shall be pontiff of that holy Roman church shall be more exalted than, and chief over, all the priests of the whole world; and, according to his judgment, everything which is to be provided for the service of God or the stability of the faith of the Christians is to be administered. It is indeed just, that there the holy law should have the seat of its rule where the founder of holy laws, our Saviour, told St. Peter to take the chair of the apostleship; where also, sustaining the cross, he blissfully took the cup of death and appeared as imitator of his Lord and Master; and that there the people should bend their necks at the confession of Christ’s name, where their teacher, St. Paul the apostle, extending his neck for Christ, was crowned with martyrdom. There, until the end, let them seek a teacher, where the holy body of the teacher lies; and there, prone and humiliated, let them perform I the service of the heavenly king, God our Saviour Jesus Christ, where the proud were accustomed to serve under the rule of an earthly king.

[*at the time of the supposed date of the document, Constantinople had not been founded. Its position as “chief seat” was two centuries away.]
Meanwhile we wish all the people, of all the races and nations throughout the whole world, to know: that we have constructed within our Lateran palace, to the same Saviour our Lord God Jesus Christ, a church with a baptistry from the foundations. And know that we have carried on our own shoulders from its foundations, twelve baskets weighted with earth, according to the number of the holy apostles. Which holy church we command to be spoken of, cherished, venerated and preached of, as the head and summit of all the churches in the whole world-as we have commanded through our other imperial decrees. We have also constructed the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul, chiefs of the apostles, which we have enriched with gold and silver; where also, placing their most sacred bodies with great honour, we have constructed their caskets of electrum, against which no force of the elements prevails.

And we have placed a cross of purest gold and precious gems on each of their caskets, and fastened them with golden keys. And on these churches for the endowing of divine services we have conferred estates, and have enriched them with different objects; and, through our sacred imperial decrees, we have granted them our gift of land in the East as well as in the West; and even on the northern and southern coast;-namely in Judea, Greece, Asia, Thrace, Africa and Italy and the various islands: under this condition indeed, that all shall be administered by the hand of our most blessed father the pontiff Sylvester and his successors.
For let all the people and the nations of the races in the whole world rejoice with us; we exhorting all of you to give unbounded thanks, together with us, to our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. For He is God in Heaven above and on earth below, who, visiting us through His holy apostles, made us worthy to receive the holy sacrament of baptism and health of body. In return for which, to those same holy apostles, my masters, St. Peter and St. Paul; and, through them, also to St. Sylvester, our father,-the chief pontiff and universal pope of the city of Rome,-and to all the pontiffs his successors, who until the end of the world shall be about to sit in the seat of St. Peter: we concede and, by this present, do confer, our imperial Lateran palace, which is preferred to, and ranks above, all the palaces in the whole world; then a diadem, that is, the crown of our head, and at the same time the tiara; and, also, the shoulder band,-that is, the collar that usually surrounds our imperial neck; and also the purple mantle, and crimson tunic, and all the imperial raiment; and the same rank as those presiding over the imperial cavalry; conferring also the imperial sceptres, and, at the same time, the spears and standards; also the banners and different imperial ornaments, and all the advantage of our high imperial position, and the glory of our power.
And we decree, as to those most reverend men, the clergy who serve, in different orders, that same holy Roman church, that they shall have the same advantage, distinction, power and excellence by the glory of which our most illustrious senate is adorned; that is, that they shall be made patricians and consuls,-we commanding that they shall also be decorated with the other imperial dignities. And even as the imperial soldiery, so, we decree, shall the clergy of the holy Roman church be adorned. And I even as the imperial power is adorned by different offices-by the distinction, that is, of chamberlains, and door keepers, and all the guards,-so we wish the holy Roman church to be adorned.

And, in order that the pontifical glory may shine forth more fully, we decree this also: that the clergy of this same holy Roman church may use saddle cloths of linen of the whitest colour; namely that their horses may be adorned and so be ridden, and that, as our senate uses shoes with goats’ hair, so they may be distinguished by gleaming linen; in order that, as the celestial beings, so the terrestrial may be adorned to the glory of God. Above all things, moreover, we give permission to that same most holy one our father Sylvester, bishop of the city of Rome and pope, and to all the most blessed pontiffs who shall come after him and succeed him in all future times-for the honour and glory of Jesus Christ our Lord,-to receive into that great Catholic and apostolic church of God, even into the number of the monastic clergy, any one from our senate, who, in free choice, of his own accord, may wish to become- a cleric; no one at all presuming thereby to act in a haughty manner.
We also decreed this, that this same venerable one our father Sylvester, the supreme pontiff, and all the pontiffs his successors, might use and bear upon their heads-to the Praise of God and for the honour of St. Peter-the diadem; that is, the crown which we have granted him from our own head, of purest gold and precious gems. But he, the most holy pope, did not at all allow that crown of gold to be used over the clerical crown which he wears to the glory of St. Peter; but we placed upon his most holy head, with our own hands, a tiara of gleaming splendour representing the glorious resurrection of our Lord. And, holding the bridle of his horse, out of reverence for St. Peter we performed for him the duty of groom; decreeing that all the pontiffs his successors, and they alone, may use that tiara in processions.
In imitation of our own power, in order that for that cause the supreme pontificate may not deteriorate, but may rather be adorned with power and glory even more than is the dignity of an earthly rule: behold we-giving over to the oft-mentioned most blessed pontiff, our father Sylvester the universal pope, as well our palace, as has been said, as also the city of Rome and all the provinces, districts and cities of Italy or of the western regions; and relinquishing them, by our inviolable gift, to the power and sway of himself or the pontiffs his successors-do decree, by this our godlike charter and imperial constitution, that it shall be (so) arranged; and do concede that they (the palaces, provinces etc.) shall lawfully remain with the holy Roman church.
Wherefore we have perceived it to be fitting that our empire and the power of our kingdom should be transferred and changed to the regions of the East; and that, in the province of Byzantium, in a most fitting place, a city should be built in our name; and that our empire should there be established. For, where the supremacy of priests and the bead of the Christian religion has been established by a heavenly ruler, it is not just that there an earthly ruler should have jurisdiction.
We decree, moreover, that all these things which, through this our imperial charter and through other godlike commands, we have established and confirmed, shall remain uninjured and unshaken until the end of the world. Wherefore, before the living God, who commanded us to reign, and in the face of his terrible judgment, we conjure, through this our imperial decree, all the emperors our successors, and all our nobles, the satraps also and the most glorious senate, and all the people in the ,A-hole world now and in all times previously subject to our rule: that no one of them, in any way allow himself to oppose or disregard, or in any way seize, these things which, by our imperial sanction, have been conceded to the holy Roman church and to all its pontiffs. If anyone, moreover,-which we do not believe – prove a scorner or despiser in this matter, he shall be subject and bound over to eternal damnation; and shall feel that the holy chiefs of the apostles of God, Peter and Paul, will be opposed to him in the present and in the future life. And, being burned in the nethermost hell, he shall perish with the devil and all the impious.
The page, moreover, of this our imperial decree, we, confirming it with our own hands, did place above the venerable body of St. Peter chief of the apostles; and there, promising to that same apostle of God that we would preserve inviolably all its provisions, and would leave in our commands to all the emperors our successors to preserve them, we did hand it over, to be enduringly and happily possessed, to our most blessed father Sylvester the supreme pontiff and universal pope, and, through him, to all the pontiffs his successors -God our Lord and our Saviour Jesus Christ consenting.
And the imperial subscription: May the Divinity preserve you for many years, oh most holy and blessed fathers.
Given at Rome on the third day before the Kalends of April, our master the august Flavius Constantine, for the fourth time, and Galligano, most illustrious men, being consuls.

(From Zeumer’s edition, published in Berlin in 1888, v. Brunner-Zeumer: “Die Constantinische Schenkungsurkunde“) translated in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages , (London: George Bell, 1910), pp. 319-329

Society of Jesus

Society of Jesus

SJ, Jesuits

Ad maiorem Dei gloriam

August 15, 1534 (476 years ago)

Catholic religious order

Church of the Gesu (Mother Church), General Curia (administration)

Rome, Italy

41°54′4.9″N 12°27′38.2″ECoordinates: 41°54′4.9″N 12°27′38.2″E

Superior General
Adolfo Nicolás

Key people
Ignatius of Loyola — founder

Main organ
General Curia



Society of Jesus


History of the Jesuits
Regimini militantis
Jesuit Hierarchy
Superior General
Adolfo Nicolás
Ignatian Spirituality
Spiritual Exercises
Ad majorem Dei gloriam
Famous Jesuits
St. Ignatius of Loyola
St. Francis Xavier
Blessed Peter Faber
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
St. Robert Bellarmine
St. Peter Canisius
St. Edmund Campion

The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ, or SI) is a religious order of men called Jesuits, who follow the teachings of the Catholic Church. Jesuit priests and brothers[2] — also sometimes known colloquially as “God’s Marines[3] and as “The Company”, this terminology because of founder Ignatius of Loyola‘s military background — are engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents reflecting the Formula of the Institute (principle) of the Society. They are known in the fields ofeducation (schools, colleges, universities, seminaries, theological faculties), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits in addition to missionary work, giving retreats, hospital and parish ministry, promoting social justice and ecumenical dialogue.

The Society was founded by St. Ignatius who, after being wounded in battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises in order to help others to follow the teachings of Jesus Christ more closely. In 1534, Ignatius gathered six young men, including St. Francis Xavier and Bl. Pierre Favre, and together they professed vows of poverty and chastity, and then later, obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope. Rule 13 of Ignatius’ Rules for Thinking with the Church said: “That we may be altogether of the same mind and in conformity[…], if [the Church] shall have defined anything to be black which to our eyes appears to be white, we ought in like manner to pronounce it to be black.”.[4] Ignatius’ plan of the order’s organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by the bull containing the Formula of the Institute. The opening lines of this founding document would declare that the Society of Jesus was founded to “strive especially for the propagation and defense of the faith and progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine.”[5] The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and later in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council in the Catholic Church.

The Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General, currently Adolfo Nicolás.[6][7] The headquarters of the Society, its General Curia, is in Rome.[8] The historic curia of St Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church.


The Jesuits today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church, although they are surpassed by the Franciscan family of first orders OFMs, Capuchins, and Conventuals. As of 1 January 2007, Jesuits numbered 19,216[1]: 13,491 clerks regular(priests), 3,049 scholastics (students to become priests), 1,810 brothers (not priests) and 866 novices, serving in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and USA. Their average age was 57.34 years; 63.40 years for the priests, 29.89 years for the scholastics and 65.54 years for the brothers. With regard to its administration, the Society is currently divided into 91 Provinces with 12 dependent Regions: three in Africa, four in the Americas and five in Asia and Oceania. All together, they constitute 10 administrative units. (Assistances).[9]

Jesuits in the World (1 January 2007)[1]


South Asia Assistancy

United States of America

South Europe

West Europe

East Asia-Oceania

South Latin America


North Latin America

East Europe

Central Europe

The current Superior General of the Jesuits is the Spaniard Adolfo Nicolás. The Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines and India. In the United States alone, it maintains over 50 colleges, universities and high schools. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will often contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning and life-long spiritual and intellectual growth.[10]

Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus

Ignatius lays out his original vision for the new order in the Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus (established principle), which is “the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform.”[11] He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, spirituality, community life and apostolate of the new religious order. Its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius’ military background: “Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, and to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, should, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity, poverty and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive especially for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching, lectures and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, and further by means of retreats, the education of children and unlettered persons in Christianity, and the spiritual consolation of Christ’s faithful through hearing confessions and administering the other sacraments. Moreover, he should show himself ready to reconcile the estranged, compassionately assist and serve those who are in prisons or hospitals, and indeed, to perform any other works of charity, according to what will seem expedient for the glory of God and the common good”.[12]



Ignatius of Loyola

Church of Saint Pierre de Montmartre Paris.

Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyolareceiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul III. The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handkein the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow inOlomouc after 1743.

On August 15, 1534, Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard of Basque origin, and six other students at the University of ParisFrancisco Xavier from Navarre (modern Spain), Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, Nicolás Bobadilla from Spain, Peter Faber from Savoy, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal – met in Montmartre outside Paris, in a crypt beneath the church of Saint Denis, now Saint Pierre de Montmartre.[13]

They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Señor or “Friends in the Lord”, because they felt “they were placed together by Christ.” The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry “company“), as well as of discipleship (the “companions” of Jesus). The word “company” comes ultimately from Latin, cum + pane = “with bread”, or a group that shares meals.

In 1537, they traveled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order. Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. These initial steps led to the founding of what would be called the Society of Jesus later in 1540. The term societas in Latin is derived from socius, a partner or comrade.

They were ordained at Venice by the bishop of Arbe (June 24). They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy, as the Italian War of 1535-1538 renewed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Venice, the pope and the Ottoman Empire rendered any journey to Jerusalem impossible.

They presented the project to the Pope. After months of dispute, a congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the Constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae (“To the Government of the Church Militant”), on September 27, 1540, but limited the number of its members to sixty. This is the founding document of the Jesuits as an official Catholic religious order.

This limitation was removed through the bull Injunctum nobis (March 14, 1543). Ignatius was chosen as the first superior-general. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries.[14]

In fulfilling the mission of the Formula of the Institute of the Society, the first Jesuits concentrated on a few key activities. First, they founded schools throughout Europe. Jesuit teachers were rigorously trained in both classical studies and theology, and their schools reflected this. Second, they sent out missionaries across the globe to evangelize those peoples who had not yet heard the Gospel, founding missions in widely diverse regions, such as modern-day Paraguay, Japan, Ontario, and Ethiopia. Finally, they aimed to stopProtestantism from spreading and to preserve communion with Rome and the successor of Peter. The zeal of the Jesuits overcame the drift toward Protestantism in Poland-Lithuania and southern Germany.

Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1554, which created a tightly centralized organization and stressed total abnegation and obedience to the Pope and their religious superiors (perinde ac cadaver, “[well-disciplined] like a corpse” as Ignatius put it).[15]

His main principle became the unofficial Jesuit motto: Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam (“For the greater glory of God”). This phrase is designed to reflect the idea that any work that is not evil can be meritorious for the spiritual life if it is performed with this intention, even things considered normally indifferent.[14]

The Society of Jesus is classified among institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms, or donations, for support.

The term “Jesuit” (of 15th-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the Society in reproach (1544–52). It was never used by its founder, though members and friends of the Society in time appropriated the name in its positive meaning.

Early works

Ratio Studiorum, 1598

The Jesuits were founded just before the Counter-Reformation (or at least before the date those historians with a classical view of the counter reformation hold to be the beginning of the Counter-Reformation), a movement whose purpose was to reform the Catholic Church from within and to counter the Protestant Reformers, whose teachings were spreading throughout Catholic Europe.

As part of their service to the Roman Church, the Jesuits encouraged people to continue their obedience to scripture as interpreted by Catholic doctrine. Ignatius is known to have written: “…: I will believe that the white that I see is black if the hierarchical Church so defines it.”[16]

Ignatius and the early Jesuits did recognize, though, that the hierarchical Church was in dire need of reform. Some of their greatest struggles were against corruption, venality, and spiritual lassitude within the Roman Catholic Church. Ignatius’s insistence on an extremely high level of academic preparation for ministry, for instance, was a deliberate response to the relatively poor education of much of the clergy of his time. The Jesuit vow against “ambitioning prelacies” was a deliberate effort to prevent greed for money or power invading Jesuit circles.

As a result, in spite of their loyalty, Ignatius and his successors often tangled with the pope and the Roman Curia. Over the 450 years since its founding, the Society has both been called the papal “elite troops” and been forced into suppression.

St. Ignatius and the Jesuits who followed him believed that the reform of the Church had to begin with the conversion of an individual’s heart. One of the main tools the Jesuits have used to bring about this conversion has been the Ignatian retreat, called the Spiritual Exercises. During a four-week period of silence, individuals undergo a series of directed meditations on the life of Christ. During this period, they meet regularly with a spiritual director, who helps them understand whatever call or message God has offered in their meditations.

The retreat follows a “Purgative-Illuminative-Unitive” pattern in the tradition of the spirituality of John Cassian and the Desert Fathers. Ignatius’ innovation was to make this style of contemplative mysticism available to all people in active life. Further, he used it as a means of rebuilding the spiritual life of the Church. The Exercises became both the basis for the training of Jesuits and one of the essential ministries of the order: giving the exercises to others in what became known as “retreats”.

The Jesuits’ contributions to the late Renaissance were significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry. By the time of Ignatius’ death in 1556, the Jesuits were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents. A precursor to liberal education, the Jesuit plan of studies incorporated the Classical teachings of Renaissance humanism into the Scholastic structure of Catholic thought.

Jesuit missionary, painting from 1779.

In addition to teaching faith, the Ratio Studiorum emphasized the study of Latin, Greek, classical literature, poetry, and philosophy as well as non-European languages, sciences and the arts. Furthermore, Jesuit schools encouraged the study of vernacular literature andrhetoric, and thereby became important centers for the training of lawyers and public officials.

The Jesuit schools played an important part in winning back to Catholicism a number of European countries which had for a time been predominantly Protestant, notably Poland and Lithuania. Today, Jesuit colleges and universities are located in over one hundred nations around the world. Under the notion that God can be encountered through created things and especially art, they encouraged the use of ceremony and decoration in Catholic ritual and devotion. Perhaps as a result of this appreciation for art, coupled with their spiritual practice of “finding God in all things”, many early Jesuits distinguished themselves in the visual and performing arts as well as in music.

Jesuit priests often acted as confessors to Kings during the Early Modern Period. They were an important force in the Counter-Reformation and in the Catholic missions, in part because their relatively loose structure (without the requirements of living in community, saying the divine office together, etc.) allowed them to be flexible to meet the needs of the people at the time.


See also: Jesuit missions in North America

The Bell of Nanbanji, made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church, established by Jesuit in 1576 and destroyed 1587, Japan.

The ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana in Paraguay, one of the many Jesuit missions established in South America during the 17th and 18th centuries

Early missions in Japan resulted in the government granting the Jesuits the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in 1580. However, this was removed in 1587 due to fears over their growing influence.

Francis Xavier, one of the original companions of Loyola, arrived in Goa, in Western India, in 1541 to consider evangelical service in the Indies. He died in China after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. Two Jesuit missionaries, Johann Grueber and Albert Dorville, reached Lhasa in Tibet in 1661.

Jesuit missions in Latin America were very controversial in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments. The Jesuits were often the only force standing between the Native Americans and slavery. Together throughout South America but especially in present-day Brazil and Paraguay, they formed Christian Native American city-states, called “reductions” (Spanish Reducciones, Portuguese Reduções). These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model. It is partly because the Jesuits, such as Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, protected the natives (whom certain Spanish and Portuguese colonizers wanted to enslave) that the Society of Jesus was suppressed.

Jesuit priests such as Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta founded several towns in Brazil in the 16th century, including São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and were very influential in the pacification, religious conversion andeducation of Indian nations.

Jesuit scholars working in foreign missions were very important in studying their unknown languages and strived to produce Latinized grammars and dictionaries. This was done, for instance, for Japanese (see Nippo jisho also known as Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam, (Vocabulary of the Japanese Language) a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary written 1603), Vietnamese (French Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes formalized the Vietnamese alphabet in use today with his 1651 Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum) and Tupi-Guarani (a language group of South American aborigines). Jean François Pons in the 1740s pioneered the study of Sanskrit in the West.

Under Portuguese royal patronage, the order thrived in Goa and until 1759 successfully expanded its activities to education and healthcare. In 1594 they founded the first Western-style academic institution in the East, St. Paul Jesuit College (Macau). Founded by Alessandro Valignano, it had a great influence on the learning of Eastern languages (China and Japan) and culture by missionary Jesuits, becoming home to the first western sinologists such as Matteo Ricci. On 17 December 1759, the Marquis of Pombal, Secretary of State in Portugal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal and Portuguese possessions overseas.

Jesuit missionaries were active among indigenous peoples in New France in North America. Many of them compiled dictionaries or glossaries of the First Nations and Native American languages which they learned. For instance, Jacques Gravier, vicar general of the Illinois Mission in the Mississippi River valley, compiled the most extensive Kaskaskia Illinois-French dictionary among works of the missionaries before his death in 1708.[17]

Jesuit activity in China

 Jesuit China missions

The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when scientific innovation had declined in China:

[The Jesuits] made efforts to translate western mathematical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture.

—Agustín Udías, [18]

Conversely, the Jesuits were very active in transmitting Chinese knowledge and philosophy to Europe. Confucius‘s works were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China.

Jesuits in China.

“Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.

Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in 1687.[19] It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Christianity.[19][20]

Suppression and restoration

Suppression of the Jesuits

The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was troubling to the Society’s defender, Pope Clement XIII. A decree signed under secular pressure by Pope Clement XIV in July 1773 suppressed the Order. The suppression was carried out in all countries except Prussia and Russia, where Catherine the Great had forbidden the papal decree to be executed. Because millions of Catholics (including many Jesuits) lived in the Polish western provinces of the Russian Empire, the Society was able to maintain its existence and carry on its work all through the period of suppression. Subsequently, Pope Pius VI would grant formal permission for the continuation of the Society in Russia and Poland. Based on that permission, Stanislaus Czerniewicz was elected superior of the Society in 1782. Pope Pius VII during his captivity in France, had resolved to restore the Jesuits universally; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay: on 7 August 1814, by the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, he reversed the suppression of the Order and therewith, the then Superior in Russia, Thaddeus Brzozowski, who had been elected in 1805, acquired universal jurisdiction.

Boston College is the home to one of the world’s largest Jesuit communities

The period following the Restoration of the Jesuits in 1814 was marked by tremendous growth, as evidenced by the large number of Jesuit colleges and universities established in the 19th century. In the United States, 22 of the Society’s 28 universities were founded or taken over by the Jesuits during this time. Some claim that the experience of suppression served to heighten orthodoxy among the Jesuits upon restoration. While this claim is debatable, Jesuits were generally supportive of Papal authority within the Church, and some members were associated with the Ultramontanist movement and the declaration of Papal Infallibility in 1870.

In Switzerland, following the defeat of the Sonderbund of some Catholic cantons by the other cantons, the constitution was modified and Jesuits were banished in 1848. The ban was lifted on 20 May 1973, when 54.9% of voters accepted areferendum modifying the Constitution.[21]

The 20th century witnessed both aspects of growth and decline. Following a trend within the Catholic priesthood at large, Jesuit numbers peaked in the 1950s and have declined steadily since. Meanwhile the number of Jesuit institutions has grown considerably, due in large part to a late 20th century focus on the establishment of Jesuit secondary schools in inner-city areas and an increase in lay association with the order. Among the notable Jesuits of the 20th century, John Courtney Murray, was called one of the “architects of the Second Vatican Council” and drafted what eventually became the council’s endorsement of religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae Personae.

In the Constitution of Norway form 1814, a relic from the earlier anti-catholic laws of Denmark-Norway, Paragraph 2 originally read, “The Evangelical-Lutheran religion remains the public religion of the State. Those inhabitants, who confess thereto, are bound to raise their children to the same. Jesuits and monastic orders are not permitted. Jews are still prohibited from entry to the Realm.” Jews were first allowed in to the Realm in 1851 after the famous norwegian poet Henrik Wergeland had campaigned for it. Monastic orders were permitted 1897, but the ban on Jesuits was only lifted 1956.[citation needed]

In the recent years

See also: Jesuit Cardinal and Sexual abuse scandal in the Society of Jesus

In Latin America, Liberal Jesuits have had significant influence in the development of liberation theology, a movement which has been highly controversial in the Catholic theological community and condemned by Pope John Paul II on several fundamental aspects.

Under Superior General Pedro Arrupe, social justice and the preferential option for the poor emerged as dominant themes of the work of the Jesuits. On November 16, 1989, six Jesuit priests (Ignacio Ellacuria, Segundo Montes, Ignacio Martin-Baro, Joaquin López y López, Juan Ramon Moreno, and Amado López); their housekeeper, Elba Ramos; and her daughter, Celia Marisela Ramos, were murdered by the Salvadoran military on the campus of the University of Central America in San Salvador, El Salvador, because they had been labeled as subversives by the government.[22] The assassinations galvanized the Society’s peace and justice movements, including annual protests at the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation at Fort Benning, Georgia, United States, where the assassins were trained under US government sponsorship.[23]

On February 21, 2001, Father Avery Dulles, SJ, an internationally known author, lecturer and theologian, was created a Cardinal of the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II. The son of former Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Cardinal Dulles was long known for his carefully reasoned argumentation and fidelity to the teaching office of the Church. An author of 22 books and over 700 theological articles, Cardinal Dulles died on December 12, 2008 at Fordham University, where he taught for twenty years as the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society. He was, at his passing, one of ten Jesuit cardinals in the Catholic Church.

In 2002, Boston College president Father William P. Leahy, SJ, initiated the Church in the 21st Century program as a means of moving the Church “from crisis to renewal.” The initiative has provided the Society with a platform for examining issues brought about by the worldwide Catholic sex abuse cases, including the priesthood, celibacy, sexuality, women’s roles, and the role of the laity.

On January 6, 2005, Fr. Peter Hans Kolvenbach, on the occasion of the Jubilee Year, wrote that the Jesuits “should truly profit from the jubilee year to examine our way of life and taking the means to live more profoundly the charisms received from our Founders.”[24]

In April 2005, Thomas J. Reese, SJ, editor of the American Jesuit weekly magazine America, resigned at the request of the Society. The move was widely published in the media as the result of pressure from the Vatican, following years of criticism by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on articles touching subjects such as HIV/AIDS, religious pluralism, homosexuality and the right of life for the unborn. Following his resignation, Reese spent a year-long sabbatical at Santa Clara University before being named a fellow at the Woodstock Theological Center in Washington, D.C..

Visit of Benedict XVI to the Pontifical Gregorian University, “one of the greatest services the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church.”

On February 2, 2006, Fr. Peter Hans Kolvenbach informed members of the Society of Jesus, that, with the consent of Pope Benedict XVI, he intended to step down as Superior General in 2008, the year he would turn 80.

On April 22, 2006, Feast of Our Lady, Mother of the Society of Jesus, Pope Benedict XVI greeted thousands of Jesuits on pilgrimage to Rome, and took the opportunity to thank God “for having granted to your Company the gift of men of extraordinary sanctity and of exceptional apostolic zeal such as St Ignatius of Loyola, St Francis Xavier and Bl Peter Faber.” He said “St Ignatius of Loyola was above all a man of God, who gave the first place of his life to God, to his greater glory and his greater service. He was a man of profound prayer, which found its center and its culmination in the daily Eucharistic Celebration.”[25]

In May 2006, Benedict XVI also wrote a letter to Superior General Peter Hans Kolvenbach on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Pope Pius XII’s encyclical Haurietis aquas, on devotion to the Sacred Heart, because the Jesuits have always been “extremely active in the promotion of this essential devotion”.[26] In his November 3, 2006 visit to the Pontifical Gregorian University, Benedict XVI cited the university as “one of the greatest services that the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church”.[27] The 35th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus convened on 5 January 2008 and elected Fr. Adolfo Nicolás as the new Superior General on 19 January 2008. A month after, the Pope received members of the General Congregation and urged them to “to continue on the path of this mission in full fidelity to your original charism” and asked them to reflect so as “to rediscover the fullest meaning of your characteristic ‘fourth vow’ of obedience to the Successor of Peter.” For this, he told them to “adhere totally to the Word of God and to the Magisterium’s task of preserving the integral truth and unity of Catholic doctrine.” This clear identity, according to the Pope, is important so that “many others may share in your ideals and join you effectively and enthusiastically.”[28] The Congregation responded with a formal declaration titled “With New Fervor and Dynamism, the Society of Jesus Responds to the Call of Benedict XVI”, whereby they confirmed the Society’s fidelity to the Pope.[29]

Ignatian spirituality

 Jesuit spirituality

The spirituality practiced by the Jesuits, called Ignatian spirituality, ultimately based on the Catholic faith and the gospels, is drawn from from the “Constitutions”, “The Letters”, and “Autobiography”, and most specially from St. Ignatius’ “Spiritual Exercises“, whose purpose is “to conquer oneself and to regulate one’s life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment.”

Jesuit formation (training)

Jesuit formation

The formation (training) of Jesuits seeks to prepare men spiritually, academically and practically for the ministries they will be called to offer the Church and world. St. Ignatius was strongly influenced by the Renaissance and wanted Jesuits to be able to offer whatever ministries were most needed at any given moment, and especially, to be ready to respond to missions (assignments) from the Pope. Formation for Priesthood normally takes between 8 and 14 years, depending on the man’s background and previous education, and final vows are taken several years after that, making Jesuit formation among the longest of any of the religious orders.

Government of the Society

The Society is headed by a Superior General. In the Jesuit Order, the formal title of the Superior General is “Praepositus Generalis”, Latin for Provost-General, more commonly called Father General or General, who is elected by the General Congregation for life or until he resigns, is confirmed by the Pope, and has absolute authority in running the Society. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is the Spanish Jesuit, Fr. Adolfo Nicolás Pachón who was elected on January 19, 2008.

He is assisted by “assistants”, four of whom are “assistants for provident care” and serve as general advisors and a sort of inner council to the superior general, and several other regional assistants each of whom heads an “assistancy”, which is either a geographic area (for instance, the North American Assistancy) or an area of ministry (for instance, higher education). The assistants normally reside with the General Superior in Rome. The assistants, together with a number of other advisors, form an advisory council to the General. A vicar general and secretary of the Society run day-to-day administration. The General is also required to have an “admonitor“, a confidential advisor whose specific job is to warn the General honestly and confidentially when he is acting imprudently or is straying toward disobedience to the Pope or heresy. The central staff of the General is known as the Curia.

The order is divided into geographic provinces, each of which is headed by a Provincial Superior, generally called Father Provincial, chosen by the General. He has authority over all Jesuits and ministries in his area, and is assisted by a socius, who acts as a sort of secretary and chief of staff. With the approval of the General, the father provincial appoints a novice master and a master of tertians to oversee formation, and rectors of local houses of Jesuits.

Each individual Jesuit community within a province is normally headed by a rector who is assisted by a “minister”, from the Latin for “servant”, a priest who helps oversee the community’s day-to-day needs.

The General Congregation is a meeting of all of the assistants, provincials and additional representatives who are elected by the professed Jesuits of each province. It meets irregularly and rarely, normally to elect a new superior general and/or to take up some major policy issues for the order. The General meets more regularly with smaller councils composed of just the provincials.

Habit and dress

Jesuits do not have an official habit. In the Constitutions of the Society, it gives these instructions concerning clothing; “The clothing too should have three characteristics: first, it should be proper; second, conformed to the usage of the country of residence; and third, not contradictory to the poverty we profess…” (Const. 577)

Historically, a “Jesuit-style cassock” became standard issue: it wrapped around the body and was tied with a cincture, rather than the customary buttoned front, a tuftless biretta (only diocesan clergy wore tufts), and a simple cape. As such, though Jesuit garb appeared distinctive, and became identifiable over time, it was the common priestly dress of Ignatius’ day. During the missionary periods of North America, the various native peoples referred to Jesuits as “Blackrobes” because of their black cassocks.

Today, most Jesuits in the USA wear the Roman collar and black clothing of ordinary priests, although some still wear the black cassock.[30]


The Monita Secreta, also known as the “Secret Instructions of the Jesuits” was published (1612 and 1614) in Kraków, and is alternately alleged to have been written by either Claudio Acquaviva, the fifth general of the society, or by Jerome Zahorowski. The document appears to lay down the methods to be adopted for the acquisition of greater power and influence for the order and for the Roman Catholic Church. Scholars generally agree that the Secreta were merely fabricated to give the Jesuits a sinister reputation and it has become widely considered a forgery.[31]

Henry Garnet, one of the leading English Jesuits, was hanged for misprision of treason because of his involvement in the Gunpowder Plot. The plan had been an attempt to kill King James I of England and VI of Scotland, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament in 1605; another Jesuit, Oswald Tesimond, managed to escape arrest for involvement in the same plot.[32]

Jesuits have also been accused of using casuistry to obtain justifications for the unjustifiable (See: formulary controversy; Blaise Pascals’ Lettres Provinciales).[33] In English, according to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, “Jesuitical” has acquired a secondary meaning of “equivocating”. Modern Jesuits have also been criticized by many including Jack Chick, Avro Manhattan, Alberto Rivera, and the late former Jesuit priest, Malachi Martin.[34]

Although in the first 30 years of the existence of the Society there were a large number of Jewish conversos in the order, a campaign by anti-conversos led to the Decree de genere in 1593 which proclaimed Jewish (and Muslim) ancestry, no matter how distant, an insurmountable impediment for admission to the Society. This stayed in force until 1946.[35]

Within the Catholic Church, there has existed a sometimes tense relationship between Jesuits and the Vatican due to questioning of official Church teaching and papal directives, such as those on abortion,[36][37] birth control,[38][39][40][41] women deacons,[42] homosexuality, and liberation theology.[43][44]

However, the last two Popes have appointed Jesuits to notable positions within the Church. For instance, John Paul II appointed Roberto Tucci, S.J., to the College of Cardinals, after serving for many years as the chief organizer of papal trips and public events. In all, John Paul II and Benedict XVI have appointed 10 Jesuit Cardinals. Benedict XVI has appointed several Jesuits to positions of prominence in his curia, such as Archbishop Luis Ladaria Ferrer, S.J. as Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and Rev. Federico Lombardi, S.J., Vatican Press Secretary.[45]

Jesuits rescue efforts during the Holocaust

Twelve Jesuit priests have been formally recognized by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust of World War II. Roger Braun (1910–1981) – France, Pierre Chaillet (1900–1972) – France, Jean-Baptist De Coster (1896–1968) – Belgium, Jean Fleury (1905–1982) – France, Emile Gessler (1891–1958) – Belgium, Jean-Baptiste Janssens (1889–1964) – Belgium, Alphonse Lambrette (1884–1970) – Belgium, Emile Planckaert (b. 1906) – France, Jacob Raile (1894–1949) – Hungary, Henri Revol (1904–1992) – France,Adam Sztark (1907–1942) – Poland, Henri Van Oostayen (1906–1945) – Belgium.

Several other Jesuits are known to have rescued or given refuge to Jews during that period.[46] A plaque commemorating the 152 Jesuit priests who gave of their lives during the Holocaust was installed at Rockhurst University, a Jesuit university, in Kansas City, Missouri, United States, in April 2007, the first such plaque in the world.

Famous Jesuits

 List of Famous Jesuits

North American Martyrs

Notable Jesuits include missionaries, educators, scientists, artists and philosophers. Among many distinguished early Jesuits was St. Francis Xavier, a missionary to Asia who converted more people to Catholicism than anyone before. José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega, founders of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were also Jesuit priests. Another famous Jesuit was St. Jean de Brebeuf, a French missionary who was martyred in North America during the 17th century.

Jesuit Educational institutions

 List of Jesuit institutions

Though there is almost no occupation in civil life, and no ministry within the Church, which a Jesuit has not held at one time or another, and though the work of the Jesuits today embraces a wide variety of apostolates and ministries, they are probably most well known for their educational work. Since the inception of the order, Jesuits have been teachers. Today, there are Jesuit-run universities, colleges, high schools and middle or elementary schools in dozens of countries. Jesuits also serve on the faculties of both Catholic and secular schools as well.


Jesuits are also known for their involvement in publications. La Civiltà Cattolica, a periodical produced in Rome by the Jesuits, has often been used as a semi-official platform for popes and Vatican officials to float ideas for discussion or hint at future statements or positions. In the United States, America magazine has long had a prominent place in intellectual Catholic circles, and the Jesuits produce Company, a periodical specifically about Jesuit activities. Most Jesuit colleges and universities have their own presses which produce a variety of books, book series, textbooks and academic publications as well. Ignatius Press, staffed by Jesuits, is an independent publisher of Catholic books, most of which are of the popular academic or lay-intellectual variety.

In Australia, the Jesuits run a winery at Sevenhill, the Jesuit Mission Australia, and they produce a number of magazines, including Eureka Street, Madonna, Australian Catholics, and Province Express.

Jesuit buildings

Birth place and sanctuary of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, in Azpeitia, Basque Country.

List of Jesuit buildings

See also: Jesuit Church

Pictured here is the Sanctuary of Loyola in Azpeitia, Spain, the main Jesuit shrine in the birth place of Saint Ignatius of Loyola.

Popular culture

The Society of Jesus


See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS, JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT GENERALS, and four articles on the history of the Society: PRE-1750, 1750-1773, 1773-1814, and1814-1912.

The Society of Jesus is a religious order founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola. Designated by him “The Company of Jesus” to indicate its true leader and its soldier spirit, the title was Latinized into “Societas Jesu” in the Bull of Paul III approving its formation and the first formula of its Institute (“Regimini militantis ecclesia”, 27 Sept., 1540). The term “Jesuit” (of fifteenth-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the society in reproach (1544-52), and was never employed by its founder, though members and friends of the society in time accepted the name in its good sense. The Society ranks among religiousinstitutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms for their support [Bullsof Pius V, “Dum indefessae”, 7 July, 1571; Gregory XIII, “Ascendente Domino”, 25 May, 1585].

As has been explained under the title “Ignatius Loyola”, the founder began his self-reform, and the enlistment of followers, entirely prepossessed with the idea of the imitation of Christ, and without any plan for a religious order or purpose of attending to the needs of the days. Unexpectedly prevented from carrying out this idea, he offered his services and those of this followers to the pope, “Christ upon Earth”, who at once employed him in such works as were most pressing at the moment. It was only after this and just before the first companions broke to go at the pope’s command to various countries, that the resolution to found an order was taken, and thatIgnatius was commissioned to draw up Constitutions. This he did slowly and methodically; first introducing rules and customs and seeing how they worked. He did not codify them for the first six years. Then three years were given to formulating laws the wisdom of which had been proven by experiment. In the last six years of the Saint’s life the Constitutions so composed were finally revised and put into practice everywhere. This sequence of events explains at once how the society, though devoted to the following of Christ, as though there were nothing else in the world to care for, is also excellently adapted to the needs of the day. It began to attend to them before it began to legislate; and its legislation was the codification of those measures which had been proved by experience to be apt to preserve its preliminary religious principle among men actually devoted to the requirements of the Church in days not unlike our own.

The Society was not founded with the avowed intention of opposing Protestantism. Neither the papal letters of approbation nor the Constitutions of the order mention this as the object of the new foundation. When Ignatius began to devote himself to the service of the Church, he had probably not even heard of the names of the Protestant Reformers. His early plan was rather the conversion of Mohammedans, an idea which, a few decades after the final triumph of the Christians over the Moors in Spain, must have strongly appealed to the chivalrous Spaniards.

The name “Societas Jesu” had been born by a military order approved and recommended by Pius II in 1450, the purpose of which was to fight against the Turks and aid in spreading the Christian faith. The early Jesuits were sent by Ignatius first to pagan lands or to Catholic countries; to Protestant countries only at the special request of the pope and to Germany, the cradle-land of the Reformation, at the urgent solicitation of the imperial ambassador.

From the very beginning the missionary labours of the Jesuits among the pagans of India, Japan, China, Canada, Central and South America were as important as their activity in Christian countries. As the object of the society was the propagation and strengthening of the Catholic faith everywhere, the Jesuits naturally endeavored to counteract the spread of Protestantism. They became the main instruments of the Counter-Reformation; the re-conquest of southern and western Germany and Austria for the Church, and the preservation of the Catholic faith in France and other countries were due chiefly to their exertions.

Institutes, constitutions, legislation

The official publication which constitutes all the regulations of the Society, its codex legum, is entitled “Institutum Societas Jesu” of which the latest edition was issued atRome and Florence 1869-91 (for full biography see Sommervogel, V, 75-115; IX, 609-611; for commentators see X, 705-710). The Institute contains:

(1) The special Bulls and other pontifical documents approving the Society and canonically determining or regulating its various works, and its ecclesiastical standing and relations.

Besides those already mentioned, other important Bulls are those of: Paul III, “Injunctum nobis”, 14 March, 1543; Julius III, “Exposcit debitum”, 21 July, 1550; Pius V, “Æquum reputamus”, 17 January, 1565; Pius VII, “Solicitudo omnium ecclesiarum”, 7 August, 1814, Leo XIII, “Dolemus inter alia”, 13 July, 1880.

(2) The Examen Generale and Constitutions. The Examen contains subjects to be explained to postulants and points on which they are to be examined. The Constitutions are divided into ten parts:

  1. admission;
  2. dismissal;
  3. novitiate;
  4. scholastic training;
  5. profession and other grades of membership;
  6. religious vows and other obligations as observed by the Society;
  7. missions and other ministries;
  8. congregations, local and general assemblies as a means of union and uniformity;
  9. the general and chief superiors;
  10. the preservation of the spirit of the Society.

Thus far in the Institute all is by Saint Ignatius, who has also added “Declarations” of various obscure parts. Then come:

  • Decrees of General Congregations, which have equal authority with the Constitutions;
  • Rules, general and particular, etc.;
  • Formulae or order of business for the congregations;
  • Ordinations of generals, which have the same authority as rules;
  • Instructions, some for superiors, others for those engaged in the missions or other works of the Society;
  • Industriae, or special counsels for superiors;
  • The Book of the Spiritual; and
  • the Ratio Studiorum, which have directive force only.

The Constitutions as drafted by Ignatius and adopted finally by the first congregation of the Society, 1558, have never been altered. Ill-informed writers have stated thatLainez, the second general, made considerable changes in the saint’s conception of the order; but Ignatius’ own later recension of the Constitutions, lately reproduced in facsimile (Rome, 1908), exactly agree with the text of the Constitutions now in force, and contains no word by Lainez, not even in the declarations, or glosses added to the text, which are all the work of Ignatius. The text in use in the Society is a Latin version prepared under the direction of the third congregation, and subjected to a minute comparison with the Spanish original preserved in the Society’s archives, during the fourth congregation (1581).

These Constitutions were written after long deliberation between Ignatius and his companions in the founding of the Society, as at first it seemed to them that they might continue their work without the aid of a special Rule. They were the fruit of long experience and of serious meditation and prayer. Throughout they are inspired by an exalted spirit of charity and zeal for souls.

They contain nothing unreasonable. To appreciate them, however, requires a knowledge of canon law applied to monastic life and also of their history in the light of the times for which they were framed. Usually those who find fault with them either have never read them or else have misinterpreted them. Monod, for instance, in his introduction to Böhmer’s essay on the Jesuits (“Les jesuites”, Paris, 1910, p. 13, 14) recalls how Michelet mistranslated the words of the Constitutions, p. VI, c. 5,obligationem ad peccatum, and made it appear that they require obedience even to the commission of sin, as if the text were obligatio ad peccandum, where the obvious meaning and purpose of the text is precisely to show that the transgression of the rules is not in itself sinful. Monod enumerates such men as Arnauld, Wolf, Lange, Ranke in the first edition of his “History”, Hausser and Droysen, Philippson and Charbonnel, as having repeated the same error, although it has been refuted frequently since 1824, particularly by Gieseler, and corrected by Ranke in his second edition.

Whenever the Constitutions enjoin what is already a serious moral obligation, or superiors, by virtue of their authority, impose a grave obligation, transgression is sinful; but this is true of such transgressions not only in the society but out of it. Moreover such commands are rarely given by the superiors and only when the good of the individualmember or the common good imperatively demands it. The rule throughout is one of love inspired by wisdom, and must be interpreted in the spirit of charity which animates it. This is especially true of its provisions for the affectionate relations of members with superiors and with one another, by the manifestation of conscience, more or less practiced in every religious order, and by mutual correction when this may be necessary. It also applies to the methods employed to ascertain the qualification of members for various offices or ministries.

The chief authority is vested in the general congregation, which elects the general, and could, for certain grave causes, depose him. This body could also (although there has never yet been an occasion for so doing) add new Constitutions and abrogate old ones. Usually this congregation is convened on the occasion of the death of a general, in order to elect a successor, and to make provisions for the government and welfare of the Society. It may also be called at other times for grave reasons. It consists of the general, when alive, and his assistants, the provincials, and two deputies from each province or territorial division of the society elected by the superiors and older professed members.

Thus authority in the Society eventually rests on a democratic basis. But as there is no definite time for calling the general congregation — which in fact rarely occurs except to elect a new general — the exercise of authority is usually in the hands of the general, in whom is vested the fullness of administrative power, and of spiritual authority. He can do anything within the scope of the Constitutions, and can even dispense with them for good causes, though he cannot change them. He resides atRome, and has a council of assistants, five in number at present, one each for Italy, France, Spain, and the countries of Spanish origin, one for Germany, Austria, Poland,Belgium, Hungary, Holland, and one for English-speaking countries — England, Ireland, United States, Canada, and British colonies (except India). These usually hold office until the death of the general. Should the general through age or infirmity become incapacitated for governing the Society, a vicar is chosen by a general congregation to act for him. At his death he names one so to act until the congregation can meet and elect his successor.

Next to him in order of authority comes the provincials, the heads of the Society, whether for an entire country, as England, Ireland, Canada, Belgium, Mexico, or, where these units are too large or too small to make convenient provinces they may be subdivided or joined together. Thus there are now four provinces in the United States:California, Maryland-New York, Missouri, New Orleans. In all there are now twenty-seven provinces. The provincial is appointed by the general, with ample administrativefaculties. He too has a council of “counselors” and an “admonitor” appointed by the general. Under the provincial come the local superiors. Of these, rectors of colleges,provosts of professed houses, and masters of novices are appointed by the general; the rest by the provincial. To enable the general to make and control so many appointments, a free and ample correspondence is kept up, and everyone has the right of private communication with him. No superior, except the general, is named for life. Usually provincials and rectors of colleges hold office for three years.

Members of the society fall into four classes:

  • Novices (whether received as lay brothers for the domestic and temporal services of the order, or as aspirants to the priesthood), who are trained in the spirit and discipline of the order, prior to making the religious vows.
  • At the end of two years the novices make simple vows, and, if aspirants to the priesthood, become formed scholastics; they remain in this grade as a rule from two to fifteen years, in which time they will have completed all their studies, pass (generally) a certain period in teaching, receive the priesthood, and go through a third year of novitiate or probation (the tertianship). According to the degree of discipline and virtue, and to the talents they display (the latter are normally tested by theexamination for the Degree of Doctor of Theology) they may now become formed coadjutors or professed members of the order.
  • Formed coadjutors, whether formed lay brothers or priests, make vows which, though not solemn, are perpetual on their part; while the Society, on its side binds itself to them, unless they should commit some grave offense.
  • The professed are all priests, who make, besides the three usual solemn vows of religion, a fourth, of special obedience to the pope in the matter of missions, undertaking to go wherever they are sent, without even requiring money for the journey. They also make certain additional, but non-essential, simple vows, in the matter of poverty, and the refusal of external honours. The professed of the four vows constitute the kernel of the Society; the other grades are regarded as preparatory, or as subsidiary to this. The chief offices can be held by the professed alone; and though they may be dismissed, they must be received back, if willing to comply with the conditions that may be prescribed. Otherwise they enjoy no privileges, and many posts of importance, such as the government of colleges, may be held by members of other grades. For special reasons some are occasionally professed of three vows and they have certain but not all the privileges of the other professed.

All live in community alike, as regards food, apparel, lodging, recreation, and all are alike bound by the rules of the Society.

There are no secret Jesuits. Like other orders, the Society can, if it will, make its friends participators in its prayers, and in the merits of its good works; but it cannot make them members of the order, unless they live the life of the order. There is indeed the case of St. Francis Borgia, who made some of the probations in an unusual way, outside the houses of the order. But this was in order that he might be able to conclude certain business matters and other affairs of state, and thus appear the sooner in public as a Jesuit, not that he might remain permanently outside the common life.

Novitiate and training

Candidates for admission come not only from the colleges conducted by the Society, but from other schools. Frequently post-graduate or professional students, and those who have already begun their career in business or professional life, or even in the priesthood, apply for admission. Usually the candidate applies in person to the provincial, and if he considers him a likely subject he refers him for examination to four of the more experienced fathers. They question him about the age, health, position, occupation of his parents, their religion and good character, their dependence on his services; about his own health, obligations such as debts, or other contractualrelations; his studies, qualifications, moral character, personal motives as well as the external influences that may have lead him to seek admission. The results of their questioning and of their own observation they report severally to the provincial, who weighs their opinions carefully before deciding for or against the applicant. Any notable bodily or mental defect in the candidate, serious indebtedness or other obligation, previous membership in another religious order even for a day, indicating instability of vocation, unqualifies for admission. Undue influence, particularly if exercised by members of the order, would occasion stricter scrutiny than usual into the personal motives of the applicant.

Candidates may enter at any time, but usually there is a fixed day each years for their admission, toward the close of the summer holidays, in order that all may begin their training, or probation, together. They spend the first ten days considering the manner of life they are to adopt, and its difficulties, the rules of the order, the obediencerequired of its members. They then make a brief retreat, meditating on what they have learned about the Society and examining their own motives and hopes for perserverance in the new mode of life. If all be satisfactory to them and to the superior or director who has charge of them, they are admitted as novices, wear theclerical costume (as there is no special Jesuit habit) and begin in earnest the life of members in the Society. They rise early, make a brief visit to the chapel, a meditation on some subject selected the night before, assist at Mass, review their meditation, breakfast, and then prepare for the day’s routine. This consists of manual labor in or out of doors, reading books on spiritual topics, ecclesiastical history, biography, particularly of men or women distinguished for zeal and enterprise in missionary oreducational fields. There is a daily conference by the master of the novices on some detail of the Institute, notes of which all are required to make, so as to be ready, when asked, to repeat the salient points.

Wherever it is possible some are submitted to certain tests of their vocation or usefulness; to teaching catechism in the village churches; to attendance on the sick inhospitals; to going about on a pilgrimage or missionary journey without money or other provision. As soon as possible, all make the spiritual exercises for 30 days. This is really the chief test of a vocation, as it is also in epitome the main work of the two years of the novitiate, and for that matter of the entire life of a Jesuit. On these exercises the Constitutions, the life, and activity of the Society are based, so they are really the chief factor in forming the character of a Jesuit.

In accordance with the ideals set forth in these exercises, of disinterested conformity with God’s will, and of personal love of Jesus Christ, the novice is trained diligently in the meditative study of the truths of religion, in the habit of self-knowledge, in the constant scrutiny of his motives and of the actions inspired by them, in the correction of every form of self-deceit, illusion, plausible pretext, and in the education of his will, particularly in making choice of what seems best after careful deliberation and without self-seeking. Deeds, not words, are insisted upon as proof of genuine service, and a mechanical, emotional, or fanciful piety is not tolerated. As the novicegradually thus becomes master of his will, he grows more and more capable of offering to God the reasonable service enjoined by St. Paul, and seeks to follow the divinewill, as manifested in Jesus Christ, by His vicar on earth, by the bishops appointed to rule His Church, by his more immediate or religious superiors, and by the civil powersrightfully exercising authority. This is what is meant by Jesuit obedience, the characteristic virtue of the order, such a sincere respect for authority as to accept its decisions and comply with them, not merely by outward performance but in all sincerity with the conviction that compliance is best, and that the command expresses for the time the will of God, as nearly as it can be ascertained.

The noviceship lasts two years. On its completion the novice makes the usual vows of religion, the simple vow of chastity in the Society having the force of a dirimentimpediment to matrimony. During the noviceship but a brief time daily is devoted to reviewing previous studies. The noviceship over, the scholastic members, i.e., those who are to become priests in the Society, follow a special course in classics and mathematics lasting two years, usually in the same house with the novices. Then, in another house and neighbourhood, three years are given to the study of philosophy, about five years to teaching in one or other of the public colleges of the Society, four years to the study of theology, priestly orders being conferred after the third, and finally, one year more to another probation or noviceship, intended to help the youngpriest renew his spirit of piety and to learn how to utilize to the best of his ability all the learning and experience he has required. In exceptional cases, as in that of apriest who has finished his studies before entering the order, allowance is made and the training periods need not last over ten years, a good part of which is spent in active ministry.

The object of the order is not limited to practicing any one class of good works, however laudable (as preaching, chanting office, doing penance, etc.), but to study, in the manner of the Spiritual, what Christ would have done, if He were living in our circumstances, and to carry out that ideal. Hence elevation and largeness of aim. Hence the motto of the Society, “Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam”. Hence the selection of the virtue of obedience as the characteristic of the order, to be ready for any call, and to keep unity in every variety of work. Hence, by easy sequence, the omission of office in choir, of a special distinctive habit, of unusual penances. Where the Protestantreformers aimed at reorganizing the church at large according to their particular conceptions, Ignatius began with interior self-reform; and after that had been thoroughly established, then the earnest preaching of self-reform to others. That done, the church would not, and did not, fail to reform herself. Many religious distinguished themselves as educators before the Jesuits; but the Society was the first order which enjoined by its very Constitutions devotion to the cause of education. It was, in this sense, the first “teaching order”.

The ministry of the Society consists chiefly in preaching; teaching catechism, especially to children; administering the sacraments especially penance and the Eucharist; conducting missions in the parishes on the lines of the Spiritual; directing those who wish to follow those exercises in houses of retreat, seminaries or convents; taking care of parishes or collegiate churches; organizing pious confraternities, sodalities, unions of prayer, Bona Mors associations in their own and other parishes; teaching inschools of every grade — academic; seminary, university; writing books, pamphlets, periodical articles; going on foreign missions among uncivilized peoples.

In liturgical functions the Roman Rite is followed. The proper exercise of all these functions is provided for by rules carefully framed by the general congregations or by the generals. All these regulations command the greatest respect on the part of every member. In practice the superior for the time being is the living rule — not that he can alter or abrogate any rule, but because he must interpret and determine its application. In this fact and in its consequences, the Society differs from every religious order antecedent to its foundation; to this principally, it owes its life, activity, and power to adapt its Institutes to modern conditions without need of change in that instrument or of reform in the body itself.

The story of the foundation of the Society is told in the article Ignatius Loyola. Briefly, after having inspired his companions Peter Faber, Francis Xavier, James Lainez,Alonso Salmerón, Nicolas Bobadilla, Simon Rodriquez, Claude Le Jay, Jean Codure, and Paschase Brouet with a desire to dwell in the Holy Land imitating the life of Christ, they first made vows of poverty and chastity at Montmartre, Paris, on 15 August, 1534, adding a vow to go to the Holy Land after two years. When this was found to be inpracticable, after waiting another year, they offered their services to the pope, Paul III. Fully another year was passed by some in university towns in Italy, by others atRome, where, after encountering much opposition and slander, all met together to agree on a mode of life by which they might advance in evangelical perfection and help others in the same task. The first formula of the Institute was submitted to the pope and approved of viva voce, 3 September 1539, and formally, 27 September, 1540.

Solar System

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the Sun and its planetary system. For other systems, see planetary system and star system. For a list of physical and orbital statistics for the Solar System’s largest bodies, see List of Solar System objects in hydrostatic equilibrium

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Planets and dwarf planets of the Solar System. Sizes are to scale, but relative distances from the Sun are not.

The Solar System[a] consists of the Sun and the astronomical objects bound to it by gravity, all of which formed from the collapse of a giant molecular cloud approximately 4.6 billion years ago. Of the many objects that orbit the Sun, most of the mass is contained within eight relatively solitary planets[e] whose orbits are almost circular and lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic plane. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as “ice giants”.

The Solar System is also home to two regions populated by smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, is similar to the terrestrial planets as it is composed mainly of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune’s orbit lie trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices such as water, ammonia and methane. Within these two regions, five individual objects, Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris, are recognized to be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity, and are thus termed dwarf planets.[e]In addition to thousands of small bodies[e] in those two regions, various other small body populations, such as comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust, freely travel between regions.

The solar wind, a flow of plasma from the Sun, creates a bubble in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere, which extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The hypothetical Oort cloud, which acts as the source for long-period comets, may also exist at a distance roughly a thousand times further than the heliosphere.

Six of the planets and three of the dwarf planets are orbited by natural satellites,[b] usually termed “moons” after Earth’s Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary ringsof dust and other particles.

Discovery and exploration

 Discovery and exploration of the Solar System

For many thousands of years, humanity, with a few notable exceptions, did not recognize the existence of the Solar System. People believed the Earth to be stationary at the center of the universe and categorically different from the divine or ethereal objects that moved through the sky. Although the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos had speculated on a heliocentric reordering of the cosmos,[1] Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to develop a mathematically predictive heliocentric system. His 17th-century successors, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, developed an understanding of physics which led to the gradual acceptance of the idea that the Earth moves around the Sun and that the planets are governed by the same physical laws that governed the Earth. In more recent times, improvements in the telescope and the use of unmanned spacecraft have enabled the investigation of geological phenomena such as mountains and craters, and seasonal meteorological phenomena such as clouds, dust storms and ice caps on the other planets.



The orbits of the bodies in the Solar System to scale (clockwise from top left)

The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a main sequence G2 star that contains 99.86 percent of the system’s known mass and dominates it gravitationally.[2] The Sun’s four largest orbiting bodies, the gas giants, account for 99 percent of the remaining mass, with Jupiter and Saturn together comprising more than 90 percent.[c]

Most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earth’s orbit, known as the ecliptic. The planets are very close to the ecliptic while comets and Kuiper belt objects are frequently at significantly greater angles to it.[3][4] All the planets and most other objects also orbit with the Sun’s rotation (counter-clockwise, as viewed from above the Sun’s north pole). There are exceptions, such as Halley’s Comet.

The overall structure of the charted regions of the Solar System consists of the Sun, four relatively small inner planets surrounded by a belt of rocky asteroids, and four gas giants surrounded by the outer Kuiper belt of icy objects. Astronomers sometimes informally divide this structure into separate regions. The inner Solar System includes the four terrestrial planets and the main asteroid belt. The outer Solar System is beyond the asteroids, including the four gas giant planets.[5] Since the discovery of the Kuiper belt, the outermost parts of the Solar System are considered a distinct region consisting of the objects beyond Neptune.[6]

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion describe the orbits of objects about the Sun. According to Kepler’s laws, each object travels along an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. Objects closer to the Sun (with smaller semi-major axes) travel more quickly, as they are more affected by the Sun’s gravity. On an elliptical orbit, a body’s distance from the Sun varies over the course of its year. A body’s closest approach to the Sun is called its perihelion, while its most distant point from the Sun is called its aphelion. The orbits of the planets are nearly circular, but many comets, asteroids and Kuiper belt objects follow highly elliptical orbits.

Due to the vast distances involved, many representations of the Solar System show orbits the same distance apart. In reality, with a few exceptions, the farther a planet or belt is from the Sun, the larger the distance between it and the previous orbit. For example, Venus is approximately 0.33 astronomical units (AU)[d] farther out from the Sun than Mercury, while Saturn is 4.3 AU out from Jupiter, and Neptune lies 10.5 AU out from Uranus. Attempts have been made to determine a correlation between these orbital distances (for example, the Titius–Bode law),[7] but no such theory has been accepted.

Most of the planets in the Solar System possess secondary systems of their own, being orbited by planetary objects called natural satellites, or moons (two of which are larger than the planet Mercury), or, in the case of the four gas giants, by planetary rings; thin bands of tiny particles that orbit them in unison. Most of the largest natural satellites are insynchronous rotation, with one face permanently turned toward their parent.

The objects of the inner Solar System are composed mostly of rock,[8] the collective name for compounds with high melting points, such as silicates, iron or nickel, that remained solid under almost all conditions in the protoplanetary nebula.[9][9] Jupiter and Saturn are composed mainly of gases, the astronomical term for materials with extremely low melting points and high vapor pressure such as molecular hydrogen, helium, and neon, which were always in the gaseous phase in the nebula.[9] Ices, like water, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide,[8] have melting points up to a few hundred kelvins, while their phase depends on the ambient pressure and temperature.[9] They can be found as ices, liquids, or gases in various places in the Solar System, while in the nebula they were either in the solid or gaseous phase.[9] Icy substances comprise the majority of the satellites of the giant planets, as well as most of Uranus and Neptune (the so-called “ice giants“) and the numerous small objects that lie beyond Neptune’s orbit.[8][10] Together, gases and ices are referred to as volatiles.[11]




A transit of Venus

The Sun is the Solar System’s star, and by far its chief component. Its large mass (332,900 Earth masses)[12] produces temperatures and densities in its core great enough to sustain nuclear fusion,[13] which releases enormous amounts of energy, mostly radiated into space as electromagnetic radiation, peaking in the 400–to–700 nm band we call visible light.[14]

The Sun is classified as a type G2 yellow dwarf, but this name is misleading as, compared to the majority of stars in our galaxy, the Sun is rather large and bright.[15] Stars are classified by the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, a graph which plots the brightness of stars with their surface temperatures. Generally, hotter stars are brighter. Stars following this pattern are said to be on the main sequence, and the Sun lies right in the middle of it. However, stars brighter and hotter than the Sun are rare, while substantially dimmer and cooler stars, known as red dwarfs, are common, making up 85 percent of the stars in the galaxy.[15][16]

It is believed that the Sun’s position on the main sequence puts it in the “prime of life” for a star, in that it has not yet exhausted its store of hydrogen for nuclear fusion. The Sun is growing brighter; early in its history it was 70 percent as bright as it is today.[17]

The Sun is a population I star; it was born in the later stages of the universe’s evolution, and thus contains more elements heavier than hydrogen and helium (“metals” in astronomical parlance) than older population II stars.[18] Elements heavier than hydrogen and helium were formed in the cores of ancient and exploding stars, so the first generation of stars had to die before the universe could be enriched with these atoms. The oldest stars contain few metals, while stars born later have more. This high metallicity is thought to have been crucial to the Sun’s developing a planetary system, because planets form from accretion of “metals”.[19]


The heliospheric current sheet

Interplanetary medium

Main article: Interplanetary medium

Along with light, the Sun radiates a continuous stream of charged particles (a plasma) known as the solar wind. This stream of particles spreads outwards at roughly 1.5 million kilometres per hour,[20] creating a tenuous atmosphere (the heliosphere) that permeates the Solar System out to at least 100 AU (see heliopause).[21] This is known as the interplanetary medium. Geomagnetic storms on the Sun’s surface, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, disturb the heliosphere, creating space weather.[22] The largest structure within the heliosphere is the heliospheric current sheet, a spiral form created by the actions of the Sun’s rotating magnetic field on the interplanetary medium.[23][24]

Earth’s magnetic field stops its atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. Venus and Mars do not have magnetic fields, and as a result, the solar wind causes their atmospheres to gradually bleed away into space.[25] Coronal mass ejections and similar events blow magnetic field and huge quantities of material from the surface of the Sun. The interaction of this magnetic field and material with Earth’s magnetic field funnels charged particles into the Earth’s upper atmosphere, where its interactions create aurorae seen near the magnetic poles.

Cosmic rays originate outside the Solar System. The heliosphere partially shields the Solar System, and planetary magnetic fields (for those planets that have them) also provide some protection. The density of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium and the strength of the Sun’s magnetic field change on very long timescales, so the level of cosmic radiation in the Solar System varies, though by how much is unknown.[26]

The interplanetary medium is home to at least two disc-like regions of cosmic dust. The first, the zodiacal dust cloud, lies in the inner Solar System and causes zodiacal light. It was likely formed by collisions within the asteroid belt brought on by interactions with the planets.[27] The second extends from about 10 AU to about 40 AU, and was probably created by similar collisions within the Kuiper belt.[28][29]

Inner Solar System

The inner Solar System is the traditional name for the region comprising the terrestrial planets and asteroids.[30] Composed mainly of silicates and metals, the objects of the inner Solar System are relatively close to the Sun; the radius of this entire region is shorter than the distance between Jupiter and Saturn.

Inner planets

 Terrestrial planet


The inner planets. From left to right:Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (sizes to scale, interplanetary distances not)

The four inner or terrestrial planets have dense, rocky compositions, few or no moons, and no ring systems. They are composed largely of refractory minerals, such as the silicates which form their crusts andmantles, and metals such as iron and nickel, which form their cores. Three of the four inner planets (Venus, Earth and Mars) have atmospheres substantial enough to generate weather; all have impact craters andtectonic surface features such as rift valleys and volcanoes. The term inner planet should not be confused with inferior planet, which designates those planets which are closer to the Sun than Earth is (i.e. Mercury and Venus).

Mercury (0.4 AU from the Sun) is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest planet in the Solar System (0.055 Earth masses). Mercury has no natural satellites, and its only known geological features besides impact craters are lobed ridges or rupes, probably produced by a period of contraction early in its history.[31] Mercury’s almost negligible atmosphere consists of atoms blasted off its surface by the solar wind.[32] Its relatively large iron core and thin mantle have not yet been adequately explained. Hypotheses include that its outer layers were stripped off by a giant impact, and that it was prevented from fully accreting by the young Sun’s energy.[33][34]
Venus (0.7 AU from the Sun) is close in size to Earth, (0.815 Earth masses) and like Earth, has a thick silicate mantle around an iron core, a substantial atmosphere and evidence of internal geological activity. However, it is much drier than Earth and its atmosphere is ninety times as dense. Venus has no natural satellites. It is the hottest planet, with surface temperatures over 400 °C, most likely due to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.[35] No definitive evidence of current geological activity has been detected on Venus, but it has no magnetic field that would prevent depletion of its substantial atmosphere, which suggests that its atmosphere is regularly replenished by volcanic eruptions.[36]
Earth (1 AU from the Sun) is the largest and densest of the inner planets, the only one known to have current geological activity, and is the only place in the universe where life is known to exist.[37] Its liquid hydrosphere is unique among the terrestrial planets, and it is also the only planet where plate tectonics has been observed. Earth’s atmosphere is radically different from those of the other planets, having been altered by the presence of life to contain 21% free oxygen.[38] It has one natural satellite, the Moon, the only large satellite of a terrestrial planet in the Solar System.
Mars (1.5 AU from the Sun) is smaller than Earth and Venus (0.107 Earth masses). It possesses an atmosphere of mostly carbon dioxide with a surface pressure of 6.1 millibars (roughly 0.6 percent that of the Earth’s).[39] Its surface, peppered with vast volcanoes such as Olympus Mons and rift valleys such as Valles Marineris, shows geological activity that may have persisted until as recently as 2 million years ago.[40] Its red colour comes from iron oxide (rust) in its soil.[41] Mars has two tiny natural satellites (Deimos and Phobos) thought to be captured asteroids.[42]
Asteroid belt

Asteroid belt



Image of the main asteroid belt and the Trojan asteroids

Asteroids are mostly small Solar System bodies[e] composed mainly of refractory rocky and metallic minerals.[43]

The main asteroid belt occupies the orbit between Mars and Jupiter, between 2.3 and 3.3 AU from the Sun. It is thought to be remnants from the Solar System’s formation that failed to coalesce because of the gravitational interference of Jupiter.[44]

Asteroids range in size from hundreds of kilometres across to microscopic. All asteroids save the largest, Ceres, are classified as small Solar System bodies, but some asteroids such as Vesta andHygieia may be reclassed as dwarf planets if they are shown to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium.[45]

The asteroid belt contains tens of thousands, possibly millions, of objects over one kilometre in diameter.[46] Despite this, the total mass of the main belt is unlikely to be more than a thousandth of that of the Earth.[47] The main belt is very sparsely populated; spacecraft routinely pass through without incident. Asteroids with diameters between 10 and 10−4 m are called meteoroids.[48]

Ceres (2.77 AU) is the largest body in the asteroid belt and is classified as a dwarf planet.[e] It has a diameter of slightly under 1000 km, and a mass large enough for its own gravity to pull it into a spherical shape. Ceres was considered a planet when it was discovered in the 19th century, but was reclassified as an asteroid in the 1850s as further observation revealed additional asteroids.[49] It was again reclassified in 2006 as a dwarf planet.
Asteroid groups

Asteroids in the main belt are divided into asteroid groups and families based on their orbital characteristics. Asteroid moons are asteroids that orbit larger asteroids. They are not as clearly distinguished as planetary moons, sometimes being almost as large as their partners. The asteroid belt also contains main-belt comets which may have been the source of Earth’s water.[50]

Trojan asteroids are located in either of Jupiter’s L4 or L5 points (gravitationally stable regions leading and trailing a planet in its orbit); the term “Trojan” is also used for small bodies in any other planetary or satellite Lagrange point. Hilda asteroids are in a 2:3 resonance with Jupiter; that is, they go around the Sun three times for every two Jupiter orbits.[51]

The inner Solar System is also dusted with rogue asteroids, many of which cross the orbits of the inner planets.[52]

Outer Solar System

The outer region of the Solar System is home to the gas giants and their large moons. Many short period comets, including the centaurs, also orbit in this region. Due to their greater distance from the Sun, the solid objects in the outer Solar System contain a higher proportion of volatiles such as water, ammonia and methane, than the rocky denizens of the inner Solar System, as the colder temperatures allow these compounds to remain solid.

Outer planets

 Gas giant


From top to bottom: Neptune, Uranus,Saturn, and Jupiter (not to scale)

The four outer planets, or gas giants (sometimes called Jovian planets), collectively make up 99 percent of the mass known to orbit the Sun.[c] Jupiter and Saturn are each many tens of times the mass of the Earth and consist overwhelmingly of hydrogen and helium; Uranus and Neptune are far less massive (<20 Earth masses) and possess more ices in their makeup. For these reasons, some astronomers suggest they belong in their own category, “ice giants.”[53] All four gas giants have rings, although only Saturn’s ring system is easily observed from Earth. The term outer planet should not be confused with superior planet, which designates planets outside Earth’s orbit and thus includes both the outer planets and Mars.

Jupiter (5.2 AU), at 318 Earth masses, is 2.5 times the mass of all the other planets put together. It is composed largely of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter’s strong internal heat creates a number of semi-permanent features in its atmosphere, such as cloud bands and the Great Red Spot.
Jupiter has 63 known satellites. The four largest, Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa, show similarities to the terrestrial planets, such as volcanism and internal heating.[54] Ganymede, the largest satellite in the Solar System, is larger than Mercury.
Saturn (9.5 AU), distinguished by its extensive ring system, has several similarities to Jupiter, such as its atmospheric composition and magnetosphere. Although Saturn has 60% of Jupiter’s volume, it is less than a third as massive, at 95 Earth masses, making it the least dense planet in the Solar System. The rings of Saturn are made up of small ice and rock particles.
Saturn has 62 confirmed satellites; two of which, Titan and Enceladus, show signs of geological activity, though they are largely made of ice.[55] Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System, is larger than Mercury and the only satellite in the Solar System with a substantial atmosphere.
Uranus (19.6 AU), at 14 Earth masses, is the lightest of the outer planets. Uniquely among the planets, it orbits the Sun on its side; its axial tilt is over ninety degrees to the ecliptic. It has a much colder core than the other gas giants, and radiates very little heat into space.[56]
Uranus has 27 known satellites, the largest ones being Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel and Miranda.
Neptune (30 AU), though slightly smaller than Uranus, is more massive (equivalent to 17 Earths) and therefore more dense. It radiates more internal heat, but not as much as Jupiter or Saturn.[57]
Neptune has 13 known satellites. The largest, Triton, is geologically active, with geysers of liquid nitrogen.[58] Triton is the only large satellite with a retrograde orbit. Neptune is accompanied in its orbit by a number of minor planets, termed Neptune Trojans, that are in 1:1 resonance with it.

Main article: Comet


Comet Hale-Bopp

Comets are small Solar System bodies,[e] typically only a few kilometres across, composed largely of volatile ices. They have highly eccentric orbits, generally a perihelion within the orbits of the inner planets and an aphelion far beyond Pluto. When a comet enters the inner Solar System, its proximity to the Sun causes its icy surface to sublimate and ionise, creating a coma: a long tail of gas and dust often visible to the naked eye.

Short-period comets have orbits lasting less than two hundred years. Long-period comets have orbits lasting thousands of years. Short-period comets are believed to originate in the Kuiper belt, while long-period comets, such as Hale-Bopp, are believed to originate in the Oort cloud. Many comet groups, such as the Kreutz Sungrazers, formed from the breakup of a single parent.[59] Some comets with hyperbolic orbits may originate outside the Solar System, but determining their precise orbits is difficult.[60] Old comets that have had most of their volatiles driven out by solar warming are often categorised as asteroids.[61]


 Centaur (minor planet)

The centaurs are icy comet-like bodies with a semi-major axis greater than Jupiter (5.5 AU) and less than Neptune (30 AU). The largest known centaur, 10199 Chariklo, has a diameter of about 250 km.[62] The first centaur discovered, 2060 Chiron, has also been classified as comet (95P) since it develops a coma just as comets do when they approach the Sun.[63]

Trans-Neptunian region

The area beyond Neptune, or the “trans-Neptunian region“, is still largely unexplored. It appears to consist overwhelmingly of small worlds (the largest having a diameter only a fifth that of the Earth and a mass far smaller than that of the Moon) composed mainly of rock and ice. This region is sometimes known as the “outer Solar System”, though others use that term to mean the region beyond the asteroid belt.

Kuiper belt

Kuiper belt


Plot of all known Kuiper belt objects, set against the four outer planets

The Kuiper belt, the region’s first formation, is a great ring of debris similar to the asteroid belt, but composed mainly of ice.[64] It extends between 30 and 50 AU from the Sun. Though it contains at least three dwarf planets, it is composed mainly of small Solar System bodies. However, many of the largest Kuiper belt objects, such as Quaoar, Varuna, and Orcus, may be reclassified as dwarf planets. There are estimated to be over 100,000 Kuiper belt objects with a diameter greater than 50 km, but the total mass of the Kuiper belt is thought to be only a tenth or even a hundredth the mass of the Earth.[65] Many Kuiper belt objects have multiple satellites,[66] and most have orbits that take them outside the plane of the ecliptic.[67]

The Kuiper belt can be roughly divided into the “classical” belt and the resonances.[64] Resonances are orbits linked to that of Neptune (e.g. twice for every three Neptune orbits, or once for every two). The first resonance begins within the orbit of Neptune itself. The classical belt consists of objects having no resonance with Neptune, and extends from roughly 39.4 AU to 47.7 AU.[68] Members of the classical Kuiper belt are classified as cubewanos, after the first of their kind to be discovered, (15760) 1992 QB1, and are still in near primordial, low-eccentricity orbits.[69]

Pluto and Charon


Comparison of Eris, Pluto, Makemake, Haumea,Sedna, Orcus, 2007 OR10, Quaoar, and Earth (all to scale)

Pluto (39 AU average), a dwarf planet, is the largest known object in the Kuiper belt. When discovered in 1930, it was considered to be the ninth planet; this changed in 2006 with the adoption of a formal definition of planet. Pluto has a relatively eccentric orbit inclined 17 degrees to the ecliptic plane and ranging from 29.7 AU from the Sun at perihelion (within the orbit of Neptune) to 49.5 AU at aphelion.
Charon, Pluto’s largest moon, is sometimes described as part of a binary system with Pluto, as the two bodies orbit a barycenter of gravity above their surfaces (i.e., they appear to “orbit each other”). Beyond Charon, two much smaller moons, Nix and Hydra, orbit within the system.
Pluto has a 3:2 resonance with Neptune, meaning that Pluto orbits twice round the Sun for every three Neptunian orbits. Kuiper belt objects whose orbits share this resonance are called plutinos.[70]
Haumea and Makemake
Haumea (43.34 AU average), and Makemake (45.79 AU average), while smaller than Pluto, are the largest known objects in the classical Kuiper belt (that is, they are not in a confirmed resonance with Neptune). Haumea is an egg-shaped object with two moons. Makemake is the brightest object in the Kuiper belt after Pluto. Originally designated 2003 EL61 and 2005 FY9 respectively, they were given names and designated dwarf planets in 2008.[71] Their orbits are far more inclined than Pluto’s, at 28° and 29°.[72]
Scattered disc

Scattered disc

The scattered disc, which overlaps the Kuiper belt but extends much further outwards, is thought to be the source of short-period comets. Scattered disc objects are believed to have been ejected into erratic orbits by the gravitational influence of Neptune’s early outward migration. Most scattered disc objects (SDOs) have perihelia within the Kuiper belt but aphelia as far as 150 AU from the Sun. SDOs’ orbits are also highly inclined to the ecliptic plane, and are often almost perpendicular to it. Some astronomers consider the scattered disc to be merely another region of the Kuiper belt, and describe scattered disc objects as “scattered Kuiper belt objects.”[73] Some astronomers also classify centaurs as inward-scattered Kuiper belt objects along with the outward-scattered residents of the scattered disc.[74]


Eris (68 AU average) is the largest known scattered disc object, and caused a debate about what constitutes a planet, since it is 25% more massive than Pluto[75] and about the same diameter. It is the most massive of the known dwarf planets. It has one moon, Dysnomia. Like Pluto, its orbit is highly eccentric, with a perihelion of 38.2 AU (roughly Pluto’s distance from the Sun) and an aphelion of 97.6 AU, and steeply inclined to the ecliptic plane.

Farthest regions

The point at which the Solar System ends and interstellar space begins is not precisely defined, since its outer boundaries are shaped by two separate forces: the solar wind and the Sun’s gravity. The outer limit of the solar wind’s influence is roughly four times Pluto’s distance from the Sun; this heliopause is considered the beginning of the interstellar medium.[21] However, the Sun’s Roche sphere, the effective range of its gravitational dominance, is believed to extend up to a thousand times farther.[76]



The Voyagers entering the heliosheath

The heliosphere is divided into two separate regions. The solar wind travels at roughly 400 km/s until it collides with the interstellar wind; the flow of plasma in the interstellar medium. The collision occurs at the termination shock, which is roughly 80–100 AU from the Sun upwind of the interstellar medium and roughly 200 AU from the Sun downwind.[77] Here the wind slows dramatically, condenses and becomes more turbulent,[77] forming a great oval structure known as the heliosheath. This structure is believed to look and behave very much like a comet’s tail, extending outward for a further 40 AU on the upwind side but tailing many times that distance downwind; but evidence from the Cassini and Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft has suggested that it is in fact forced into a bubble shape by the constraining action of the interstellar magnetic field.[78] Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are reported to have passed the termination shock and entered the heliosheath, at 94 and 84 AU from the Sun, respectively.[79][80] The outer boundary of the heliosphere, the heliopause, is the point at which the solar wind finally terminates and is the beginning of interstellar space.[21]

The shape and form of the outer edge of the heliosphere is likely affected by the fluid dynamics of interactions with the interstellar medium[77] as well as solar magnetic fields prevailing to the south, e.g. it is bluntly shaped with the northern hemisphere extending 9 AU farther than the southern hemisphere. Beyond the heliopause, at around 230 AU, lies the bow shock, a plasma “wake” left by the Sun as it travels through the Milky Way.[81]

No spacecraft have yet passed beyond the heliopause, so it is impossible to know for certain the conditions in local interstellar space. It is expected that NASA‘s Voyager spacecraft will pass the heliopause some time in the next decade and transmit valuable data on radiation levels and solar wind back to the Earth.[82] How well the heliosphere shields the Solar System from cosmic rays is poorly understood. A NASA-funded team has developed a concept of a “Vision Mission” dedicated to sending a probe to the heliosphere.[83][84]

Oort cloud

 Oort cloud


An artist’s rendering of the Oort Cloud, the Hills Cloud, and the Kuiper belt (inset)

The hypothetical Oort cloud is a spherical cloud of up to a trillion icy objects that is believed to be the source for all long-period comets and to surround the Solar System at roughly 50,000 AU (around 1 light-year (LY)), and possibly to as far as 100,000 AU (1.87 LY). It is believed to be composed of comets which were ejected from the inner Solar System by gravitational interactions with the outer planets. Oort cloud objects move very slowly, and can be perturbed by infrequent events such as collisions, the gravitational effects of a passing star, or the galactic tide, the tidal force exerted by the Milky Way.[85][86]


90377 Sedna (525.86 AU average) is a large, reddish Pluto-like object with a gigantic, highly elliptical orbit that takes it from about 76 AU at perihelion to 928 AU at aphelion and takes 12,050 years to complete. Mike Brown, who discovered the object in 2003, asserts that it cannot be part of the scattered disc or the Kuiper belt as its perihelion is too distant to have been affected by Neptune’s migration. He and other astronomers consider it to be the first in an entirely new population, which also may include the object 2000 CR105, which has a perihelion of 45 AU, an aphelion of 415 AU, and an orbital period of 3,420 years.[87] Brown terms this population the “Inner Oort cloud,” as it may have formed through a similar process, although it is far closer to the Sun.[88] Sedna is very likely a dwarf planet, though its shape has yet to be determined with certainty.


See also: Vulcanoid asteroid, Planets beyond Neptune, and Nemesis (star)

Much of our Solar System is still unknown. The Sun’s gravitational field is estimated to dominate the gravitational forces of surrounding stars out to about two light years (125,000 AU). Lower estimates for the radius of the Oort cloud, by contrast, do not place it farther than 50,000 AU.[89] Despite discoveries such as Sedna, the region between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud, an area tens of thousands of AU in radius, is still virtually unmapped. There are also ongoing studies of the region between Mercury and the Sun.[90] Objects may yet be discovered in the Solar System’s uncharted regions.

Galactic context


Location of the Solar System within ourgalaxy

The Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy, a barred spiral galaxy with a diameter of about 100,000 light-years containing about 200 billion stars.[91] Our Sun resides in one of the Milky Way’s outer spiral arms, known as the Orion Arm or Local Spur.[92] The Sun lies between 25,000 and 28,000 light years from the Galactic Centre,[93] and its speed within the galaxy is about 220 kilometres per second, so that it completes one revolution every 225–250 million years. This revolution is known as the Solar System’s galactic year.[94] The solar apex, the direction of the Sun’s path through interstellar space, is near the constellation of Hercules in the direction of the current location of the bright star Vega.[95] The plane of the Solar System’s ecliptic lies at an angle of about 60° to the galactic plane.[f]

The Solar System’s location in the galaxy is very likely a factor in the evolution of life on Earth. Its orbit is close to being circular and is at roughly the same speed as that of the spiral arms, which means it passes through them only rarely. Since spiral arms are home to a far larger concentration of potentially dangerous supernovae, this has given Earth long periods of interstellar stability for life to evolve.[96] The Solar System also lies well outside the star-crowded environs of the galactic centre. Near the centre, gravitational tugs from nearby stars could perturb bodies in the Oort Cloud and send many comets into the inner Solar System, producing collisions with potentially catastrophic implications for life on Earth. The intense radiation of the galactic centre could also interfere with the development of complex life.[96] Even at the Solar System’s current location, some scientists have hypothesised that recent supernovae may have adversely affected life in the last 35,000 years by flinging pieces of expelled stellar core towards the Sun as radioactive dust grains and larger, comet-like bodies.[97]


The immediate galactic neighbourhood of the Solar System is known as the Local Interstellar Cloud or Local Fluff, an area of denser cloud in an otherwise sparse region known as the Local Bubble, an hourglass-shaped cavity in the interstellar medium roughly 300 light years across. The bubble is suffused with high-temperature plasma that suggests it is the product of several recent supernovae.[98]

There are relatively few stars within ten light years (95 trillion km) of the Sun. The closest is the triple star system Alpha Centauri, which is about 4.4 light years away. Alpha Centauri A and B are a closely tied pair of Sun-like stars, while the small red dwarf Alpha Centauri C (also known as Proxima Centauri) orbits the pair at a distance of 0.2 light years. The stars next closest to the Sun are the red dwarfs Barnard’s Star (at 5.9 light years), Wolf 359 (7.8 light years) and Lalande 21185 (8.3 light years). The largest star within ten light years is Sirius, a bright main sequence star roughly twice the Sun’s mass and orbited by a white dwarf called Sirius B. It lies 8.6 light years away. The remaining systems within ten light years are the binary red dwarf systemLuyten 726-8 (8.7 light years) and the solitary red dwarf Ross 154 (9.7 light years).[99] Our closest solitary sun-like star is Tau Ceti, which lies 11.9 light years away. It has roughly 80 percent the Sun’s mass, but only 60 percent its luminosity.[100] The closest known extrasolar planet to the Sun lies around the star Epsilon Eridani, a star slightly dimmer and redder than the Sun, which lies 10.5 light years away. Its one confirmed planet, Epsilon Eridani b, is roughly 1.5 times Jupiter’s mass and orbits its star every 6.9 years.[101]

A series of five star maps that show from left to right our location in the Solar System, in the Sun's neighborhood of stars, in the local area of the Milky Way galaxy, in the Local Group of galaxies, and in the Supercluster of galaxies

A diagram of our location in the Local Supercluster – click here [102] to view more detail

Formation and evolution

Projected timeline of the Sun's life.

 Formation and evolution of the Solar System

The Solar System formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud 4.568 billion years ago.[103] This initial cloud was likely several light-years across and probably birthed several stars.[104]

As the region that would become the Solar System, known as the pre-solar nebula,[105] collapsed, conservation of angular momentum made it rotate faster. The centre, where most of the mass collected, became increasingly hotter than the surrounding disc.[104] As the contracting nebula rotated, it began to flatten into a spinning protoplanetary disc with a diameter of roughly 200 AU[104] and a hot, dense protostar at the centre.[106][107] At this point in its evolution, the Sun is believed to have been a T Tauri star. Studies of T Tauri stars show that they are often accompanied by discs of pre-planetary matter with masses of 0.001–0.1 solar masses, with the vast majority of the mass of the nebula in the star itself.[108] The planets formed by accretion from this disk.[109]

Within 50 million years, the pressure and density of hydrogen in the centre of the protostar became great enough for it to begin thermonuclear fusion.[110] The temperature, reaction rate, pressure, and density increased until hydrostatic equilibrium was achieved, with the thermal energy countering the force of gravitational contraction. At this point the Sun became a full-fledged main sequence star.[111]

The Solar System as we know it today will last until the Sun begins its evolution off of the main sequence of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. As the Sun burns through its supply of hydrogen fuel, the energy output supporting the core tends to decrease, causing it to collapse in on itself. This increase in pressure heats the core, so it burns even faster. As a result, the Sun is growing brighter at a rate of roughly ten percent every 1.1 billion years.[112]

Around 5.4 billion years from now, the hydrogen in the core of the Sun will have been entirely converted to helium, ending the main sequence phase. As the hydrogen reactions shut down, the core will contract further, increasing pressure and temperature, causing fusion to commence via the helium process. Helium in the core burns at a much hotter temperature, and the energy output will be much greater than during the hydrogen process. At this time, the outer layers of the Sun will expand to roughly up to 260 times its current diameter; the Sun will become a red giant. Because of its vastly increased surface area, the surface of the Sun will be considerably cooler than it is on the main sequence (2600 K at the coolest).[113]

Eventually, helium in the core will exhaust itself at a much faster rate than the hydrogen, and the Sun’s helium burning phase will be but a fraction of the time compared to the hydrogen burning phase. The Sun is not massive enough to commence fusion of heavier elements, and nuclear reactions in the core will dwindle. Its outer layers will fall away into space, leaving a white dwarf, an extraordinarily dense object, half the original mass of the Sun but only the size of the Earth.[114] The ejected outer layers will form what is known as a planetary nebula, returning some of the material that formed the Sun to the interstellar medium.

See also

Objects in the Solar System




  1. ^ Capitalization of the name varies. The IAU, the authoritative body regarding astronomical nomenclature, specifies capitalizing the names of all individual astronomical objects (Solar System). However, the name is commonly rendered in lower case (solar system) – as, for example, in the Oxford English Dictionary andMerriam-Webster’s 11th Collegiate Dictionary
  2. ^ See List of natural satellites for the full list of natural satellites of the eight planets and five dwarf planets.
  3. ^ The mass of the Solar System excluding the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn can be determined by adding together all the calculated masses for its largest objects and using rough calculations for the masses of the Oort cloud (estimated at roughly 3 Earth masses),[115] the Kuiper belt (estimated at roughly 0.1 Earth mass)[65] and the asteroid belt (estimated to be 0.0005 Earth mass)[47] for a total, rounded upwards, of ~37 Earth masses, or 8.1 percent the mass in orbit around the Sun. With the combined masses of Uranus and Neptune (~31 Earth masses) subtracted, the remaining ~6 Earth masses of material comprise 1.3 percent of the total.
  4. ^ Astronomers measure distances within the Solar System inastronomical units (AU). One AU equals the average distance between the centers of Earth and the Sun, or 149,598,000 km. Pluto is about 38 AU from the Sun and Jupiter is about 5.2 AU from the Sun. One light-year is 63,240 AU.
  5. ^ According to current definitions, objects in orbit around the Sun are classed dynamically and physically into three categories: planets,dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. A planet is any body in orbit around the Sun that has enough mass to form itself into aspherical shape and has cleared its immediate neighbourhood of all smaller objects. By this definition, the Solar System has eight known planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Pluto does not fit this definition, as it has not cleared its orbit of surrounding Kuiper belt objects.[116] A dwarf planet is a celestial body orbiting the Sun that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity but which has not cleared its neighbouring region ofplanetesimals and is not a satellite.[116] By this definition, the Solar System has five known dwarf planets: Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris.[71] Other objects may be classified in the future as dwarf planets, such as Sedna, Orcus, and Quaoar.[117] Dwarf planets that orbit in the trans-Neptunian region are called “plutoids“.[118] The remainder of the objects in orbit around the Sun are small Solar System bodies.[116]
  6. ^ If ψ is the angle between the north pole of the ecliptic and the northgalactic pole then:
    cosψ = cos(βg)cos(βe)cos(αg − αe) + sin(βg)sin(βe),
    where βg = 27° 07′ 42.01″ and αg = 12h 51m 26.282 are the declination and right ascension of the north galactic pole,[119] whileβe = 66° 33′ 38.6″ and αe = 18h 0m 00 are those for the north pole of the ecliptic. (Both pairs of coordinates are for J2000 epoch.) The result of the calculatgion is 60.19°.


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Large-Scale Methamphetamine Manufacture

Reductive Amination of P2P through Catalytic Hydrogenation Using Adams Catalyst

Text and Photos by Louis Freeh, HTML by Rhodium

Table of Contents

1.0 Purpose:

To describe the manufacture and application of platinum dioxide, commonly known as Adams catalyst or platinum black, with the goal of opening alternative synthesis procedures for the manufacture of illicit recreational drugs. It is this writer’s hope that these procedures will result in the undermining of the Drug Inquisition, which has caused the loss of freedom for many good people. A further goal is to demonstrate to those in law enforcement that knowledge is, in fact, the ultimate power and that no number of self-righteous goons with guns can defeat a resourceful and knowledgeable mind. There is no new chemistry here; in fact, most of it is almost 100 years old. The contribution this writer hopes he is making is in simplifying the equipment and procedures to the point where those without extensive chemistry backgrounds will be able to manufacture high-quality phenethanamines in high volume to compete with the poisonous stuff one finds on the street. The text is aimed at those who have completed a college level organic chemistry course and have some experience and an interest in laboratory equipment and procedures.

1.1 Scope

The following procedures will be described.

  • Dissolution of platinum metal in aqua regia to produce chloroplatinic acid, then ammonium chloroplatinate.
  • Oxidation of ammonium chloroplatinate to platinum dioxide.
  • Reductive amination of P2P using platinum dioxide catalyst.
  • Manufacture of methylamine using formaldehyde and ammonium chloride.
  • Manufacture of 1-Phenyl-2-Propanone using benzaldehyde and nitroethane.
  • Practical manufacture of 70% nitric acid

1.2 Acknowledgements

This writer thanks Uncle Fester, whose widely read books on methamphetamine manufacture have provided an invaluable source of research information collected in one volume. In addition, this writer thanks Dr. Alexander Shulgin, whose practice of the purest sort of science-that motivated by curiosity and a deep thirst for knowledge-in the face of government oppression has earned him my deepest admiration and respect. This document is dedicated to Senators Orrin Hatch and Diane Feinstein, whose tireless efforts to eliminate the vestigial remains of our civil liberties in the cause of state expediency has pissed me off enough to take the time and effort to produce this text. In fact, I have named the reductive amination step the Hatch-Feinstein Reduction.

2.0 Manufacture of Platinum Dioxide

2.1 Discussion

As those familiar with clandestine drug manufacture are aware, the traditional catalysts used in reductive amination procedures, Raney nickel and palladium-on-carbon, are no longer available due to essential-chemical prohibition by the anti-drug thugs. Thus the need for an alternative catalyst which can be manufactured utilizing common materials and equipment. Platinum dioxide has many advantages in it’s application to reductive aminations:

It can be made using common materials and easily obtainable equipment.

Reactions are performed at room temperature and at low pressure (<30 psi), thus eliminating the requirement for simultaneous heating and agitation and opening the door to simple high-volume manufacturing. One can easily perform 25-30 mole reactions using a 5 gallon paint shaker for agitation.

  • The catalyst is reusable up to six times.
  • Requires a catalyst density of only 1g/mole of precursor.
  • Provides a product yield of approximately 1kg/g of catalyst, and a 75% mole-to-mole yield from precursor-to-product (the reaction yield is 90%, the balance being lost during processing and crystallization) when manufacturing methamphetamine.
  • Is used with common ethanol solvent, eliminating odd smells and fire hazards.
  • Platinum dioxide catalyst also performs well in the manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but under slightly different conditions.

2.2 Review of alternative procedures

We will focus upon the manufacture of methamphetamine due to the current high volume requirement and the increasing attention it is drawing from the government antidrug machine.

  • The best route for manufacturing methamphetamine is the direct reduction of the hydroxyl on the L-ephedrine sulfate sidechain in glacial acetic acid using 70% perchloric acid as a promoter and 5% palladium-on-carbon as the catalyst. Vigorous agitation, pressurization with hydrogen to 30 psi, and heating to 90°C results in an 85-90% yield of non-racemic methamphetamine, with a 70% yield-to-product. Due to it’s non-racemic chirality, this meth is stronger than that produced by any other non-stereospecific reduction technique. Typically, this reaction is performed in a 4000ml filter flask placed into a 6 gal aluminum pot containing water. The pot is heated on a stirring hotplate and agitation is provided by a stirring bar magnetically coupled through the non-ferrous aluminum. A solution of 1.25 liters of glacial acetic acid, 120ml of 68-72% perchloric acid, 166g (one mole) of L-ephedrine sulfate, and 16g of 5% palladium-on-carbon is pressurized to 20-30psi with hydrogen gas and reduced for 2-3 hours. The catalyst is filtered out, the filtrate made basic with 50% lye solution then extracted with toluene and stripped of solvent, the base is purified by distillation and crystallized in acetone for the hydrochloride salt. Despite what has been written by others, this reaction does not work with ephedrine hydrochloride because the hydrochloride ion poisons the catalyst, whereas the sulfate ion may actually act as a promoter (I have not tried it, but in theory sulfuric acid may be substituted for perchloric acid as a promoter). This reaction will, however, perform well using any ephedrine base. Due to the requirement for simultaneous heating, stirring, and pressurization, this reaction is limited to 1-3 mole batches. In addition, the palladium-on-carbon catalyst is not reusable without processing.
  • The most common current method of meth production is the direct reduction of the ephedrine hydrochloride hydroxyl using 57% hydriodic acid and red phosphorous in a 4-1-1 formula (4 lb ephedrine, 1 gal 57% hydriodic acid, 1 lb red phosphorous). This is an inefficient method, yielding 55% d-methamphetamine at the very best, which has been exploited as far as it can go due to the attention paid to the precursor and essential chemicals used in this reaction and the increasing diversion of Chinese ephedrine supplies to our industrious neighbors in Mexico. In it’s favor, however, is the fact that one person can manufacture 4 lb of very poisonous meth per day if they skip the purification step. This is a perfect example of Gresham’s Law at work (the cheap bad stuff drives out the expensive good stuff).
  • The P2P reaction, for many years the preferred method for making methamphetamine, requires 1-Phenyl-2-Propanone (impossible to buy, easy to make), 40% methylamine solution (impossible to buy, easy to make), large amounts of Raney nickel (hard to buy, difficult to make) and approximately 2000 psi of hydrogen along with simultaneous agitation and heating. There are many limitations in this process, not least of which is equipment construction. [This is a very limited truth, as there are many other ways of reductively aminate P2P with methylamine which uses much more readily available materials than Raney-Nickel/hydrogen gas /Rhodium]
  • The lithium-in-ammonia reduction. This is an elegant, high-yield reduction, but it is gawdawful stinky and must be done a long way from civilization. The volume of anhydrous ammonia required per mole of ephedrine relegates this procedure to the low-volume category.

2.3 Equipment

The following equipment is required:

  • A stirring hotplate.
  • A 2″ Teflon-coated magnetic stirring bar with a center lifting ridge. This is simply a ridge around the center of the stirring bar that raises it above the bottom surface, thus decreasing friction and providing for easier stirring of thick solutions/suspensions. A 2.5-3.0″ stirring bar will also be used and one should also have a Teflon-coated stirring bar chaser which allows one to retrieve stirring bars from solutions. This is an invaluable item for general lab work.
  • 1000ml and 5000ml Pyrex graduated beakers. The 1000ml beaker should be thick-walled Pyrex as it needs to be slightly more heavy-duty. Do not use ordinary glass or Mason jars as we will be heating it directly on the hotplate.
  • A jewelers oven. These ovens are available from jeweler’s supply companies. Look in the yellow pages. They typically have a meter which monitors the temperature from 0-1200°C and a rotary adjustment knob which controls the temperature. The inside is lined with firebrick, as is the door, and there is a small vent hole at the top. Buy one with an interior width and depth of at least 9″. They cost about $400 and can be purchased by anyone. An extra firebrick may be required to center the oxidation vessel. Firebricks can be found at most fireplace/woodstove stores.
  • One 1000ml round-bottom flask.
  • An 8″x8″x2″ Corningware casserole dish with Pyrex top. This item is important because it is the vessel we will use to perform the oxidation procedure, which takes place at 520°C. Ordinary glass will shatter at these temperatures, and Pyrex does not hold up much better. Corningware will stand up to these temperatures and heating cycles, but just barely. The Pyrex tops that come with the casserole dish often crack or break after only one or two reactions, so extra tops should be purchased. A ceramic or clay vessel would be better, but are difficult to find in the correct size. The Corningware dishes are cheap, disposable, and can be purchased anywhere.
  • A 4″ diameter Buchner.
  • A 1000ml filter flask.
  • Whatman Qualitative 5 filter papers. Purchase the size that fits your largest Buchner and cut to fit for the smaller Buchners. These filters will catch the finest particles of catalyst. Equivalent filter paper is made by other manufacturers.
  • A mortar-and-pestle set, medium sized. These can be found at many organic food and food-supplement stores, as well as in children’s science shops.

2.4 Chemicals

The following chemicals will be used:

Laboratory grade 37% hydrochloric acid. One can try hardware store muriatic acid if it is 30% or better. It is unknown what the impurities in the cheap hardware-store stuff may do to the catalyst, but many times the only difference between laboratory grade chemicals and commercial grade stuff is the fact that the laboratory grade chemicals have been tested to make sure there’s nothing strange in it. It may have come out of the same tanker car, but it was tested.

One will need 200ml of 70% nitric acid in order to make aqua regia. Jewelers can buy this in very small quantities for making aqua regia, which is required to dissolve metals like platinum and rhodium for alloying or plating. Otherwise, one can whip up a batch fairly easily. SeeSection 6.0 for instructions.

About 3 kg of sodium or potassium nitrate. This is our oxidizer, and it is used at a 10:1 weight ratio with ammonium chloroplatinate (which we will make). It is also used to manufacture 70% nitric acid. Sodium nitrate is preferred, but only because this writer has used it extensively. Use the powdered form as it requires less grinding and seems to work better than the beaded form often found in university labs.

About 3 kg of ammonium chloride will be used. This common salt is used for metal preparation and making chilling solutions. It should not be difficult to find. Try the drugstore or pharmacy.

2.5 Dissolution of Platinum in Aqua Regia

The first step is to dissolve the platinum, either in coin form or as spent catalyst, in aqua regia to make chloroplatinic acid. This is not as easy as may first appear. Platinum coins are especially difficult to dissolve. Left on it’s own, it could take months for the platinum to completely dissolve. Heating to just below the boiling point of the acid will increase the activity of the acid many times and will let the chemist dissolve his platinum coins in 3-4 days. Spent catalyst may also be recycled, and will dissolve much more quickly than coins. This procedure must be performed inside a properly functioning fume cabinet or the fumes will kill you. See the appendix for construction details.

Place a 1000ml Pyrex beaker on the stirring hotplate. Place a 2″ Teflon-coated stirbar with a center ridge inside the beaker. If one is using fresh 1oz platinum coins, gently place two of them (64g) in the beaker. There should be room for the stirbar to turn without touching the coins. Two coins is the very most one should attempt to dissolve in 800ml of aqua regia as additional platinum will not dissolve and react but will remain as unreacted particles in suspension, screwing up subsequent procedures. (If one is recycling spent platinum dioxide catalyst, wait until after the aqua regia is made and stirring, but not heating, is begun before adding the spent catalyst in small portions.) Add 200ml of 70% nitric acid. Add 600ml of laboratory grade 37% hydrochloric acid. Once the platinum and aqua regia are inside the beaker, fill a 1000ml round-bottom flask half full of cold tap water, dry the outside with a paper towel, and carefully place it on top of the beaker. Make sure there is an air-gap at the pouring lip of the beaker so no pressure builds up. This is our makeshift condenser, designed to condense and recycle the aqua regia while the platinum dissolves. Without the condenser, the aqua regia will quickly boil off without dissolving much platinum. Do not fill the 1000ml flask to more than 1/3 or ½ full or it will become top-heavy and tip over from the vibration. Begin heating while stirring, slowly raising the temperature over several hours until the first signs of boiling begin. On my stirring hotplate, an 800watt unit, the heat setting is 3.5-3.75. The solution will turn orange, and then a very deep ruby red. Do not leave the reaction unattended for more than a few minutes, and turn it off at night. When recycling spent catalyst, a small amount of contaminant may appear on the surface. Let the beaker cool until it can be handled and then filter the liquid through your 4″ Buchner using filter paper, holding the coins in place with the Teflon-coated stirbar chaser. Do not use any metal, as it can contaminate the batch. A more porous grade of filter paper may be used. Pour the filtrate back into the beaker with the coins and continue the heating and stirring. It should take 3-4 days to dissolve two coins. The variables affecting dissolution speed are surface area, acid temperature, and stirring effectiveness.

One needs to mix up a saturated solution of ammonium chloride in distilled water. Pour 3000ml of distilled water into a 5000ml beaker (or a 1gal pickle jar) along with a 3″ stirring bar. Place on a stirplate if available, otherwise stir using a clean spatula from the kitchen. With stirring, slowly add ammonium chloride to the water until it will not dissolve any more. Continue stirring occasionally until the solution comes up to room temperature once again, then add more ammonium chloride until no more will dissolve. Repeat one more time. When finished, the chemist should have a room temperature solution with a little undissolved ammonium chloride at the bottom.

Once the platinum is completely dissolved, remove the condenser flask and allow the remaining acid to boil off until it is all gone and there remains in the bottom of the beaker a grayish-red-black layer of ugly metallic stuff. This is chloroplatinic acid. Be aware that the fumes created when boiling off the acid will create large, very visible clouds of acid-laced fog if exhausted into cool, still air. In addition, all nearby plant life will turn brown and quickly die. If performed while a stiff breeze is blowing, this hazard is eliminated. Let the beaker cool down, add 500ml of 37% hydrochloric acid, let it react with the chloroplatinic acid, then boil off the acid almost to dryness. Do this three times to remove any trace of nitric acid, boiling off the acid to dryness on the third boil. Once cool, add small portions of ammonium chloride solution and work it with the end of a stirbar chaser. Continue adding ammonium chloride solution until all of the chloroplatinic acid has reacted and there are no solid chunks left. Decant into another clean beaker or jar as the beaker fills. A bright yellow suspension will form as the chloroplatinic acid reacts with the ammonium ion to make ammonium chloroplatinate. Do not get in a hurry. It can take over an hour for the chloroplatinic acid to completely react. Black particles or other discoloration is a sign of incomplete dissolution of the platinum. Remove the water by vacuum filtering through the 4″ Buchner with Qualitative 5 filter paper using a water aspirator or vacuum pump. This also may take several hours. Remove the pasty ammonium chloroplatinate cake and break it up as finely as possible using a clean razor knife in a glass bowl or plate. It will be difficult to handle and a little sticky. At this point one must improvise a little. I use a vacuum oven purchased at a mining equipment sale (mines do a lot of inorganic chemistry) to gently vacuum dry the ammonium chloroplatinate overnight at low heat. Those without vacuum ovens should use an infrared lamp placed near the plate and be patient. Do not overheat, as ammonium chloroplatinate will decompose. Look for any brown or black discoloration as a sign of excess heat. Break up into smaller chunks as the paste dries. Dried ammonium chloroplatinate is hard, granular, and dark yellow in color.

Ammonium chloroplatinate is a convenient form in which to store catalyst, as platinum dioxide catalyst can be extremely pyrophorric (this stuff explodes!). Store in a cool, dry place and oxidize it as the need for fresh catalyst arises. If one started with 64g of platinum coins (Pt, 195g/mole, 0.328mole), one should end up with slightly less than 0.328 mole of ammonium chloroplatinate ((NH4)2PtCl6, 443.9g/mole), or about 140g. This is enough to make about 50g of useful catalyst, which translates to 150-300 moles worth of reactions, or about 40-80lb of very pure methamphetamine, depending upon how many times one is able to reuse the catalyst.

2.6 Oxidation of Ammonium Chloroplatinate to Platinum Dioxide

This is where the rubber meets the road in this procedure. We must mix our ammonium chloroplatinate with sodium nitrate, our oxidizer, and burn it. In the old days, when Adams invented this catalyst, they used a copper-alloy block with a crucible and a hole drilled for the insertion of a thermometer to measure the temperature. Our procedure isn’t much better, but if Adams could do it with crude equipment, perhaps we can optimistically expect to do as well. At this point, your humble writer must point out that he has never made a batch of catalyst that did not work, even though experiments were performed over the temperature range of 480-530°C. This is not due to some extraordinary intelligence or experience. It is because this is easy to do. The accompanying poor quality picture shows new brown catalyst on the left and spent black catalyst on the right.

The ammonium chloroplatinate must come into “intimate contact” with the oxidizer, according to Adams. To accomplish this, place 50g of sodium nitrate in a layer at the bottom of your mortar-and-pestle set. Add 5g of ammonium chloroplatinate chunks to the bed and grind until all chunks are thoroughly blended into a homogenous yellow powder. Be thorough here, as it will pay off in catalyst yield. Shake the mixture into the 8″x8″ Corningware casserole dish. Do this five times for a total of 25g of ammonium chloroplatinate and 250g of sodium nitrate. Do not attempt to do more than this-it makes a terrible mess inside the oven. A safer amount is 20g, but 25g batches will work reliably if the oven is controlled properly.

Spread the yellow powder evenly across the bottom of the casserole dish, replace the Pyrex cover, and place the dish into the jeweler’s oven. The idea here is to place the dish so the temperature on the front meter accurately reflects the temperature inside the vessel. If one has a large oven with the temperature sensor in the center, adjust the position of the dish with varying thicknesses of firebrick. If the heating element runs directly beneath the dish, spot heating should be avoided by placing a thin firebrick across the bottom. We are operating close to the temperature limits of the vessel material, so a little diligence is required. The oven should be placed inside the fume cabinet where the noxious fumes produced can be exhausted, preferably into a stiff wind at night. Secure the latch on the oven. On my oven, the temperature control is graduated from 1 to 10. I set the control on 3.75, having learned the hard way that too-rapid heating will shatter the casserole dish. The temperature will slowly climb over a period of 2.5-3.0 hours to 520°C, at which point the heating element is turned off and the chemist leaves the oven to cool down overnight. He does not open the door of the oven, even a crack, until the temperature is all the way down. Failure to exercise patience will be swiftly punished with a shattered dish and a nasty mess. One should watch the oven carefully, noting that the heating element cycles on and off and correlating that with changes on the temperature indicator. This will improve one’s precision in controlling the oven temperature in the event one should desire to experiment, which this writer encourages. A plume of brown fumes should begin to rise from the exhaust hole at the top as the oxidation begins. This usually occurs starting at 380-400°C and can continue all the way up to about 500°C, but not always, and not predictably. This writer has discovered empirically that the temperature range over which catalyst can be successfully produced is 490-520°C, with the best catalyst being made at 510°C. As the meters used on these ovens are the inexpensive current-shunt type, they are accurate to about ±2%, which is about 10°C either way, so there can be as much as 20°C variance in the temperature indicator from unit to unit. In addition, the temperature sensors used have tolerances that can stack up in the wrong direction. The point here is that your oven may read differently than mine, so one should be observant and adjust the setting based upon the results of the previous oxidation. If the stuff turned out burnt, lower the temperature.

Open the door-latch of the cold oven and remove the casserole dish. Pry the top off gently with a screwdriver, as it will be fused with white sodium nitrate residue. Inside will be a layer of hardened sodium nitrate mixed with and covering a layer of brown-black powder which will have spattered and coated the inside surface. Pour some distilled water into the top and gently work it with a plastic spoon to dissolve the sodium nitrate and free up the platinum dioxide particles. Carefully pour the resulting liquid into the clean 5000ml beaker. Repeat to recover the last traces of catalyst stuck to the cover. Pour distilled water into the casserole dish until the bottom layer is covered and break up the hard layer as gently as possible with a clean screwdriver. Work the chunks until they are broken up into pieces small enough to handle. Using surgical gloves, very carefully place the larger pieces into the 5000ml beaker, rinsing one’s fingers with distilled water into the beaker. Once the large pieces have been removed, add water and work the dish until one is satisfied as much catalyst as possible has been recovered. Add distilled water to the large beaker until it is almost full and stir until all of the sodium nitrate has dissolved and one is left with a dark brown suspension that gradually settles to the bottom of the beaker. Let it settle overnight then carefully decant the water without disturbing the catalyst layer at the bottom. Decant as much water as possible without losing catalyst, then refill with more distilled water, stir thoroughly for 15 minutes, then let it settle overnight once again. Do this four times to insure all the nitrate is dissolved and removed. Successive washings will result in the catalyst taking longer and longer to settle out, until, on the fourth one, the catalyst may become colloidal and not settle out completely. Using the Whatman Qualitative 5 filter paper and a clean Buchner, filter the catalyst suspension, washing the beaker with distilled water to catch the last grains. One should now have a layer of wet, medium-to-dark brown catalyst in the Buchner. Gently work the small cake loose onto a small glass or porcelain plate and spread it out using a fine-tipped razor-knife. Let it dry in a warm, but not hot, place. Once dry, carefully scrape the loose powder into a clean spice bottle, which makes an ideal container. Do not let it fall freely through the air more than a few inches as this can, and will, result in a display of pyrotechnics as your catalyst explodes while you watch. This is especially true when the temperature drops below freezing or one is in a very dry area. One should now have about 11g of platinum dioxide (PtO2, 227.09g/mole, 0.048mole) for a yield of about 85%.

Repeat the above three steps until all the ammonium chloroplatinate is used. One should have 50-60g of catalyst in the form of a very finely divided dry brown powder. Store in a cool, dry place and avoid static discharges. There is some debate about whether or not this catalyst decreases in activity level over periods of time exceeding 6-12 months. It has been this writer’s experience that the catalyst itself maintains it’s activity level as long as it has not been pre- reduced or otherwise exposed to concentrated hydrogen. There are many other factors that can easily cause a decrease in yield or an increase in reduction time that can be misinterpreted as a change in catalyst activity. This catalyst is very sensitive to the level of self-oxidation or residual acids in the P2P. In addition, slight variations in agitation effectiveness can appear to be catalyst-related.

3.0 The Hatch-Feinstein Reduction

Application of Platinum Dioxide Catalyst to the Reductive Amination of 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P). In this section the chemist pre-reduces the catalyst and reductively aminates both test and production quantities of P2P.

3.1 Discussion

The prudent chemist always runs a small test batch before using fresh chemical components, in this case either P2P, methylamine, or catalyst. In addition, there is a requirement for a pre-reduction vessel for the catalyst. This writer will tell you flat-out that the literature on the subject of pre-reduction is wrong. First of all, this catalyst must be pre-reduced in distilled water, not ethanol. Dropping this catalyst into alcohol is an excellent way to start a fire. Although this catalyst is gradually reduced down to platinum during it’s exposure to hydrogen, only in the very poorest of catalyst does this occur in less than three uses. In every case, however, the catalyst required pre-reduction. The amount of pre-reduction required varies from batch to batch and the chemist must learn to tell from observation when the catalyst is ready for use.

3.2 Test-vessel construction

One must construct some simple equipment in order to run test-batches and pre-reduce catalyst in appropriate amounts.

Fortunately, the equipment can be fairly simple because we are only required to provide agitation and low pressurization. Eliminating the requirement for heating simplifies things immensely. As one can observe in the accompanying picture, this writer constructed a vessel out of an old 3000ml reagent flask. It has the advantages of being narrow, thick-walled, and having a flat top. The bottom plate is 3/16″ aluminum plate , the connecting rods are 3/16″ all-thread found at the auto parts store. The top plate is ¼” aluminum plate recovered from the scrapyard. The gauge is a -30″Hg to +30″Hg, liquid-filled, combination vacuum/pressure unit. They cost about $30 at industrial equipment supply stores. The pipe is common ¼” NPT wrapped in Teflon tape. Everything is connected together with a brass 4-way fuel block with ¼” NPT thread available at the auto parts store. The valves on either end are common gas valves found at welding equipment suppliers. One can use oxyacetylene valves as they are ¼” NPT on one side and gas thread on the other. This allows one to make a direct connection between the hydrogen tank regulator and the vessel using the red hose of an oxyacetylene torch set. The same valve on the other end is fitted with a 3/8″ nipple for pulling a vacuum. The rubber gasket used to seal the aluminum top-plate and the bottle-top is cut from 1/8 ” rubber gasket material found in the plumbing department of the hardware store. One must adapt this design to the equipment available. A 2000ml filter-flask can be made into an excellent vessel by sealing off the side-nipple (hose, screw, and clamps) and using a modified rubber stopper on the top opening.

A smaller glass vessel is also required for pre-reducing 1g batches of catalyst. The vessel should be about 500ml or less in volume. This is necessary because of the physical limitations of attempting to pre-reduce tiny volumes of catalyst in a large vessel, especially considering the fact that one must determine visually the pre- reduction state of the catalyst. The bottom plate must be made of aluminum so a magnetic stirring bar can be used for agitation. The unit is placed on a stir-plate, the air evacuated, then charged with hydrogen and agitated until the catalyst is pre-reduced.

3.3 Pre-reduction of platinum dioxide

Much of the existing literature concerning Adam’s catalyst describes pre-reducing the catalyst in ethanol and/or allowing the catalyst to pre-reduce in situ. My experience indicates both techniques are wrong. Attempting to pre-reduce this catalyst in ethanol resulted in several small fires and explosions. Attempting to pre-reduce the catalyst in situ worked on only one batch of catalyst, which was the poorest catalyst made.

The procedure that works reliably, every time, is to pre-reduce in distilled water. The pre-reduction process involves exposing the catalyst to hydrogen gas under pressure, resulting in a change in both color and character of the platinum dioxide. Carefully weigh out 1g of catalyst on a triple-beam scale. Place the catalyst into a small (50ml) beaker and add 10ml of distilled water. Carefully pour the resulting slurry into the small pre-reduction vessel through a small funnel, chasing the slurry into the vessel with an additional 10ml of distilled water. Place a small Teflon-coated stirbar into the vessel and seal by carefully cinching down on the retaining nuts on the top plate. Make sure the hydrogen gas valve is closed and the vacuum valve with the nipple is open. Attach the 3/8″ hose from your vacuum aspirator and pull a vacuum in the vessel to about 25″Hg. Close the vacuum valve and watch the gauge for a minute. If it doesn’t move, your vessel is holding a vacuum. Now open the hydrogen tank valve and increase the pressure at the second stage of the regulator to 30psi maximum. Open the hydrogen inlet valve on the catalyst vessel, pressurizing to 30psi. Close the vessel hydrogen valve and watch the gauge for a drop in pressure. If there is a leak, one can find it rapidly using dishwashing soap mixed with water in a squirt bottle. Once the vessel is pressurized with no leaks, begin stirring as rapidly as possible. The catalyst will be thrown against the interior wall of the vessel as it is splashed around. Adjust the position of the vessel on the stir-plate to maximize the splash. The catalyst will begin to turn from brown to black in color. After an additional amount of time, small particles of catalyst will begin “sticking” to the vessel wall, soon forming a “ring” of tiny black flakes or particles. Once most of the catalyst is in the “flake” form and all of the catalyst has turned from brown to black, it is pre-reduced.

Over-reduction can easily take place, and as this drastically decreases the activity level of the catalyst and reduces it’s useful life, this is to be avoided. The catalyst will pre-reduce more quickly during warm weather, but the pre- reduction time varies more from batch-to-batch than with any other factor. One should use 20ml of distilled water for every gram of catalyst. Using less increases the chance of over-reduction while excessive water requires the addition of more ethanol to the reaction solution to maintain homogeneity, thus decreasing catalyst density and increasing reduction time. Typical pre-reduction times are 10-25 minutes.

Once the chemist is satisfied that his catalyst is pre-reduced, he makes sure all hydrogen valves are closed and then slowly opens the vacuum valve to release the excess hydrogen. One should keep in mind that hydrogen reacts with oxygen to make water, with an accompanying release of energy–one should be careful when opening hydrogen gas valves into an atmosphere containing oxygen. Once the pressurized hydrogen has been released, it is time to move the catalyst to the reaction vessel. The best way to do this is to partly fill the pre-reduction vessel with 95% ethanol, then pour the slurry into the reaction vessel using a funnel. Repeat until all the catalyst is picked up. The chemist is now ready to make his product.

3.4 Primary reaction vessel construction

The design of one’s primary reduction vessel should be tailored to the batch sizes and the quality of agitation one desires.

This writer constructed an adequate reaction vessel using a section of 8″ stainless-steel pipe found at the scrapyard along with some stainless plate and threaded fittings (see pix).

In addition, a rocker was constructed using common steel plate, a gearmotor, and some pulleys purchased at the hardware store. A cyclic rate of 100 RPM was chosen arbitrarily (I guessed) and provision made in the design to allow one to swap pulleys and change the cyclic rate. A throw(rock) of 3″ was determined to be the most one could expect given the motor torque (32 in-lb) and the weight of the vessel when fully charged (about 10lb). The motor used is a gearmotor from a scrapped copier which one can readily find at electronics surplus houses along with the required capacitor for less than $100. A new gearmotor of the proper size will cost 4-5 times that much. These are very useful, reliable motors that this writer uses for many purposes. Try to find ones with a machined face so they can be quickly mounted to brackets, etc. The resulting rocker provides a rocking rate of 110 rpm and completes a reaction in six hours.

Our stainless reaction vessel has an internal capacity of 7000ml, of which only 3500ml is used when fully charged with a 6.5-mole batch. This batch size was selected because of equipment and time restrictions-one can squeeze a 3500ml reaction into a 5000ml round-bottom flask for solvent stripping and the resulting 900g of methamphetamine base divides conveniently into two 450g portions for crystallization, which will take about 4 hours to perform. This is a full day’s work for one person, resulting in 2lb of product.

An improved reaction vessel can be constructed using a paint shaker for optimum surface-area creation. These units hold one-gallon paint cans, which, when full of paint, weigh much more than our reaction solution, eliminating concerns about exceeding any weight limitations on the machine. One may have a reaction vessel made which will fit into the machine clamps and have the following properties; 1) it will be constructed of thin-wall 316 stainless steel and stand up to 100psi when sealed and will not collapse when a 29″Hg vacuum is pulled (this means a round body and thick ends), 2) it will have a threaded opening about 1.5-2″ at one end to pour stuff into, and, 3) it will have an internal volume of at least 4000ml. The best way to do this is to have a machine shop roll a sheet of 0.065in 316 stainless sheet into a cylinder and then weld the seam. End pieces are cut from 0.375in 316 stainless and tig-welded to our thin-wall pipe. Prior to welding to the cylinder body, one end-piece is drilled out and a 1.5″ stainless coupling with NPT thread is welded on. The unit is then pressure tested to 100psi and vacuum tested to 29″Hg. The threaded coupling is fitted with a bushing that allows a gas fitting to be attached. Use Teflon tape to seal all threads, including the gas fittings. Leaks must be avoided. This one gallon (4liters) vessel can hold 3500ml of reactants with ease, resulting in the same product volumes as one obtains using the rocker. The improvement comes in the vigorous agitation provided by the paint shaker; by making sure that the hydrogen inlet hose rises straight up from the vessel to avoid losing reactants into the hose, the reaction will reach completion in 3 hours instead of 6 using the same catalyst density of 1g/mole. Using very little ingenuity, one can obtain a paint shaker that holds 5-gallon pails and construct a reaction vessel which will do 30-mole batches in a few hours, resulting in about 10lb of finished product after processing. The batch can be processed in 22- liter glassware by reducing the ethanol volume slightly, but will require a high-volume vacuum source to do the distillation. The main drawback to doing huge batches is that if one makes a mistake, he has just blown a whole lot of very valuable precursor material. The prudent chemist does not bite off more than he can chew up in one day.

3.5 Reductive amination of P2P using Adam’s catalyst

While the catalyst is pre-reducing, the chemist must prepare a Schiff’s base from his P2P and methylamine solution.

For a 1-mole test batch using 1g of catalyst, one pours 150ml of 37-40% methylamine solution into a 1000ml beaker along with a stirring bar. With stirring, 134g(1mole) of 1-phenyl-2-propanone is added. This should be done inside the fume cabinet to avoid the strong smell of decaying fish that accompanies methylamine solutions. Cover the beaker with a clean shop rag while stirring continues. In a separate container, measure out 250ml of 95% ethanol. 95% ethanol can be purchased as very strong vodka under various brand names (Everclear?), but my favorite source of ethanol is found in almost every supermarket and drugstore. It is called Rubbing Alcohol Compound. This is very different from Rubbing Alcohol, which is the trade name for isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing Alcohol Compound has replaced isopropyl alcohol on grocery shelves because the ethanol subsidies provided by the feds allow the use of cheap subsidized ethanol instead of the more expensive isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing Alcohol Compound is 93% ethanol along with 2% ethyl acetate or some other denaturant that makes you sick if you drink it. Fortunately, the denaturants do not affect our reaction and now one has an inexpensive source of reaction solvent upon which no liquor taxes are paid. This writer has tried every brand available in my area and they all worked just fine. In a serious pinch, the chemist can use methanol instead of ethanol, although the reaction will take three times as long to complete with a similar yield. When the catalyst is ready, slowly add, with stirring, enough ethanol to clarify the solution. This should take about 125ml for a 1-mole batch, leaving 125ml to use in retrieving the catalyst from the pre-reduction vessel. Add the clarified P2P/methylamine solution to the reaction vessel and rinse the beaker with a dash of ethanol, adding the rinse to the reaction. One should now have a reaction vessel containing 20ml of water, 250ml of ethanol, 150ml of methylamine solution, and 135ml of P2P for a total volume of about 550ml. Keep this number in mind when designing a larger reaction vessel. Seal the reaction vessel, pull a 25″ vacuum using a water aspirator, pressurize to 5psi with hydrogen, pull another 25″ vacuum, and then pressurize to 25-30psi with hydrogen. Do not pull a vacuum harder than 25″Hg or the methylamine will boil off. Check for leaks. If no leaks are found, begin the agitation by turning up the stirring to full blast.

Agitation is important because it creates surface area. For the reaction to take place, the catalyst, a molecule of our Schiff’s base, and an atom of hydrogen must come into contact simultaneously. Since we are dealing with solid, liquid, and gas phase materials, this can be difficult. The splash, or agitation, is the single most important physical variable affecting this reaction. The more surface area one can create, the better the chances are of our three reactants meeting and making meth.

At this point, one would like to know if the reaction is proceeding correctly and at what rate so one knows when the reaction is done. Our pressure/vacuum gauge along with our gas valve will provide this information. Once the reaction vessel is pressurized to 30psi, close the hydrogen valve and begin the agitation; the reading on the pressure gauge should drop over a short period of time. In my test vessel, a pressure drop of 10psi occurs in 11-16 minutes, depending upon how good the agitation is. Yours may be different. Once the pressure has dropped 10psi, open the hydrogen valve again and re-pressurize to 30psi. By precisely recording the amount of time it takes to cause a pressure drop of 10psi, the chemist can tell whether the reaction is proceeding or stopped for some reason, how well (quickly) the reaction is going, and when it is done. This can be vital information if something is going wrong. Typically, a 1-mole reaction in this writer’s test vessel will use a 10psi gulp of hydrogen every 13 minutes for 10 gulps, and then begin to slow down as the reaction begins to have difficulty finding unused reactants. A total of 18 10psi gulps of hydrogen are required to complete a 1-mole batch in my test vessel. The last hydrogen gulp takes well over an hour to finish, with a total elapsed time of about 4-6 hours to complete the reaction. Using a known volume and pressure, one can calculate how many pressure drops it will take to use up a mole of hydrogen.

With the reaction done, the chemist pours the reaction solution into a 1000ml beaker and rinses the vessel out with a little ethanol, adding the rinse to the beaker. One must now remove the catalyst before processing. This is accomplished by using a small(2″) Buchner along with Qualitative 5 filter paper and filtering into a 1000ml filter flask. Capture the remaining particles of catalyst in the beaker with ethanol. At this point, the chemist must be on his toes because the catalyst in the Buchner will catch the alcohol on fire if it is not quickly quenched. This is done by pouring a layer of distilled water over the catalyst and allowing the vacuum suction to pull it through, taking the alcohol with it.

One must always keep in mind that this catalyst is very pyrophoric, meaning it will burst into flames or explode at the slightest provocation. Things one should never do with this catalyst at any time, but especially once it has been pre- reduced, are; 1) allow it to fall freely through the air for more than a few inches, 2) allow it to come into intimate contact with flammable solvents such as ethanol, methanol, etc., and, 3) expose it to open flame. We have forced hydrogen atoms into the lattice structure of the platinum dioxide crystals, and that hydrogen reacts with oxygen both in the air and the platinum dioxide (reducing it over time to platinum), and this reaction creates heat which will catch things on fire. A static charge of sufficient intensity, such as that picked up when falling freely through dry air, will cause the catalyst to explode, although not with an intensity that will damage anything but one’s dignity.

Now that the catalyst is removed, pour the filtrate into a 1000ml round-bottom (RB) flask and distill the ethanol and methylamine off until the temperature reaches 90-92°C. Turn off the heat, attach an empty receiving vessel, then slowly apply a vacuum by gradually closing the bleeder valve on the water-aspirator system. When the temperature has dropped and the vacuum is down to 28-29″Hg, turn on the heat again and vacuum distill off the residual water until the condenser is clear, which will occur between 50-60°C. Remove the heat and allow the remaining meth base to cool a little. With fresh boiling stones and a clean receiver that has been weighed, reapply the vacuum and distill the meth base over a 10°C range. Adjust the vacuum using the bleeder valve so that the meth base distills over at 95-105°C. Meth base is a clear, colorless liquid. If it is anything but clear and colorless, it contains contaminants. The accompanying picture shows the result of a 6.5 mole batch, which produces about 900g of meth base.

A one-mole batch of P2P with 100% conversion would result in 149g (one mole) of methamphetamine base, but the typical yield is 90-93%, resulting in 134-140g of base. Meth base will quickly react with carbon dioxide in the air to form the carbonate, so it is advisable to crystallize the base as soon as possible. Crystallization is performed by adding 450g(3 moles) of meth base to a 1000ml Pyrex beaker and placing the beaker on a stirring hotplate. Carefully drop in a Teflon- coated stirring bar and begin stirring. One now adds 37% hydrochloric acid in 15ml portions. A graduated 15ml test-tube makes an ideal dispenser. A great deal of heat is generated as the acid reacts with the meth base and will result in boiling if added too quickly. Add 15ml of acid at intervals of 1 minute until 19 portions (285ml) have been added, then add acid in smaller portions and watch the color carefully. If the meth base was clean to begin with, it will turn light pink when the pH reaches 3-4. Test with pH strips(Colorphast 0-14 strips) or a meter. Stop adding acid when the pH reaches 3.

Now we must boil off the water contained in the acid, as water solvates meth very efficiently. Turn the heat on the hotplate to 4.5 while stirring continues and place a thermometer that reaches 150°C into the beaker on the bottom. Over the next 1.5 hours, the temperature will climb to 110°C where boiling begins, then gradually rise as the water is boiled off. When the temperature reaches 130°C, turn off the heat and remove the thermometer. Using a dishtowel, grip the beaker with both hands and quickly pour it into a 5000ml plastic bucket containing 4.5 liters of acetone which has been frozen for 2 weeks. Retrieve the stir-bar with a chaser, replace the lid and return to the deep freeze for 1 week to allow complete crystallization. Clean, freshly distilled acetone will retain about ¼ lb of product the first time it is used, which is why one should recycle one’s acetone. Alternatively, one can pour the hot methamphetamine hydrochloride into a 5-gal plastic bucket containing 4.5-gal of acetone that has been frozen for about a month (it takes a long time to pull the heat out of a large mass). The meth will crystallize the instant it hits the frozen acetone, although about 25% will remain in the acetone and must be frozen to crystallize.

Paradoxically, dirty meth crystallizes better than pure meth because the crystals quickly grow around a particle of impurity, forming nice large, hard crystals. The meth crystals are filtered out using a large Buchner, two 4000ml filter flasks, and a high-volume vacuum aspirator. An 18cm porcelain Buchner will hold a little over 1 lb of filtered product. Do not use Qualitative 5 filter paper for this filtration. This writer has found that the filters used in milk processing equipment are ideal for meth harvesting. A lot of money has been spent by the dairy industry over the years figuring out how to quickly filter solids out of mixed-phase solutions. These filters will allow liquids, both water and oils, to pass freely while trapping the finest solids, making them ideal for rapid filtering. The problem with the fine paper filters is that oil-water mixtures plug them up very quickly. Milk filters do not have this problem and they are easy to find, cheap, and suspicionless. One will need to cut-to-fit, but this is a small inconvenience. A suitable high-volume filtering setup can be easily made using 5 and 20-liter buckets, a round plastic plate, and some glue. This writer was fortunate enough to discover a large Buchner being used as a planter by a nice lady in my neighborhood. Happily paying the lady for a replacement, the retrieved treasure holds over 2lb of product and makes the chemist’s life much easier. The point is that one can find useful equipment almost anywhere. Pure meth is more difficult to crystallize, and results in a light, flaky white product with a mild scent of marzipan (actually benzaldehyde). Empty the product into a large cake tray and let the acetone evaporate in the fume cabinet for a day or two, separating it as it dries.

This product may be cut with powdered niacinamide (vitamin B3) at a 4:1 ratio (20% cut) to make a product that burns clean and is water-soluble. Do not use vitamin B-3 tablets which contain insoluble buffers that burn dirty.

4.0 Manufacture of 1-phenyl-2-propanone

The manufacture of P2P utilizing benzaldehyde and nitroethane is described. We will be using a two-stage procedure involving the Cope modification of the Knoevengel reaction and an iron-acid reduction procedure. The chemistry of this procedure has been described by Uncle Fester in his Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, 3rd ed., thus we will concentrate on scaling up the reaction to the point where it can be used for very high-volume manufacture.

4.1 Equipment

The following equipment will be required.

  • A rigid-base heating mantle with dual-element controls that holds a 22-liter round-bottom triple-neck.
  • A 22-liter, 3-neck, round-bottom reaction flask
  • A 45/50 to 24/40 glass fitting adapter
  • A Dean-Stark trap
  • Two 30cm West condensers
  • Several 5-liter and 20-liter plastic buckets
  • Fabricated equipment described below

4.2 Chemicals
This is our basic starting material. One mole of benzaldehyde weighs close to 100g and has a density close to 1g/ml. Since we will be performing 25-mole reactions, we will use 2500ml of benzaldehyde per reaction. All other reactant quantities are derived from this figure. Purchase the chlorine-free type if available, but the standard product works fine. Store in a cool, dark place. Benzaldehyde will auto-oxidize somewhat over time, but is nothing to get excited about-this stuff will keep. The oxidation product is benzoic acid, which takes the form of well-defined white crystals at the bottom of the container. Try not to get any of the crystals into the reaction. They won’t kill it, but will reduce the yield. Benzaldehyde has a strong odor of marzipan. It can be vacuum-distilled in order to clean it up, but has a tendency to bump vigorously at vacuum levels that are high. Benzaldehyde has been relatively easy to obtain until recently.
Nitroethane (EtNO2)
This is the material we will react with the benzaldehyde molecule in order to produce 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. It supplies the carbon sidechain and nitro group that are required to produce the nitrostyrene. EtNO2 is a clear, pleasant- smelling liquid which boils at 114-115°C, has a molecular weight of 75.07g/mol, and a relative density of 1.05. It distills nicely without vacuum. Since we will be providing a 5% excess of nitroethane in order to ensure there are enough molecules available to combine with the benzaldehyde, we will require 26.25 moles of nitroethane((26.25mol x 75.07g/mol)/1.05), or 1,875ml for each batch. One can use the industrial grade nitroethane, but it must be washed and distilled before using. To clean it up, pour about 3000ml of nitroethane into a 4000ml separatory funnel, add 500ml of distilled water, shake thoroughly, allow the water to separate to the top over a 24-hour period, then drain the nitroethane and distill it, discarding anything that comes over below 110°C. It is important that the nitroethane be clean. One should be aware that nitroethane has become a high-suspicion product because it sounds much like nitromethane, which is the booster that was added to the Oklahoma City bomb. Do not confuse the two.
n-butylamine (n-BuNH2)
This is our catalyst. Do not use “sec-” or “tert-” butylamine, as they will not work(the “n-” means “straight- chain”). In addition, because n-butylamine is a very strong base which reacts with carbon-dioxide in the air and almost anything else it contacts, one must insure that the catalyst is clean. The best way to do this is to distill it. Do this inside a fume cabinet as this stuff is very ugly. Don’t breathe it and don’t touch it. One must wrap the stopper or cork on the distillation rig in Teflon tape to prevent it from being eaten. The amount of catalyst used in our 25-mole reaction is nominally 20ml/mole, but experience has shown that the actual amount is closer to 23ml/mole, so one should purchase an amount that will provide a volume of 25ml/mole of benzaldehyde. The actual amount must be determined by observation and adjusted accordingly. The use of catalyst that is not pure will result in a drastic reduction in yield.
Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)
This innocuous chemical is used in our reduction reaction in small quantities as a “steerer”, which modifies the reaction equilibrium in the direction we desire. A few kilos of this can do a lot of reactions.
Catalytic Iron Powder (Fe)
Used in the reduction procedure, the iron reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. Due to the requirement for good dispersion during the reduction, the use of a fine mesh powder is necessary, either 80 or 100 mesh. A coarser 60 mesh powder can be used, but may result in some problems if the stirring system is inadequate. The reaction requires 200g of iron powder for every mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene that is reduced. Since we will be performing 20- mole reductions, each reduction will require 4000g of iron.
Muriatic acid (HCl)
This is simply dilute hydrochloric acid, usually about 28-32% as compared with 37% HCl. It works just fine, however, and has the advantage of being available at almost any hardware store. A volume of 750ml of 37% HCl is required for every mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene that is reduced, resulting in 15 liters of acid required for every 20-mole reduction. It has been this writer’s experience that the more dilute muriatic acid performs just as well as the stronger stuff in the same volume.
Methanol (MeOH)
This is used as a solvent when processing the yellow nitropropene crystals. Purchase methanol which has not been diluted with water-some of it is only 60% methanol. Keep it in the deep freeze.
This is our solvent for the Knoevengel reaction. It is available in every paint store, although many companies are relabeling their solvents with house names so the narcs don’t hassle them. Use the “UN” number, which must be on every container, to identify the product. Or just ask. Most paint store employees don’t know the difference between toluene and neoprene and will happily tell you anything you want. Our Knoevengel reaction requires 200ml of toluene for every mole of benzaldehyde, or 5000ml for every reaction.

4.3 Production of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene

Set up the 22-liter RB in the heating mantle. Add 10-20 PTFE(Teflon) boiling stones to the vessel. Through the wide center neck, add 5000ml of toluene, 2500ml of benzaldehyde, and 1875ml of nitroethane, in that order, with stirring. Have the fitting reducer, Dean-Stark trap, and a West condenser greased up and assembled nearby. We will need to assemble the pieces quickly once the n-butylamine is added. Using a wooden dowling rod as a stirrer, quickly add 550ml of n-butylamine with stirring. The reaction mixture will turn from clear to a milky consistency as a Schiff’s base and a molecule of water are formed(the water turns the solution milky). Assemble the fitting reducer, the Dean-Stark trap, and the West condenser on top of each other and plug the two side necks. Attach a fitting to the top of the condenser and run an exhaust line into your fume cabinet. Start the water running through the condenser. Wrap some aluminum foil around the top half of the reaction vessel and the Dean-Stark trap to avoid excessive cooling.

Turn on both heating elements and set the temperature controls at 20%. At this setting it will take a long time to heat up the solution. After one has some experience with this reaction, one can start out with the heating mantle at a higher setting(70% for 20min on my rig). One must be aware that we are using only a small West condenser for cooling and that it takes very little extra heat to blow material out the top. On my equipment, the proper setting is 18%–20% is too hot. Be very careful with the heat. The idea here is to boil the solution just hard enough to reach the bottom of the condenser where the water-toluene azeotrope can condense out into the Dean-Stark trap and be removed from the reaction solution. This occurs at 85°C.

Once the reaction reaches the condenser, the water will begin to accumulate rapidly. For a 25 mole reaction, 25 moles of water will be created and must be removed for the reaction to reach completion. This writer’s Dean-Stark trap holds 25ml of water, resulting in a total of 18 full water-traps to complete a 25-mole reaction. Use a piece of paper and make a mark every time the trap is emptied. The water will come over rapidly at first, taking only a few minutes to fill the trap, and then slows down as water molecules get harder to find. The reaction should take about five hours to complete, but one should not use time as a definitive indicator. One will do much better at judging the quality and state of one’s reaction by observing the color of the reaction mixture. As the water is removed, the solution will begin to turn a light orange color and deepen as the reaction nears completion. The use of too much catalyst, n-butylamine, will cause the reaction to polymerize to some degree, resulting in a dark brown solution color, poor quality nitropropene crystals, and a greatly reduced yield. Unfortunately, this reaction is very sensitive to the quantity and quality of the catalyst. Too little catalyst will reduce the yield significantly and too much will burn(polymerize) it. This writer advises that one do test batches of 1 and 5 moles in order to home in on the exact amount of n-butylamine required. If the reaction is allowed to continue once all the water is removed, it will begin to polymerize, so one should carefully watch the color of the reaction solution and keep careful track of the amount of water removed. Even if all of the theoretical amount of water has not been removed, if the solution color starts turning dark, pull it. Turn off the heat, allow the boiling to subside into the vessel, remove the condenser and Dean-Stark trap, then carefully lift the vessel out of the heating mantle and place it on a plastic bucket inside the fume cabinet. Leave it to cool down to room temperature overnight.

We will now strip the toluene solvent from the solution by performing a vacuum distillation. One needs a high-volume adjustable vacuum source in order to perform this distillation. Do not use a vacuum pump to strip solvents-it’s hard on the pump and poses a high fire hazard. Always use an aspirator when vacuum-distilling solvents. Your typical university aspirator that runs off 40psi of water pressure is not adequate to pull a decent vacuum in a large volume, let alone an adjustable vacuum. We will be working with a system volume of about 27 liters. Attach two West condensers in series and support them carefully with tri-grips or wooden blocks with grooves cut into the tops. Attach a 5000ml round-bottom flask that has been marked at the 5000ml level. We will use this mark to determine when we have finished. Once completely assembled, turn on the heating mantle and set the controls at 30%. Once again, the reader’s system/equipment will be slightly different from mine and he must make some minor adjustments. The idea here is to distill off the toluene at a temperature high enough to allow the condenser to liquefy the toluene so it doesn’t get sucked into the vacuum system where it can cause damage. About 26-27″Hg or thereabouts will produce a distillation temperature range of about 40-60°C, which is hot enough to be condensed out by water at 10°C. One should not attempt to distill off the toluene at a normal atmosphere because the added heat quickly polymerizes the product as the toluene is removed. One must also make sure one has removed ALL of the toluene; even a small amount will prevent the crystals from forming or will produce poor quality crystals that polymerize rapidly in the open air. Since we started with 5000ml of toluene, we need to strip off at least that much. Use a mark on the receiver.

Once the toluene has been stripped off, turn off the heat, disassemble the equipment, and then pour the hot, orange liquid remaining in the vessel into two 5-liter plastic buckets, filling each of them to about 1/3 full and then covering. Quickly rinse and wash the big reaction vessel with methanol before the residue adheres to the walls. Let the liquid nitropropene cool for a few hours, then cover and place at the bottom of the freezer overnight. In the morning, the crystals will be formed and we must remove any unreacted material and contaminants. To accomplish this, pour about one liter of methanol which has been frozen for a week or two into one of the buckets holding the solid mass of crystal and break up the mass with a big screwdriver. The yellow nitropropene crystals are only slightly soluble in cold methanol, but the undesireable reaction remnants are very soluble, so we will dissolve the gunk while leaving the crystals intact. Once converted into a slurry, filter through a Buchner. Do the same to the other bucket. Empty the bright yellow crystals into a large cake tray and let them dry. Once dry, place into a 5gal bucket, cover, and place in the deep freeze. Left in the open air, the nitropropene crystals will polymerize in about one month. Stored in the freezer, these crystals will keep nicely for at least two years.

The yield on this reaction is not 100%, as stated in other literature. The theoretical yield is 79%, but the best this writer has achieved is 74%, with 70% being the average. Since one mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene weighs 168g, one should end up with 25 moles x .7, or 17.5 moles of nitropropene crystals which weigh about 2940g. This writer advises that the chemist make and store all of his yellow nitropropene crystals before proceeding to the next step.

The chemist may wish to experiment with other strong bases in order to find an alternative to n-butylamine, which is rare enough to be a choke point.

4.4 Reduction of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene to 1-phenyl-2-propanone

4.4.1 Equipment construction

This procedure is the most difficult described. Not because the reaction is difficult to perform, but because of the equipment one must build in order to make it workable. The problem is one of scale; A two-mole reduction can be performed in 5000ml glassware using a heating mantle and standard stirring equipment. To reduce a 20-mole batch requires ten times the volume, 50 liters, a controllable heat source, and scaled-up stirring equipment. Additionally, we will perform a steam-distillation in order to extract and purify the final product, which will require a large condenser. We will want this condenser to also operate in the reflux mode during the reaction in order to keep the acid from boiling off and killing everything. To make matters worse, we will be working with 15 liters of muriatic acid, which means everything must be made of stainless-steel. Fortunately, this equipment is neither difficult nor expensive to construct. One needs to either own and be proficient with a TIG welder or find a shop that can do the work. If one must use shops, spread the work around. They will all ask what it’s for-simply tell them that you have a non-disclosure agreement and would lose your job or contract if you told them. Or make up your own story.

Our reaction vessel will be a 50-liter stainless stock-pot found at the kitchen/restaurant supply. It must be stainless, and not aluminum. High-quality stainless pots have aluminum-clad bottoms for better heat transfer-this is good. They will all be fabricated of thin-wall stainless, but look for the most heavy-duty pot you can find. This pot is the weak point in our equipment because the boiling hydrochloric acid will eat through the wall of the pot in 5-7 reactions, after which a new pot must be purchased.

In order to seal the pot, a flange must be welded onto the pot rim and provision made for attaching and sealing a top. This is done by carefully measuring the diameter of the pot rim and fabricating a flange to fit. We will be using a 3/16″ polypropylene “O” ring for a seal and a series of bolts on the outside to accomplish the sealing and attaching. The ring should be about 2″ wide, with the bolts(3/8″ stainless hardware) on the outside and a 1/16″ x 3/16″ groove machined into the flange face about ¾” from the inside rim. Polypropylene O-ring material can be found at most good hydraulics shops and machine shops. We will be using 1/8″ diameter or 3/16″ diameter O-ring material, whichever is available. Buy enough for several rings, as they wear out. Our flange must also be flat to within 1/16″ so the top isn’t warped. Do not weld the flange to the pot until the top-plate has been fabricated.

We also have a requirement for knowing the temperature of the reaction at all times. In order to do this, one must either weld a stainless bushing into the side of the pot that fits an industrial thermometer or create a fitting in the top through which one can insert a thermometer long enough to reach the reaction solution. Good luck finding a thermometer that long. This writer chose the bushing-in-the-side method with mixed results-the temperature indication worked great but the boiling acid eats the thermometers and the bushing weld creates a weak point which the acid attacks and eats through after only three reactions. Covering the weld completely with fast-drying J-B Weld after each use doubled the lifespan of the pot to six reactions. I’m sure someone out there can think of something better. A Teflon- coated pot would be nice.

Now that we have the beginnings of a reaction vessel, we will need a heat source. Fortunately, one can find propane- powered barbeques almost anywhere, including the heavy-duty one pictured, which is more than adequate. A 30lb propane tank is good for about three reactions.

Now we must design our top-plate, which is fairly complex. The first step is to have a matching circle of 3/16″ thick stainless-steel cut and drilled to fit the flange so they can be bolted together. Next, we must provide for a Teflon bearing in the middle. This writer designed a bearing machined from 3″ Teflon round stock. Since the gearmotor used to turn the stirrer has a ½” driveshaft, the bearing consisted of a ½” hole in the middle and a ¾” wide outside shoulder machined down to ½” depth. This results in a ½” thick bushing wall, which has held up without problem. Using these dimensions, a center-hole of 1.5″ diameter and four 10-32 threaded holes on the outside rim are required. It is advisable to have the Teflon bushing machined first and then fitted to the top. A shaft clearance of 0.003-5 works well. Unfortunately, one must know the diameter of the motor driveshaft in order to design the bearing. Many motors have 5/8″ driveshafts which will operate perfectly with the above bushing design by simply enlarging the center hole, leaving a 3/8″ bushing wall. The stirring shaft should be standard 316 stainless round stock with a flat machined at one end to make attaching the vanes easy.

The importance of vigorous stirring cannot be overemphasized. If too much iron remains on the bottom, it can cause a runaway reaction, which you will regret. To avoid this, keep the iron in suspension and the reactants moving. This writer has determined experimentally that about 150 rpm is a good speed for stirring, but this can vary depending upon the effectiveness of the stirring vanes. The vanes on the reaction vessel shown were a simple plate welded onto the bottom of the shaft, insuring that it did not contact the thermometer shaft inserted through the pot wall.

Now that we have a bearing and driveshaft, we must design a bracket that will hold our gearmotor firmly in line with the bearing and driveshaft. The picture above shows the gearmotor without the bracket, as the unit has been disassembled for storage. The reader will be left to his own devices in this bracket design since there is little chance that your gearmotor will be exactly like mine. Since there are two more attachments which must be placed on the top cover, one should locate an adequate gearmotor early on in the design and then wait until the end to fit the motor and bracket. The motor should have a shaft speed of about 150 rpm and a torque of 32 inch-pounds or better, keeping in mind that the more reaction mixture being turned, the more torque is required.

A 2″ stainless nipple must be welded to the top plate to accommodate the condenser and it’s fittings. In addition, a threaded ¼” hole must be placed in a location near the outside of the top plate. A ¼” NPT stainless nipple screws in here and is attached to 5/16 Tygon tubing leading to the acid reservoir. This is where the acid enters the reaction vessel.

The condenser and its fittings are fairly straightforward. Four 5′ sections of ½” thinwall stainless tubing are grouped within a 2″ diameter circle and welded into a flat flange with outside boltholes. Use ½” bolts for strength and a thick rubber gasket. The outside waterjacket is 4″ thinwall truck exhaust tubing which is light and cheap. It is fitted with ¼ ” NPT bushings at each end for water circulation. It is sealed at the end with another flange, leaving 6-9″ of tubing sticking out the end. The waterjacket should be 4′ long. Use dishwasher hoses found at the hardware store that have ¼” NPT thread on one end and hose thread on the other for circulating water through the system. The condenser will need to be supported with chains due to it’s weight when full of water. In order to use the condenser in both distillation and reflux modes, another flange must be fabricated which can be moved around in combination with standard pipe fittings. A combination of 2″ stainless “T” , a 2″ plug, and a 6″ long nipple with an angled flange of about 20°C on the end worked well for this writer. The adapter flange must mate well with the condenser flange to avoid leaks.

The following diagrams show how the condenser is configured for both distillation and reflux modes:

A container to hold and dispense the muriatic acid is required. This writer uses a small(5gal) plastic garbage can with a Tygon tubing siphon hole drilled just above the acid line. A 1/8″ stainless-steel flow valve is required to control the flow of acid into the reaction. These valves may be found at industrial supply houses like W.W. Grainger, etc. One should use only Tygon tubing as most other types will soon harden and crack.

4.4.2 Iron Reduction of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene to 1-phenyl-2-propanone

Pour 15 liters of clean tap water into the vessel. Follow this with 4000g of catalytic iron, 3400g (20mol) of 1-phenyl- 2-nitropropene and 40-50g of ferric chloride. Assemble the top with the condenser in the reflux mode, start the water running through the condenser, begin stirring, and fire up the propane burner. Watch the thermometer and turn off the heat when the temperature reaches 90°C. Slowly add muriatic acid in small doses over a 2-hour period. Watch the top of the condenser for signs things are getting out of hand. This reaction needs to be performed in a small shed or other outbuilding with good ventilation. Install a heavy-duty (500+cfm) exhaust fan in the shed. The reason for this is that the fumes from this reaction are very corrosive and if the reaction goes into runaway, one will want to abandon the shed for awhile as the fumes clear out. A total of 15 liters of muriatic acid is added. Once all of the acid has been added, allow the stirring to continue for another 2 hours before going on to the next step.

We now must extract our P2P from the nasty black mess inside the reaction vessel. We will do this through steam distillation. Disconnect the condenser, flange, and “Tee”, leaving the 2″ nipple open. The stirrer should remain turning. Next, quickly pour in about 4 liters of saturated lye solution that has cooled off overnight. Some heat and steam will be generated as the lye neutralizes the muriatic acid. Assemble the Tee, flange, and condenser in the distillation mode and start the water flowing through the condenser. Place a 20 liter bucket under the end and fire up the propane burner to high. Discontinue stirring. Distill over the water and P2P until the bucket is full, then turn off the heat.

The yield for this reduction is 75% no matter how badly one thinks he has blown it, so we should expect to obtain 15 moles, or a little over 2000g of P2P. Since P2P has a density close to that of water, this works out to about 2 liters of product.

We must now extract the P2P from the water, purify it, and store it for later use. This is accomplished by pouring 3000ml of water/P2P into each of two 4000ml separatory funnel. One then adds about 300ml of saturated lye solution to each and shakes vigorously for 3-5 minutes. This is done to insure there is no residual acid which can, and will, poison the catalyst when used. After a thorough shaking, 400ml of methylene chloride is added to each separatory funnel and shaken vigorously for 2-3 minutes. Methylene chloride is an easily obtainable solvent for most plastics. Check the plastics supply shops that sell buckets, sheet plastic, etc. Since methylene chloride is heavier than water, it will pick up the P2P and carry it to the bottom of the sep funnel. This takes some time, however, so one must not get in a hurry. This writer allows the separation to sit for 6 hours before draining the bottom layer into a one-gallon wine bottle, or even better, an amber glass bottle. Cut a square out of a plastic baggie and use it for a seal between the bottle-top and the cap. Add another 400ml of methylene chloride, shake vigorously, and let it settle out again for 6 hours before draining. This is good enough, go on to the next batch. When finished, one should have 3-4 gallons of methylene chloride/P2P solution.

We will now recover our methylene chloride solvent for reuse and distill the P2P. Use a 5000ml round-bottom vessel and distill over the methylene chloride from 39 to 60°C. Return the solvent to it’s container and continue until there is only about 2000ml of P2P left in the vessel. Add boiling stones and vacuum distill over the remnants of the methylene chloride and water until it is clear that only P2P is left. Using a clean receiver and fresh boiling stones, distill over the P2P at 105-115°C. Do not distill at a temperature lower than 105°C or the P2P will carry contaminants over with it, the contaminants being darker colored. P2P is a clear, pale-yellow liquid that smells like cat piss. P2P will auto- oxidize over a period of weeks if left at room temperature, so put it in the freezer until ready for use.

One can use toluene to extract the P2P from the water, but it must be vacuum-distilled and the separation will be to the top instead of the bottom like methylene chloride. It takes about the same amount of time to separate as when using methylene chloride.

4.4.3 Alternative reduction procedure

For those unable or unwilling to construct the admittedly large number of mechanical items described above, there is an alternative reduction procedure that the reader may or may not find more convenient. This reduction, gleaned from Dr. Alexander Shulgin’s wonderful book PIKHAL, uses glacial acetic acid instead of muriatic acid to create hydrogen by reacting with catalytic iron. It also cleans up with water and eliminates the steam distillation step used above. The downside is that, as described, it takes a much larger volume of acid to reduce an equivalent amount of nitropropene. It may be possible to reduce the amount of acid required, and I leave it those interested to develop it further.

Place a 1000ml Pyrex beaker into a pan of water and rest this on a hotplate. Add 140ml of glacial acetic acid and 32g of 80-100 mesh catalytic iron. Heat to about 85°C, just below the point where white salts begin to appear, then add 10-15g of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene crystals dissolved in 75ml of glacial acetic acid. Add slowly, allowing a vigorous reaction free from excessive frothing. Continue heating for 1.5 hours after the addition. The surface will crust up, turn whitish, and climb the walls of the beaker. Remove from heat, mix into 2000ml of clean water. Add enough concentrated lye solution to neutralize the acid, then extract with methylene chloride and distill exactly as above. One can scale this up by using a bucket made from polypropylene (try Chevron Delo 400 oil buckets). These tough buckets will stand up to 100°C temperatures without deforming. Or one can use a stainless pot either plain or Teflon coated. Glacial acetic acid has a strong vinegar smell which disperses rapidly when heated, making for an odor problem hard to disguise. But since there is no power required, one can do this in the woods somewhere. This procedure was designed by Dr. Shulgin to reduce the nitrostyrene associated with MDMA, so it can be used for both Meth and Ecstasy if one can find a supply of piperonal. The reader will find that most of the procedures described herein apply to the manufacture of both products. This writer has tried this procedure with excellent results, obtaining a 75% yield of a very pure and colorless P2P.

5.0 Manufacture of Methylamine from Formaldehyde and Ammonium Chloride

The use of phenylacetones as precursors to Meth and Ecstasy require methylamine to complete the reaction. Fortunately, it is fairly easy, if time consuming, to manufacture. Both formaldehyde and ammonium chloride are easily obtainable chemicals used extensively in industry. One can divert formaldehyde from taxidermists and ammonium chloride from many plating shops and even the drugstore. Once again, we have a two-step procedure; the first making methylamine hydrochloride crystals which are stored in the freezer until used, and a purification step where the methylamine is collected and diluted.

5.1 Equipment

To perform this procedure we will need the following equipment.

  • A rigid-base 10-liter heating mantle with dual controls.
  • Two 10-liter round-bottom 3-neck flask
  • Three 2000ml RB flasks.
  • A 30cm West condenser.
  • A 500ml dropping funnel.
  • A 75cm dual-surface reflux condenser with 24/40 joints(bottom male, top female)
  • Several clean 5-liter and 5-gal buckets with tops.
  • A fabricated condenser capable of condensing ammonia (bp -33°C). This condenser is fabricated using a 1 gallon paint can and a section of ¼” brake line found at the auto parts store. About 24″ of brake line is carefully coiled into a spiral that fits inside the paint can. An exit tube about 2″ long and an entrance are brazed to the can. There must be no leaks at the bottom. Also, the coiled brake line must not have any section that is crimped or runs “uphill” – this can cause a serious backpressure problem. When filled about 1/3 with methanol or ethanol and chilled with dry ice, this condenser will be at -75°C, which is cold enough to condense ammonia. Wrap the paint can with pipe insulation and duct tape. Without the insulation, the dry ice must be replenished at intervals short enough to be distracting. This writer attached a mounting handle but later discovered that it is much easier to simply set it on a table or bench of the proper height. Do a test run with alcohol and dry ice to see if any leaks appear when the brazing is rapidly chilled. Check to see that water runs smoothly through the condenser without any backpressure. This is not a piece of equipment one wants to test as it is used.

  • In addition to the dry ice condenser, we will need to circulate ice water through a reflux condenser in order to condense out any water vapor that may accompany the methylamine gas. This writer purchased a perfectly good circulating chiller at a mining equipment sale that pumps -20°C antifreeze solution. Otherwise, one can make a perfectly acceptable chiller out of aquarium pumps and a 10-gallon Coleman ice chest. Connect two aquarium pumps together in parallel so if one pump fails in the middle of the reaction the other can continue on until the procedure is finished. Drill holes in the top of the cooler for the pump cord and circulating lines. Add a layer of water on the bottom and drop in several bags of ice. As the ice melts, add more. This will give us about a 1°C circulating solution. If a colder solution is desired, one simply uses cheap plumbing antifreeze that won’t freeze at -30°C and chills it with dry ice instead of water ice. The pumps may become unreliable at the reduced temperature.

5.2 Chemicals

To make a useful amount of methylamine, the following is required.

  • 10-20 gallons of 35-40% Formaldehyde
  • 10kg Sodium hydroxide (lye)
  • Distilled water
  • A 40lb block of dry ice, wrapped in newspaper and stored in a good ice chest.
  • About 40lb of ice cubes or block ice from the supermarket
  • 40-50kg of ammonium chloride. Industrial grade ammonium chloride is normally mixed with a little calcium chloride to keep it from clumping up and hardening and is called “treated” ammonium chloride. The calcium chloride does not affect the reaction, so one can use the cheap industrial 50lb bags.

5.3 Methylamine Hydrochloride

Set up the 10-liter rigid base heating mantle inside the fume cabinet. We will be generating some formaldehyde gas which one does not want to breathe.

Charge the reaction vessel with 3kg of ammonium chloride and 6 liters of 35-40% formaldehyde. The ammonium chloride will not dissolve, so stir it with a section of wooden dowling. Attach a 30cm West condenser, a vacuum takeoff, and a 2000ml receiver RB flask. Lead a short section of plastic tubing from the vacuum takeoff to a small pail of water. Use a clamp to place the end of the tube just under the surface of the water. Some of the gas generated will be absorbed by the water; the rest will go out the vent. Place a one-hole rubber stopper with a thermometer in one of the side holes on the triple-neck so the solution temperature can be easily read. The chemist then turns on the heat, setting the controls on 70% full-scale for a short time. When the solution temperature reaches 60°C, reduce the heat controls to about 25% and slowly bring the temperature up to 100°C. The ammonium chloride will now start to dissolve, and can be aided with some quick stirring with a dowling rod. As the solution reaches 70°C, a little gas will begin bubbling in the water pail. As the temperature climbs towards 100°C, a lot of gas will be generated, causing pressure inside the vessel. The pressure builds up because of the back pressure created by the West condenser, which is too small. In fact, the condenser is the limiting factor in this reaction, otherwise one would use a 22-liter setup and double the volume. This writer has performed this reaction in a 22-liter rig and does not recommend it. Those familiar with methylamine manufacture will be wondering why a pot of oil warmed to the correct temperature is not used; the answer is that this writer discovered that the solution temperature can be held at 104-106°C using a carefully controlled heating mantle. One will need to play with the control adjustments a little, but it is not difficult. If the chemist experiences difficulties holding a stable temperature, simply go back to the oil pot method. Reduce the heat to about 15% when the solution temperature reaches 100°C. Once the solution stabilizes at 105°C and the gas no longer bubbles in the water pail, the chemist can apply an aspirator vacuum at 15-30 minute intervals over the next 5 hours. At the end of 5 hours, turn off the heat, remove the triple-neck from the heating mantle, and let it cool down overnight to room temperature. The cooling causes a lot of ammonium chloride crystals to precipitate out of solution. Filter out the crystals, saving them in a separate bucket for later reuse, and save the light yellow filtrate in another bucket. Repeat this procedure several more times until a 20-24 liter bucket is full of liquid.

Next, set up the 10 liter triple-neck in the same manner as before and add about 7 liters of the accumulated intermediate-stage liquid. Set the heating mantle to about 30% and apply an aspirator vacuum of -28″Hg using a bleeder on the vacuum system. One should be careful to thoroughly grease all fittings with Dow-Corning High Vacuum Grease or it’s equivalent to prevent glassware freeze-ups. The chemist now patiently distils water and acid out of the mixture until solids begin to come out of solution and strong “bumping” begins to occur inside the reaction vessel. This can take 5-6 hours or longer. At this point, turn off the heat, disassemble the rig, and pour the contents of the reaction vessel into a bucket inside the fume cabinet. Leave overnight to cool down to room temperature, at which point there will be another large slug of ammonium chloride crystals to filter out. This time, however, a little methylamine hydrochloride will be mixed in with the ammonium chloride. Because methylamine hydrochloride is very hygroscopic, the salts may be gooey. Filter through a Buchner, keeping the recovered salts in one bucket and the yellowish liquid in another. Repeat until there is enough liquid in the second-stage bucket to proceed to the third stage. One should be getting the idea now that one can increase the throughput in the system by simply setting up another 10-liter rig and processing in parallel. By organizing the separate stages properly, one person can produce about 80 liters of 40% methylamine in 9 weeks if one is dedicated. This is enough methylamine to make 175lb of pure methamphetamine.

In the third step, we use the second-stage liquid we have collected and pull more water and acid out of the solution using a vacuum of 26-27″Hg, which is slightly lower than the vacuum used during the second stage. The vacuum setting is important because if the vacuum is too strong it will induce “bumping” inside the reaction vessel and if it is too weak, not enough water will be pulled out to give us good quality crystals that do not melt the instant they contact moist air. Pull as much water as possible out of the solution before the methylamine hydrochloride crystals precipitate out of solution and strong “bumping” begins, then pull the reaction and let the hot mixture cool overnight. Using a clean Buchner, filter out the methylamine hydrochloride crystals thoroughly, then dump them into a 5 gallon bucket that has been resting in the freezer for a few days. Methylamine hydrochloride crystals are whitish platelet-type crystals. Keeping the crystals in the freezer where it is too cold for water to remain in the air prevents the crystals from picking up water from the air and melting. Throw out the residual thick golden liquid. Repeat the procedure until one has accumulated a full 5-gal bucket of frozen crystals, which is the amount that one can turn into methylamine solution in one day.

5.4 Methylamine Solution

In this step we will mix methylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide to release methylamine gas, which is then condensed with dry ice-/alcohol, allowing us to collect pure methylamine liquid and store it in a water solution.

Before one can proceed, one must do some preparatory work to make things go smoothly. About 8 liters of 50% sodium hydroxide solution must be prepared the night before. In addition, a one gallon bottle (used wine jugs) containing 2 kg of crushed ice should be placed in the bottom of the freezer several days ahead of time. We will need to dilute the liquid methylamine with distilled water unless one intends to manufacture Ecstasy, in which case one will want to mix the pure methylamine with ethanol that has been frozen for a week or so and store it in the deep freeze. Methylamine/ethanol will not keep long as the methylamine will eventually boil away even in the freezer, but it is much safer than storing pure methylamine by itself. The methylamine/alcohol solution should be used within a week. Methylamine/water will keep well for years if kept cold.

One should be aware that this step can be very dangerous to life and liberty. Done improperly, this procedure can, and will, result in extremely stinky and poisonous methylamine gas filling the structure and pouring out into the street where everyone within a mile will smell it. The building will stink until it is torn down and the unlucky chemist who experiences this will also stink of it for a long time. One must be sober and paying close attention while performing this procedure.

To set up the equipment, one places a 10-liter heating mantle on the floor near the fume cabinet so any loose fumes will get sucked out. Place a clean triple-neck into the mantle. Mount a 75cm dual-surface reflux condenser in a tri- grip attached to a 36″ lab stand. Attach the chiller lines with the input at the bottom and the output at the top and start up the chiller pump. The top of the reflux condenser should be within inches of a table or benchtop. Place the methylamine condenser on the bench and connect it to the condenser using a section of Tygon tubing and a pigtail that fits a 24/40 glass joint. Do not use rigid connections between the different mechanical assemblies. A pigtail can be made from a section of glass tubing and a 24/40 plug for those with some experience with glass. The exit end of our paint-can condenser is connected with Tygon tubing to a two-hole rubber stopper that fits snugly into a 24/40 glass joint. Inserted into the stopper are a 4″ section of glass tubing and a 3″ section. Attach the Tygon to the longer section. Cut a section of plastic tubing that leads from the short stopper tube to the inside of the fume cabinet. This is our vent. Next, carefully weigh three 2000ml RB flasks and write it down somewhere, identifying each flask with a piece of duct tape around the neck. It is important to be able to determine exactly how much methylamine one has made when it comes time to dilute it with water. Do not use markers on the flasks as they will disappear with alcohol-use duct tape on the neck. Next, place a 36″ lab stand and ring (about 6-8″) near the bench and our methylamine condenser. Use a 5-liter plastic bucket wrapped in insulation on the sides and place it at a height where the 2000ml receiver flask will sit in it nicely without requiring a long section of tubing between the condenser and the receiver. Hook the bucket handle over the top of the lab stand for safety, then attach a tri-grip around the neck of the 2000ml receiver. The receiver must be held rigidly in place or it will float and bob around in the bucket when we add alcohol and dry ice. The receiver must be kept at -75°C or the methylamine will boil away on us. Methylamine has a boiling point of -6°C, so this stuff will boil away even when it’s kept in the deep freeze. We must also insure that our stopper will not pop out of the receiving flask by accident so one buys some Velcro strips at the variety store, slides a narrow strip between the glass tubes on the top surface of the stopper and uses another strip wrapped around the receiver neck, once the stopper is in place, to trap the ends and tie the entire works together. Tapes and other chemical-based bonding materials become fragile at -70°C. Lastly, charge both the paint can and bucket with methanol and slowly chill them down by adding chunks of dry ice, one at a time, until they no longer quickly boil away but remain solid at the bottom. The paint can should be about 75% full and the bucket filled to a point at least halfway up the receiving flask. We are now ready to rock and roll.

Using a wide-mouth funnel and a piece of wooden dowling, shove methylamine hydrochloride crystals from the freezer into the triple-neck until it is no more than 1/3 full. Attach the reflux condenser to the triple-neck and place the 500ml dropping funnel into one side neck. With the stopcock closed, charge it with 50% lye solution. Using a funnel quickly add 400g of dry sodium hydroxide to the main reaction vessel. Quickly plug the neck with a glass plug. As soon as the lye contacts the methylamine crystals it produces methylamine gas and sodium chloride(salt). After an initial burst, which one can watch run into the receiving vessel, the reaction will subside. Now is a good time to check and insure that all fittings are tight and there is no blockage in the condenser, which can be disastrous. Next, open the stopcock and allow the lye solution to stream in. It can be difficult to know when too much lye has been added because there is a delay before the reaction reaches a peak, so it is recommended that one proceed slowly, carefully watching the receiving flask for signs of too much liquid coming through. Methylamine is a clear liquid with a density of about 0.7. Keep the paint can and receiver bucket charged with dry ice and the chiller with water ice while lye solution is added at intervals. After an addition, wait until the condensation subsides before adding more lye. Eventually, adding more lye solution will not produce any more liquid methylamine and we must boil the remaining methylamine out of the solution of water, salt, methylamine, and dimethylamine. The remaining methylamine is now in a water solution, which we would prefer not to happen, but there must also be enough water to dissolve the salt and hold the dimethylamine in solution, so do not cut back on the water used in the lye solution. Turn the heating mantle to 50% and wait, keeping things cold as you do. Over the next two hours the remaining 60-70% of the methylamine will boil up through the reflux condenser, where the water and dimethylamines are condensed out, and then through the paint can and into the receiver. Watch the reflux condenser for signs of salt accumulating on the glass. This is an indication that there is not enough water in the solution, so let the boiling subside and quickly add a liter or so of distilled water before continuing the distillation. When no more methylamine comes over, or it is reduced to just a drop every several seconds, the batch is done. Turn off the heat and let things cool off for about 20 minutes until the boiling has totally subsided. During this period, detach the 2000ml receiving vessel and very, very carefully take it to the fume cabinet to be weighed. Keep in mind that if one should drop and spill the liquid methylamine, it will immediately boil into a gas, will probably kill the clumsy chemist, and will definitely make one’s lab the center of attention for weeks to come. Don’t drop it! Carry it in a frozen bucket(not a warm one). Once the methylamine has been weighed inside the fume cabinet, lower a clean thermometer into the liquid and leave it for several minutes until the temperature comes up to -30°C. This will let any liquid ammonia, which we do not want, boil away leaving only pure methylamine. Weigh it, subtract the weight of the flask, and divide the weight in grams by 0.7 to determine the volume. 1000g of methylamine will occupy about 1400ml. Very slowly and carefully add this first batch of methylamine to the 1-gal wine jug containing 2kg of crushed ice. There may be considerable fuming, in which case one should stop, stuff a rubber stopper(do not use glass) into the methylamine receiver and place the whole works into the freezer for a while.

Fortunately, one only has to perform this ugly chore once. Once we have a quantity of methylamine solution we know is 40%, one can simply add enough distilled water to accommodate the next batch and throw it into the deep freeze. The diluted methylamine solution will not freeze, thus allowing one to simply add methylamine liquid to the solution to bring it up to the required concentration. The formula is simple: equal volumes of distilled water and pure methylamine liquid will result in 40% methylamine solution. Depending upon the exact amount of crystals in the triple-neck, one should have between 900g and 1200g of pure methylamine liquid. For those manufacturing MDMA, add 100ml of pure methylamine to 250ml of ethanol that has been in the freezer for a week or so. This reduces the water content of the MDMA reductive amination, improving the yield.

Now that the first batch is complete, the chemist quickly sets up the other triple-neck and repeats the procedure. Once the chemist has some experience, he can do four batches in a single day if he starts early.

6.0 Manufacture of 70% Nitric Acid

Nitric acid is an essential chemical required for making aqua regia. It is also an essential ingredient in the manufacture of nitric ester explosives, which makes it a closely watched chemical. Jewelers are able to purchase very small amounts (50ml) to make aqua regia for dissolving gold, platinum, and rhodium. Some plating operations use nitric acid. Fortunately, 70% nitric acid is easy to make.

6.1 Chemicals

One will need to acquire the following chemicals.

  • Concentrated (98%) sulfuric acid H2SO4. This acid is used extensively in industry, the most visible use being as battery acid when diluted.
  • Sodium Nitrate. This is also a fairly closely watched chemical due to it’s application in explosives, but is so widely used in industry that it is fairly easy to obtain. One can also use potassium nitrate in equivalent molar quantities. Look in the drugstore.
  • Dry ice. A 20lb block will do nicely; chip into small flakes when used.
  • A bag of rock salt and several bags of crushed ice.

6.2 Equipment
  • A 2000ml RB flask
  • A 1000ml RB flask
  • A 30cm West condenser
  • A single-element 1000W electric hotplate from the hardware store.
  • A medium-sized kitchen pot. The 2000ml RB flask must fit into the pot.
  • A lab jack for raising and lowering the hotplate and kitchen pot. A suitable lab jack may be constructed from a scissors-type car jack that has been modified. A 10″x10″ flat top is welded on the top, a circular steel plate is welded on for height adjustment, and a nut is welded onto the back bottom surface that will accept a standard lab stand shaft. This is necessary to suspend the 2000ml flask containing our reactants.
  • A 3-4″ diameter tube about 30cm long (cut to fit). This tube will be fitted around the West condenser, plugged at the lower end, and filled with dry ice. It can be either plastic or cardboard (mailing tubes). Make sure the condenser will fit inside the tube.
  • A 2-liter plastic bucket or other container in which the 1000ml RB flask will fit comfortably.
  • A controllable vacuum source.

6.3 Discussion

This is an easy procedure to perform, allowing one to make 400ml of 70% nitric acid in one day. The basic idea is to vacuum distill over the nitric oxide created by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium nitrate, condense it into a liquid with dry ice, and then drop it into distilled water to capture and dilute the resulting acid. The final step is to boil off the excess water, leaving about 200ml of very clean acid from each batch. The tricks to making this reaction work are a controllable vacuum source and precision control of the heat source.

Set up the lab jack with the hotplate and pot resting on the top surface. Suspend the empty 2000ml RB flask above the pot with a tri-grip. Position it so the bottom of the flask is clear of the pot. Also make sure that the pot can be raised to a point where the flask will touch the bottom of the pot.

While the flask is bottomed out in the pot, add enough vegetable oil (Wesson Oil works) to reach about 1″ from the top rim of the pot. Lower the lab jack, hotplate, and pot. Wipe the 2000ml flask clean with a paper towel and remove. Turn on the hotplate to a medium setting. We wish to heat the oil to 90-100°C and no hotter, so measure it with a candy thermometer and adjust the hotplate setting accordingly. We now have a precision heat source that can be applied and removed very rapidly by raising or lowering the lab jack.

We must now prepare our condenser. Seal off one nipple of the condenser with a short piece of plastic tubing that has been sealed on one end by melting the plastic together. Fill the condenser wall with isopropyl alcohol. Seal off the remaining nipple with another section of plastic tubing. Attach the vacuum takeoff and insert into the tubing. The top end should be positioned so the 24/40 joint is even with the top of the plastic tube. When positioned correctly, stuff a little pink insulation into the bottom opening and seal the bottom end of the tube with duct tape. The vacuum takeoff should be the only thing protruding. Attach the stillhead. Fill the tube with chips of dry ice and seal with a little pink insulation material. One will need to construct some custom supports for the tube-a couple of pieces of wood with “V”s cut into them works nicely, especially if mounted to a bottom plate for rigidity.

Next, pour 300ml of distilled water into the receiver flask and position it with a tri-grip and stand so it rests inside our small plastic bucket when attached to the vacuum takeoff. Add cold water to the bucket, then add crushed ice to keep the solution cool-much heat will be generated as the nitric oxide drips into the distilled water. Add a layer of rock salt on top of the ice to further reduce the temperature.

Add 365ml (685g) of sulfuric acid to the 2000ml RB flask. Then 600g of sodium nitrate is added in small portions while swirling the acid. Do this inside a fume cabinet. There will be no visible reaction. Mount well above the heat source. Assemble all of the glassware and attach the vacuum hose with the bleeder valve open so there is no vacuum. Slowly close the bleeder valve and bring the vacuum down to 25-26″Hg on the vacuum gauge.

One must be aware that excessive heat will cause foaming and the nitric oxide to come over too fast to condense. One should slowly raise the oil pot until it barely contacts the reaction vessel. Be prepared to quickly lower the pot if excessive boiling occurs. Watch the drip-tip of the vacuum takeoff; liquid nitric oxide should drip into the distilled water at a rate of 1 drop per second, maximum. Any faster than this will result in overheating the dilute acid and suck much nitric oxide into the vacuum system. It will take 2-3 hours to complete the reaction. During this time, one must replenish the dry ice supply in the tube. Use a flour scoop to carefully add to the tube. There should be 500-600ml of liquid in the receiver when done.

The next step is to remove the excess water from the acid solution in the receiver. This is done by simply boiling the liquid in a normal distillation setup. Distill over water until the temperature climbs to 118-120°C. What is left in the vessel is very pure, clear 70% nitric acid. Store in a cool dry place that is dark. It will keep for several years.

If one’s nitric acid becomes discolored, simply distill it.

7.0 Laboratory Equipment and Procedures

Unless one has spent many hours doing organic syntheses, there are many lab techniques and procedures that that will be unknown. This section attempts to cover some of the basics applicable to clandestine labs.

7.1 Fume Hood

One must have a fume cabinet, period. Fortunately, they are easy to build. This writer constructed an integrated fume cabinet/lab that fits on a single sheet of plywood. Note the plastic sheeting used to seal the enclosure when noxious fumes are present. Not shown is the exhaust fan that runs continuously. Use a fan that moves at least 250 cfm of air.

7.2 Water Aspirator

A high volume aspirator is required for many of the procedures described in this document. Although industrial strength aspirators can be purchased, they can also be constructed from common pipe fittings found at the hardware store. Shown in the accompanying photograph is this writer’s aspirator. There is a lot of cut-and-try involved in building a homebrew aspirator, so purchase one if possible. Also required to complete an aspirator system are a pump supplying 50-70 psi of water pressure and a reservoir of cold water. The pump can be a common 1/3 HP jet pump wired to a switch in the lab. These pumps are inexpensive, but are only good for about 200 hours of hard use, so keep a spare handy. The water reservoir must hold sufficient volume to prevent rapid heating of the water and be able to absorb solvents and fumes. A good reservoir size is about 100 gallons or two fifty-gallon drums connected together at the bottom and filled to 2/3. Water temperature is very important. The colder, the better. In sub-freezing temperatures, just add some plumbing antifreeze and one’s aspirator will pull a mighty vacuum. Unfortunately, as the water temperature rises, so does it’s vapor pressure, and this imposes a limit on the vacuum one can pull. To reduce the vapor pressure of the water, lower the temperature with a block of ice from the freezer.

Another essential component of the system is the vacuum trap. The trap keeps one’s mistakes during distillation from ruining the rest of the equipment. Placed between the aspirator and the vacuum hose, it collects any liquids not condensed into the receiver. One can be made using a 1-qt. Mason jar. Using a drill press, carefully drill two holes in the top that are just big enough to accept the base of a 3/8″ brass nipple. Braze the nipples to the top. Using a gasket, seat the top on the jar. Screw the top down firmly and attach the vacuum lines (Use 3/8″ reinforced hydraulic hose, as this size fits the nipples on vacuum-takeoff glassware and doesn’t collapse under a good vacuum). Place the vacuum trap somewhere it won’t get bumped; this writer built a 3-sided wood box lined with insulation. This is because the Mason jar will easily implode under a good vacuum. Check for leaks and use some pliable external house caulking to fix it. It is a good idea to change the water in the aspirator system daily, as solvents will attack the plastic pump impellors.

The next requirement is for a vacuum distribution system. The accompanying picture shows the vacuum input from the right, a distribution hose on top that attaches to glassware at the other end, a 0-29″ Hg vacuum gauge, and an industrial strength 1/8″ bleeder valve. A more suitable bleeder valve is a needle valve with a 0.050 aperture. The entire assembly is located inside the fume cabinet. The vacuum inlet at the right comes from the vacuum trap and may be replaced as required with a vacuum pump hose.

7.3 Distillation Tips

Below are some tips that will make vacuum distillations go smoothly.

  • Always use Dow-Corning High Vacuum Grease or it’s equivalent on glass joints. Use sparingly and keep glass joints clean.
  • Use Teflon (PTFE) boiling chips. They typically come in 1 lb. Cans. Use liberally, add fresh boiling stones each time the vacuum is broken or the liquid cools down.
  • Wait until the vacuum is stabilized before applying heat, then use the minimum heat required.
  • Maintain a 30°C temperature differential between the water flowing through the condenser and the condensate. The condensation line in the condenser should be between ½ and 2/3 the way down the condenser.
  • Don’t fill the distillation vessel more than halfway full. You can cheat a little bit on this one. Another don’t is “bumping”; this is easily recognizable and if it starts, stop the distillation immediately. Some heavier compounds like P2P and benzaldehyde are naturally “bumpy”, so one has to exercise some judgement.
  • Don’t get in hurry when doing large volume distillations; the condenser throughput rate is fixed and adding more heat won’t speed things up but will send some of one’s distillate into the vacuum system.

7.4 Reference Material

The following books are essential to any clandestine lab.

Merck Index
This handy volume provides one with all the essential data on most compounds, including molecular weight, density, boiling and freezing points, common usages, and references pointing to manufacturing techniques.
Uncle Fester’s Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, 3rd and 4th ed., Loompanics.
These comprehensive books provide the references and good pointers for those reading between the lines. In reading these books, one should bear in mind that if one is a little too accurate in his technical descriptions, one could find one’s ass in a prison sling. Hooray for Cypherpunks!
A Chemical Technicians Reference Handbook.
This is a valuable reference for solvent characteristics and lab procedures.
A college level Organic Chemistry textbook for a reference to common reaction mechanisms.

8.0 Keeping Out Of Trouble

If one can observe all of the following tips, one might be able to retire to a legal occupation with a good head start.

  • Work alone and keep your mouth shut. This is the most important advice this writer can pass on, and the most difficult to follow. It is tempting to share one’s secret success with one’s closest friend, perhaps even inviting him to help. Unfortunately, he feels compelled to tell his wife, who is secretly planning to leave him for a stockbroker and wants some leverage to facilitate her stripping your friend of all his assets. Well, you get the picture. One can crow all one wants, as I am in this document, once one has disposed of both product and equipment.
  • Do not talk business on the phone. Do not even call to make an appointment to talk. Every phone call, even local calls, are logged. Each log contains the originating phone number, the destination phone number, the time the call was originated, and the completion time. From this seemingly innocuous record, Inquisition Agents can weave a pattern of times, places, and connections that will look bad in court, even if fictitious. One can establish secure communications using PGP encryption software and anonymous remailers.
  • Never, ever, ever try to sell product while a lab is operating. This is like juggling rattlesnakes – it’s easy to get bit.
  • Don’t make this a career. All of the career dope cookers are in prison. Decide ahead of time how much dope you want to make, plan it carefully, do it, and then retire. Think of it as a temporary thing one is doing to get a leg up in life. Keep in mind that your first mistake will also be your last. There is no glory in becoming a headline, only grief.
  • Acquire and store all of your essential chemicals, supplies, and equipment before trying anything. This is the most dangerous activity, legally speaking, one will perform. If one attracts some heat, one can wait it out without having an operating lab to conceal. Keep in mind that the drug inquisitors do not have the time to hang around where there are no labs to busts or assets to seize. After a few months they will go away.
  • Use intermediaries to acquire chemicals, telling them you are just an intermediary also. Never tell anyone what you are doing.
  • Never front product. Once one fronts product, one is assuming all of one’s customer’s risks. One is better off flushing product down the drain. At least it can’t come back to bite. Do not trade for stolen property or phony money.
  • Don’t listen to your non-chemist customers on quality issues, no matter how emphatic or convincing they are. Users quickly build a tolerance for the product and feel the product is no longer full strength. In addition, many users grow to enjoy the jolt received from impurities present in much of the present street product. This jolt is not present in pure meth.
  • Always act like an ignorant, low-paid middleman who has to pass messages on to his superiors. This allows one to feign ignorance on all quality issues or money disputes and agree with one’s customer. It also provides one with bargaining leverage, allowing one to claim that one’s puny cut will be gone if the price goes lower.
  • Never flash cash or start buying expensive items not in fitting with one’s usual lifestyle. If one is renting, rent a nicer place or buy a modest house. Buy used cars and repair them to perfection instead of new, flashy cars. Invest the profits in stocks, T-bills, and other liquid assets. Go into a legal business and live happily ever after, knowing that one has successfully defied the Inquisition and struck a blow for individual freedom.

Important Message for Those With a Substance Abuse Problem: If you or someone you know is suffering from an addiction they need to find a Drug Rehab or Alcohol Rehab so they can recover from their substance abuse addiction. Relapse prevention is important in theaddiction treatment process and is critical for long term sobreity. For more information on how to get help with an addiction please call 800-559-9503 to speak directly with a counselor.

G.I. Joe is an iconic cartoon TV show that marked an entire generation of young boys during the 80s. Most fans still recall the main characters and the epic gun fights. But what about the storyline? A look at the TV series in today’s context is quite a strange experience: Many of Cobra’s “far-out” plots are actually happening today. Could G.I. Joe be a case of predictive programming? We will look at some G.I. Joe episodes describing the replacement of the US dollar and the usage of mind control on celebrities and civilians and see how they relate in today’s context.


As a guy who grew up in the 80s, I can personally attest that G.I. Joe was definitely on the menu in my after-school TV cartoon line-up. If you’re a younger reader, let me tell you this (at the risk of sounding like a grumpy uncle): G.I. Joe wasn’t your wimpy Dora the Explorer cartoon. It was a half-hour full of bad-ass characters face-kicking and laser-gun-shooting their way to victory. And that’s pretty much what I remembered of this TV show – laser-gun shootouts – until recently.

A reader of this site recommended I view a particular episode of the series called Money to Burn, which depicts in great detail a vital part of today’s NWO agenda (discussed later). I was in shock. So I watched other episodes in the series and this is what I saw: psychological warfare, tapping into occult forces to obtain political power, military research funded by huge corporations and mind control used on civilians and celebrities. The series pretty much summed up the entire contents of the Vigilant Citizen website. Most of the shady things are accomplished by Cobra Commander, the “bad-guy” of the show, who is a ruthless terrorist aiming for world domination. The Joes always managed to stop Cobra, however, dismantling his evil schemes in an orgy of laser-gun fire and spectacular explosions.

Cobra Commander angrily pointing at something.

Watching the shows today, however, was very unsettling: Because of open-access information laws and the Internet, it is slowly coming to light that today’s shadow governments are actually carrying out most of Cobra’s plans … in real life. News about these plans come on a daily basis in mainstream news (we do our best here at Vigilant Citizen to report them in Latest News section). Did G.I. Joe contain “predictive programming”, a technique based on planting ideas and concepts in the brains of viewers in order to make them seem normal and easily accepted when they actually happen?

Show Overview

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero ran in syndication from 1985 to 1989. The opening title sequence stated: “G.I. Joe is the code name for America’s daring, highly-trained Special Mission force. Its purpose: To defend human freedom against Cobra, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.” The shows ended with a public service announcement, where the Joes gave safety tips to the children. These announcements always concluded with a now-famous saying: “Knowing is half the battle!”

A mustache makes you automatically credible.

The animated series was designed to promote Hasbro’s line of action figures of the same name. In fact, each episode purposely featured a different character in order to boost the associated toy’s sales. Maybe this is the reason why the Joes had relatively lame and clichéd dialogue compared to the more complex and interesting Cobras. Other than promoting merchandise, the series pushed an obvious pro-American-military-industrial-complex agenda, a reflection of the Reagan-era dogma happening at the time, which was characterized by a showdown with the Soviet Union. In this context, one might expect the Cobra Organization to represent the “evil communists” as was the trend in so many movies in the 1980s.

Surprisingly, that is not the case. The “bad guys” in G.I. Joe are actually funded by a huge American corporation named Extensive Enterprises and its reptilian leaders (wink to David Icke) carried out their devious plans from hidden “Cobra Temples”. These bases, established all across the world with no regard to national borders, were often situated in mystical locations, such as Easter Island or by China’s underground terracotta warriors (Cobras apparently believe in the powers of geomancy). In fact, the Cobra Organization bears few characteristics of a communist or “terrorist” organization and many characteristics of an elitist secret society in the style of what we call the Illuminati.

The “Cobra Command” shaped like an unfinished pyramid. This shape can be found in many instances in Cobra Temples.
The unfinished pyramid is today’s most famous Illuminati symbol.

Even more significant is the plot of the first G.I. Joe episode ever aired. In the mini-series, titled Pyramid of Darkness, Cobra seeks to take control of the world by shutting down the power grid of the Northern Hemisphere.

The Cobra elite visualizing their plans for creating a Pyramid of Darkness on earth. Creating a pyramid to keep the world “in the dark” is a powerful symbol for Illuminati control of the masses. The word Illuminati  stands for “the enlightened” … most of its power is based on the masses being as ignorant and dumbed-down as possible. In other words: in the dark.

As we watch later episodes, it becomes noticeable that Cobra Commander’s numerous plans to conquer the world are eerily similar to actual events happening today, 25 years after the broadcast of these episodes, in another example of how “science fiction” is indeed becoming reality. Here are some aspects of the Illuminati agenda that were exploited in G.I. Joe:

Making Paper Money Worthless and Taking Possession of People’s Gold

In the episode entitled Money to Burn, Cobra finds a way to instantly burn all of America’s paper money using a “thermo-molecular ignition transmitter”, effectively rendering the American dollar useless.

A scared lady seeing her money bursting into flames.

Cobra then addresses the nation through a TV broadcast (he seems to have easy access to mass media). This is what he says:

“Attention citizens! Due to the financial irresponsibility and incompetence of your leaders, Cobra has found it necessary to restructure your nation’s economy. We have begun by eliminating the worthless green paper, which your government has deceived you into believing is valuable. Cobra will come to your rescue and, out of the ashes, will arise a NEW ORDER!”

This is pretty deep stuff for a show aimed at children under 12. This speech basically outlines the modus operandi of the Illuminati shadow government: create a crisis, cause chaos, claim to have the only solution, get people to beg for that solution, and restore “Order out of Chaos”. Furthermore, declaring this New Order to rise out of its ashes is reminiscent of the Masonic concept of a phoenix rising out of the ashes.

There is truth in Cobra’s statement regarding the real value of  paper money. The American dollar has had no actual value since  1971, when the gold standard was abandoned by the Nixon administration. The American dollar’s value used to be based on a fixed weight of gold. Today it can effectively lose all its value and become worthless overnight, as its value is not backed by any tangible goods … and this is what was happening in this episode of G.I. Joe.

After Cobra’s announcement, the dazed and confused American people assemble before the Department of Treasury and shout “We want money!”, begging the government to provide a solution to their problem. The Joes see the situation and observe that “buying and selling has been replaced by rioting and looting”.

Then Cobra appears on TV again and says:

“Citizens of the United States, I am pleased to announce Cobra’s economic recovery plan! If you want money to buy food for your children, take all your valuables to the nearest branch of Extensive Entreprises. There, all goods will be exchanged for Cobra currency!”

Cobra presenting the new currency to be exchanged for people’s valuables, such as gold.

This exact phenomena is happening today. There is currently a sustained effort to take gold and other valuables off the hands of the public through “Cash for Gold” programs. You might have been assaulted by ridiculous ads like these:

In a hidden Cobra Temple, the heads of Extensive Enterprises show a rich client the “largest stockpile of tangible assets ever assembled”.
A vault full of the ignorant people’s gold.

Fortunately, the Joes come to the rescue, restored the American dollar and destroyed pretty much everything in sight, including the Cobra Temple. Yo Joe!

Mind Controlling Celebrities to Mind Control the Masses

Many articles on this site discuss the use of mind control in popular culture, a concept that might be hard for some to believe. Well, the Joes were fighting it back in 1986.


In the episode entitled Rendez-Vous in the City of the Dead, Shipwreck and Snake Eyes (two G.I. Joe characters) enter a Cobra-owned night club named “Snake Club” (Cobra obviously knows the power of indoctrinating the youth through entertainment). There, a signer named Satin sings the praise of Cobra in the form of a love song. The singers’ backup dancers are dressed alike in Cobra-style costumes.

Backup dancers making Cobra control cool and fashionable.

Now, where did I see a famous singer performing on stage with dancers symbolizing the people’s oppression? Oh, right, right, right …

Beyonce making police in riot gear cool and fashionable at the 2010 Grammy Awards.

In another episode, titled Glamour Girls, the show describes nothing less than the use of MK Ultra in the entertainment business.

Cobra Commander, with the help of Dr. Mindbender, strikes a deal with an international cosmetic tycoon. Cobra agrees to provide a constant flow of beautiful young girls to the company in exchange for a face-transplant technology developed by the tycoon. Cobra therefore launches “Operation High Fashion”, which aims to recruit young models, singers and actresses by catering to their dreams of being famous.

In order to lure these girls, Cobra sends them invitations to a photo shoot, which will appear in an issue of  “Glamour Girls” magazine, the most prestigious fashion magazine in the world – a publication that is owned by Cobra’s Extensive Enterprises (Cobra of course owns multiple media outlets, like today’s Illuminati).


Not surprisingly, all of the girls who received an invitation are ecstatic at the idea of appearing in the magazine and they gladly present themselves at the Glamour Girls building for the photo shoot. But they are being tricked: The camera’s flash sends subliminal hypnotic messages to the models, making them highly suggestible and easily manageable.

Once hypnotized, the models obey any command.

The models are then instructed to go to a “party” and they do so without questioning. In their mind-controlled state, the models dissociate from reality and perceive the party as being a glamorous get-together attended by classy gentlemen. When their hypnotic state wears off however, the harsh reality kicks in.

When the girls snap out of their dissociative state, one of them says “We’re not in Kansas anymore”. This is a reference to the Wizard of Oz, a movie that is used in actual mind control programming. Being in or out of “Kansas” is in fact a code word regarding a subject’s dissociative state.

All of the young girls and celebrities who fall for this trap are manhandled and thrown into a dungeon.

A celebrity trapped in a heavily guarded dungeon. Similar programming facilities are used in actual mind control projects.

The theme of mind control is becoming increasingly prevalent in today’s fashion industry and it is often coded with the use of lifeless mannequins and Monarch butterflies.

Megan Fox in a mind-control themed photo shoot.

Fortunately, the Joes manage to track down the Cobra’s dungeon, punch everybody’s lights out and rescue the young ladies. Yo Joe!

Using Mind-Controlled Civilians in Secret Military Missions

In Operation Mind Menace, the theme of mind control is yet again exploited. In this episode, the Cobra Organization kidnaps civilians known to have psychic abilities, in order to harness their power and use them in secret missions.

Kidnapped civilians with psychic powers entering the Cobra Temple. The device on their chests are amplifiers. Similar devices are reportedly implanted in the brains of actual Theta programming victims.

In Monarch programming terms, this is known as “Theta Programming” and it encompasses the usage of psychic powers, such as extra-sensory perception (ESP), remote viewing, telepathy and psychic killing. Documents have been released proving that the CIA has been conducting experiments to harness these powers and to use them on the battlefield since the 1970s:

“THETA considered to the “psychic” programming. Bloodliners (those coming from multi-generational Satanic families) were determined to exhibit a greater propensity for having telepathic abilities than did non-bloodliners. Due to its evident limitations, however, various forms of electronic mind control systems were developed and introduced, namely, bio-medical human telemetry devices (brain implants), directed-energy lasers using microwaves and/or electromagnetics.”
– Ron Patton, Project Monarch Mind Control

“Theta Programming got its name just as the Alpha, Beta, and Delta Programming in part from the four types of EEG brain waves. Theta waves are frequent in children. (…) Psychic warfare became a branch of the Monarch Programming. This is the Theta Programming. It is the marriage of occult practices with state of the art science. The idea to be able to copy what Elisha did to the King of Syria (2 KG 6:11-12) when he “telepathically” spied on the enemy, discovered their plans, and thereby ruined their chances of success. Today this has been called “ESPionage”, and the U.S. Army’s term is “psychotronics”. Of course, the CIA’s position is that they couldn’t find anything that worked, but that is simply not true, because the co-authors know of many Theta alters and Theta model systems which have Theta programming which is successful.  (…)

Whether the public perceives Psychic warfare as viable or not, billions of dollars have been spent on it, and numerous Theta models produced. (…)

Since slaves can not be consistently given Theta programming, a surgical implantation of a sodium/lithium powered high frequency receiver/transducers coupled with a multi-range discharge capacitor was placed into the brains of Monarch slaves. This gives the handlers the ability to signal by remote signals to the victim’s brain. When the receiver picks up the signals they electronically stimulate certain areas of the brain which in turn triggers pre-set programming. Implants are now being placed in a high percentage of the Monarch slaves.”
– Fritz Springmeier, The Illuminati Formula to Create an Undetectable Mind Control Slave

These secret programs are slyly being revealed to the public in movies.  In Men Who Stare at Goats, the issue is presented as comedy. However, the movie is based on an actual US military project: Lieutenant Colonel Jim Channon’s First Earth Battalion.

The First Earth Battalion was renamed New Earth Army in Men Who Stare At Goats, a unit using extra-sensory powers (ESP). The movie also vaguely alluded to the dark/satanic side of mind control in some scenes.

In G.I. Joe, the mind-controlled civilians talk in a robotic manner and are detained in high-tech facilities.

Mind-controlled civilians in Cobra’s high tech detention facility

Fortunately, the Joes tracked down the Cobras, rescued the civilians and kicked everyone’s ass back to sanity. Yo Joe!

In Conclusion

G.I. Joe is an iconic mid-80′s television series that undoubtedly impacted the imagination of an entire generation of children. The action-packed battle scenes, the memorable characters and the futuristic, sci-fi plots made the show a sure hit with young boys, especially. Watching these shows today, we discover that many of the Cobra’s plots have been a hidden reality and/or are slowly becoming reality. And these plans are not coming from “a shadowy terrorist organization” but from our own “elected” leaders and their elite rulers.

The Joes are presented as a group of all-American soldiers with strong values, fighting with integrity and honesty against an ever-plotting terrorist group. They are what the American army is supposed to be and the ideal image that the military-industrial-complex want us to believe. But the Joe’s enemies, the ever-plotting terrorist group is not a foreign menace: It exists within the system. In other words, if the Joes existed today, they would probably be fighting their own government , the hidden part of it … what we call the Illuminati.

So the question remains: Why did the series describe these sophisticated plans with such vivid details to its youthful audience? Was G.I. Joe one of the many TV shows and movies sponsored by the American government and the owners of the mass media companies who broadcast it? Were they preparing the youth to the revelation of realities by exposing it to them at a young age? Were they trying to warn the public? The creators of this show definitely knew the answer to these questions, and we should too. Because knowing is half the battle.


Take action now to protect your access to vitamin C


(NaturalNews) Not content to kill 100,000 Americans each year with deadly Big Pharma drugs while censoring the truth about the healing effects of herbs, nutritional supplements and natural medicines, the FDA has now set out todeny Americans access to yet another lifesaving medicineknown simply as vitamin C.
As reported by theAlliance for Natural Health, the FDA has notified a manufacturer of injectable vitamin C that it will becriminally prosecutedif it continues to manufacture this lifesaving nutritional therapy. (…)

Why injectablevitamin Csaves lives

In an age where tens of millions of Americans are already vitamin C deficient and suffer from colds and other infections that can be prevented withvitamins, the FDA appears to be acting on what can only be calleda death wishfor theAmerican people. But really, it’s more likely a targeted attack at thealternativecancerindustrythat frequently uses injectable vitamin C to helppatientseliminate cancer tumors and heal from various cancers.
If there’s one thing that thehealthauthorities in the United States absolutely cannot tolerate, it’snatural curesfor cancer. That’s why (nearly) all thenaturalcancer treatment clinics have been chased out of the country, leaving only toxic chemotherapy centers (poison clinics) in their place. And that’s probably whythe FDAis going after vitamin C right now as well. Take away enough naturalcuresand the people will beforcedinto accepting conventionalmedicine, regardless of whether it works or not.
Injectable vitamin C has many other uses besides cancer, too. As the ANH reports, “Thegovernment, instead of banning intravenous vitamin C, should instead be supporting research into it. Even though IV C is being used in burn units around the world, including in the US, and has been adopted by the military for this purpose, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) refuses to fund anystudiesusing intravenous C in patients. There are privately funded studies currently underway, but of course these cannot continue if theFDAbans the substance.”

Take action now to protect your access to vitamin C

Please take a moment to take action with both of the following petitions:
TheAlliance for Natural Healthhas posted an online action item that sends a letter to Dr Margaret Hamburg, the commissioner of the FDA:
TheNatural Solutions Foundationhas also posted an action item, this one going out to various FDA and government officials:…
Of course, sending these letters to FDAbureaucratsassumes that they give a damn about human health in the first place, and after observing the FDA’s behavior over the last several years, I can confidently state that the FDA’s own actions betray its real agenda: Toprotect the profits of thedrugcompaniesby eliminating competing products such as vitamin C.
As Dr Rima Laibow says about this issue, “When injectible Vitamin C goes, the rest will soon go, and the natural Docs WILL be criminalized a la the infamous Flexner report. Codex standards effectively criminalize accurate speech onnutrition. This IS the other shoe; I do not believe we are being alarmist.”

The rise of tyranny

The larger issue here, however, is not this isolated decision by the FDA but rather the question:Why do unelected regulatory bureaucrats have suchpowerin the first place?
While we may electlawmakersin America today, those lawmakers have long since delegated the real “laws of the land” to bureaucratic agencies like the FDA which are run byunelected politicianswho simply write their own laws and regulations without the approval ofCongress. This situation is described by attorney Jonathan Emord asThe Rise of Tyranny, which also happens to be the name of his book on the topic (…)
This book, which I consider a “must read” on the subject of healthfreedom, explains how the delegation of powers to rogue federal agencies (FDA,DEA, DHS, TSA, etc.) results in the nation being ruled by tyrannical bureaucrats who operateoutside the authority of Congress. Under this power structure, for example, the FDA could simply announce one day that “all vitamins are illegal,” without Congressional approval and without any new laws being debated or signed into law. The delegation of powers to agencies like the FDA is thegranting of dictatorial police state powersover entire sectors of our society.
The FCC, for example, may simply decide to seize control over the internet at any time. TheTSAcould simply announce it’s going to performbodycavity searches on all air travelers starting this Saturday. The DEA could announce it’s going to arrest operators of websites that evendiscussmarijuana. The FDA, likewise, could announce that “all herbalists are criminals” and proceed to have them all arrested.
Think this couldn’t happen? It’s happening right now, one step at a time. Last year it was cherries and walnuts (…). Today it’s injectable vitamin C. Tomorrow it could be all vitamin D supplements, or raw cacao, or medicinalherbs. The point is thatthe FDA could take away our access to supplements virtually overnightwith no debate, no scientific scrutiny, and no Congressional oversight. The FDA is, itself, a tyrannical police state branch of the federal government that is now proceeding to take away Americans’ access to lifesaving supplements one by one.
Senator Rand Paul hopes to put a stop to this bureaucratic madness by introducing legislation that would require Congressional approval for such regulatory actions by any federal agency. That would strip the power out of the hands of these rogue agencies and put it back into the hands of lawmakers who are elected. While this may not be a perfect solution (because most lawmakers are still largely just corporate whores, to state it matter-of-factly), it would certainly be an improvement over the current situation whereunelected bureaucratsrule over the American people as if they were dictators.
You know whythe TSAis reaching down your pants? For the same reason the FDA is banning injectable vitamin C — becausethis nation is run by tyrants, not the legislators who are elected by the People. And as long as the tyrants are in charge, freedom can never be fully expressed.

Stop begging the King and just pick up your pitchforks

That’s why opposing the FDA on this decisionby appealing to the FDA itselfis sort of likebegging the King to change his mind. It’s a slave-mentality action. Sure, it may be useful at some level, and that’s why we support these petitions, but let’s not kid ourselves on the fact that this is a slave-mentality appeal to a group of tyrants who act as if they were the King.
The real solution here is not to appeal to the King as peons, but rather to pick up our pitchforks,storm the castle, tie a rope around the neck of the King and hang him from a high castle wall (metaphorically speaking, of course) to send a message to all other would-be tyrants thatmessing with the freedom of the people will have consequences.
The way to accomplish that in our modern world would be toarrest FDA commissioner Margaret Hamburg for her crimes against humanity, prosecute her in a fair and open trial, and watch her serve time in prison while firing all the other bureaucrats at the FDA and dismantling the agency. No good can come out of the FDA. It is beyond repair. It is effectively workingagainstthe interests of the American people, making it as dangerous as a foreign enemy organization such as a terrorist group.
With the FDA, we are past the point of being able to negotiate with rational human beings who have ethics and souls. What we are dealing with at the FDA and other agencies are real-lifeincarnations of evilwho are pursuing an agenda to spreaddeathand suffering across our lands while they increase their power and control. And remember, the Congress just put the FDA in charge of the national food supply, too. Oh yippee. I can’t wait to see thembanbroccolibecause broccoli contains anti-cancer medicine, too.
I have a feeling that I will have a very exciting future as a broccoli smuggler. That’s my dream. To be the Han Solo ofvegetables, fighting the Evil Empire with the power of garden vegetables.
Hold on a sec… somebody already did that! You can watch the hilarious video here:…
The Organic Rebellion is fighting back!
Learn more:

15 Dirty Big Pharma Tricks That Rip You Off and Risk Your Health for Profit

Even during a recession, pharma is still the nation’s third most profitable sector. Here are some of the dirty tricks it employs to stay on top.

December 22, 2010  |

Even during a two-year recession with people losing their homes and jobs, pharma is still the nation’s third most profitable sector. How does it do that? In part by cheating the government, misrepresenting science, bribing doctors, patients and pharmacies, and squeezing the FDA. Other than that, the industry plays completely fair. Pharma has often been criticized for lack of creativity in developing new drugs. But these dirty tricks show its creativity is alive and well when it comes to putting the public at risk just to turn a profit.

1. Astroturf Patients?

Pharma promotes fake patient advocacy groups to lobby for its interests.

These front groups often push the FDA to approve an expensive drug that has acceptable, cheaper alternatives. Or, they’ll try to prevent Medicaid from switching to the less pricey drug. One of the largest faux groups, the “grassroots” National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), was investigated by Sen. Charles Grassley for undisclosed pharma links. He found the 10 top NAMI state chapters received $3.84 million from pharma in less than five years, the biggest largesse from Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb.

How else can you tell an<a href="http:// astroturf group? Their Web sites look just like the pharma companies that fund them.

2. Cheating the Government

Pharma is now a top defrauder of the federal government. “Desperate to maintain their high margin of profit in the face of a dwindling number of important new drugs,” pharma illegally promotes unapproved uses of drugs and deliberately overcharges Medicare and Medicaid, says Dr. Sidney Wolfe, director of Public Citizen’s Health Research Group. Pharmaceutical companies have been hit with $14.8 billion in wrongdoing settlements in the last five years. But that’s still cheaper for Big Pharma than going about things the old-fashioned, legal way. So the fraud continues.

3. Trials and Fibulations

Presiding over clinical trials can make a doctor thousands per patient. But they wouldn’t compromise patient safety just to make a buck, would they? Medical College of Georgia psychiatrist Richard Borison and his colleague Bruce Diamond did 13 years ago when they tested Zyprexa, Risperdal and 20 other drugs and ended up in jail. So did Baystate Medical Center’s Scott Reuben, who went to prison earlier this year for fraudulent Celebrex, Neurontin and Lyrica trials. And a Tucson facility testing asthma drugs Symbicort, Advair and Singulair doctored data and risked patients’ health to net as much as $10,000 per patient, according to a whistleblower and government and court documents. How many other drugs were tested for such fiscal outcomes? Not counting recalled ones, of course.

4. More Trials and Fibulations

Even without fraud, pharma-sponsored studies can deceive. Trials that only determine that a drug is “not worse” than another one or impute safety before real data are available — as in the case of Vioxx and Avandia’s threat of heart attacks — can skew results. And some research is not meant to be accurate to begin with. The Johnson & Johnson Center for Pediatric Psychopathology Research at Massachusetts General Hospital was founded to “move forward the commercial goals of J.& J.” according to unsealed court documents. Its head, Harvard’s Joseph Biederman, promised J.& J. a proposed drug trial “will support the safety and effectiveness of risperidone [Risperdal] in this age group,”<a href="http:// “>”>”> before it was ever conducted. Why leave things up to science?

5. Overseas Adventurism

As pharma increasingly eyes poorer countries for new markets and cheaper manufacturing it also eyes them for cheaper clinical trials. In 1996, 11 Nigerian children died in trials testing Pfizer’s not-yet-approved antibiotic Trovan. While Pfizer paid the Nigerian government and state of Kano millions in a settlement, documents released by Wikileaks show that Pfizer tried to extort Nigeria’s former attorney general to drop the lawsuits. Trovan was withdrawn from U.S. markets in 2001 for liver toxicity, though “safety signals” may have appeared sooner.

6. Clueless Institutional Review Boards

Institutional review boards, charged with overseeing clinical trials, should catch the unsafe drugs and shady trials. But a Congress and General Accountability Office sting conducted last year on a Colorado review board raises serious doubts. When asked to oversee a study of Adhesiabloc, a product designed to reduce scar tissue after surgery, Coast Independent Review Board said…when do we start? Even though the product did not exist — nor did its developer or lead researcher!

7. ‘Previous Government Experience Desirable’

In the fight against medical fraud, the Justice Department is beginning to file criminal, not just civil, charges against pharma. More employees also are turning whistleblower thanks to provisions that entitle whistleblowers to 15 and even 30 percent of fraud settlements, in some cases. But the other side has a big advantage. As long as politicians like former Louisiana Rep. Billy Tauzin, who left government to head the industry trade group PhRMA, and former CDC director Julie Gerberding, now head of Merck vaccines, are willing to commit a career’s worth of knowledge, judgment and relationships to sell product, the government is fighting itself.

8. Double Dealing at the Pharmacy

The best thing that ever happened to pharma (after direct-to-consumer advertising) is Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs). Their job is to negotiate the best drugs for their clients, which are heath and pension plans. But they seem far more adept at taking money to push pharma’s top branded drugs, regardless of the cost.

Recently CVS’ pharmacy benefit manager, AdvancePCS, sent letters to doctors extolling the benefits of the expensive drug Zyprexa on behalf of drug giant Eli Lilly. Had a generic drug been prescribed over Zyprexa, savings would have been huge.

9. FDA Foreplay

A sneaky way pharma tries to get FDA to approve a drug — even when the science isn’t there —  is to float the drug to the public. That’s where directed marketing comes in. When “patients” (these are often astroturf groups), really want a drug approved, it puts huge pressure on the FDA to be sensitive to the public’s wishes. This tactic famously flopped for Boehringer-Ingelheim this year when it tried to sell a medication for “hypoactive sexual desire disorder” (HSDD) in women (first it had to sell the disease itself). Even though BI debuted its pink Viagra at a medical conference last year and rolled out its elaborate “Sex Brain Body: Make the Connection” Web site with TV personality Lisa Rinna soon after, FDA said no. Seems even though Boehringer-Ingelheim was effective in “raising awareness” about female sexual dysfunction, something else wasn’t effective: the drug. And when it came to foreplay, the FDA had a headache.

10. Pharma Service Announcements

Public service announcements are messages for your own good, like, “Do You Know the Seven Warning Signs of Cancer?” But a lot of the awareness messages and warning signs you hear now are not from the government or medical groups, but pharma.

“Voices of Meningitis” ads on mom sites and online TV, for example, look like they are raising awareness of meningitis, but they were actually funded by maker Sanofi Pasteur, which makes a meningitis vaccine.

“Unbranded” advertising appears to have legit origins, like the National Association of School Nurses, which sponsors the Sanofi Pasteur’s meningitis ads. But when TV, radio and web messages push “awareness” of diseases like ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), restless legs syndrome (RLS) or excessive sleepiness (ES), be suspicious. Real diseases aren’t given initials for quick recall and easy reference. Nor do they come with snappy self-quizzes and pretty patient models. Unbranded messages also pimp the PSA (public service announcement) money that media outlets have for actual public issues.

11. National ‘Interests’ of Health

The National Institutes of Health are supposed to fund research for the public health with the public’s tax dollars. But recently, a researcher who was stripped of his own NIH grant because of his huge financial links to pharma, is ruling on other researchers’ grants on NIH committees, reports theChronicle of Higher Education. The researcher, psychiatrist Charles Nemeroff, was also allowed to keep NIH funds when he moved to the University of Miami after being disqualified from them at Emory University. Clearly, when it comes to conflicts of interest at the top of level of government research, the fox is guarding thehenhouse (or pork house).

12. Big Pharma Sends Schools Doctors

Continuing Medical Education (CME) are courses that doctors are required to take to keep their state licenses and stay up-to-date with current practice and treatment guidelines. But many are created by pharma, which covers the cost of the course for the doctor in exchange for unvarnished sales pitches. Worse, many are embarrassingly dumbed down.

A recent “course” offered by Medscape was titled “Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine May Be Effective in Women 24 to 45 Years Old.” Participants were told that after taking the course, they would be able to “specify the currently recommended age range” for the vaccine (especially if they could read the title!). Another course manipulates participants to “lobby your legislators” for pharma-related Medicare funding. Congress recently investigated the billion-dollar continuing educationindustry for illegal marketing — too bad Congress couldn’t investigate for stupidity.

13. Ghostwriting

Ghostwriting — papers written by medical marketing writers, with doctors only posing as the authors — was rampant until 2008 Congressional investigations. But even though it’s now prohibited, few journals have retracted ghostwritten articles that sold Vioxx, Fen Phen, Prempro and probably Avandia. Asked about the papers ghostwritten “by” Lila Nachtigall, a professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Deborah Bohren, vice president for public affairs at New York University’s Langone Medical Center said, “If we had received a complaint, we would have investigated.”

A Congressional investigation doesn’t qualify as a complaint?

14. Crooked Books and Slanted Messages

Pharma is often accused of ghostwriting articles that end up in medical journals under doctors’ names who had nothing to do with the writing or research. But this month an entire textbook was accused of being funded and approved by pharma. The 1999 textbook, written to help primary care doctors diagnose psychiatric conditions, was funded entirely by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) — which makes pills for… psychiatric conditions! Nor were its authors, two prominent psychiatrists, strangers to GSK. Alan Schatzberg is on GSK’s speakers bureau and Charles Nemeroff was investigated by Congress for undeclared GSK income. Did the authors write the book themselves or was it ghostwritten by pharma or its marketing company? Does it matter?

15. May I Take Your Order?

Have you ever waited in a doctor’s office with a 102-degree fever, only to have pharma reps swinging Vytorin totes see the doctor first, just because they brought free samples or lunch and are dressed for a music video (pharma tends to employ attractive people to hawk their wares)? Until Congressional investigations brought about the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, some doctors in medical centers say they never paid for a meal. Nor did pharma largesse end there. One doctor told AlterNet her entire group was jetted to a Caribbean island courtesy of her Paxil rep. Even medical students were schmoozed until the 62,000-member American Medical Student Association (AMSA) sought to end the pharma practice of gifts and free meals. Now pharma must report what it spends on doctors.

Knight of Malta George TenetThe first scam was the 911 demolition carried out by intelligence agents serving the Archbishop of New York City, Edward Cardinal Egan.  Knight of Malta/CFR-member/DCI George J. Tenet, trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service, performed exactly as ordered.  With the 911 controlled demolition denied and covered up by the pope’s CFR-directed 911 Commission, another lie—first perpetrated in order to justify the invasion of Afghanistan on October 7, 2001, the very same day the naval Battle of Lepanto was fought and won by the Knights of Malta in 1571—needed to be perpetuated.

Bin Laden osama_bush_capturedThat lie was asserting Al (CIA) Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was alive and dangerous thereby justifying massive military expenditures for his proposed capture.  The fact is Bin Laden had been dead since December 13, 2001, and Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld, Rice, Wolfowitz and the entire pope-worshipping, CFR-attending, neo-con gang knew the truth all along.  PakistaniBenazir Bhutto made clear the fact that Bin Laden had been assassinated when she was interviewed by Englishman David Frost on November 2, 2007.  Thirty-six days later, on December 8, 2007, she was murdered by agents of the Black Pope’s International Intelligence Community.  Since the endgame of the Jesuit Order for apostate Protestant and Baptist 14th Amendment America is “New Right” Jesuit Fascism, Satan’s Company of Jesus provided a false enemy against whom it could rally—rallied by Roman Catholic patronizers Bill O’Reilly, Sean Hannity, Geraldo Rivera, John Gibson, Laura Ingraham and Chris Wallace at Fox News!

Now Gordon Duff, a fearless Marine, writes a scathing article enumerating these acts of high treason while excoriating Bush and Co.  Well said!  Semper Fi!


December 5, 2009 posted by Gordon Duff · 128 Comments



By Gordon Duff/STAFF WRITER/Senior Editor

Conservative commentator, former Marine Colonel Bob Pappas has been saying for years that bin Laden died at Tora Bora and that Senator Kerry’s claim that bin Laden escaped with Bush help was a lie.  Now we know that Pappas was correct.  The embarrassment of having Secretary of State Clinton talk about bin Laden in Pakistan was horrific.  He has been dead since December 13, 2001 and now, finally, everyone, Obama, McChrystal, Cheney, everyone who isn’t nuts is finally saying what they have known for years.

However, since we lost a couple of hundred of our top special operations forces hunting for bin Laden after we knew he was dead, is someone going to answer for this with some jail time?  Since we spent 200 million dollars on “special ops” looking for someone we knew was dead, who is going to jail for that?  Since Bush, Rumsfeld and Cheney continually talked about a man they knew was dead, now known to be for reasons of POLITICAL nature, who is going to jail for that?  Why were tapes brought out, now known to be forged, as legitimate intelligence to sway the disputed 2004 election in the US?  This is a criminal act if there ever was one.

In 66 pages, General Stanley McChrystal never mentions Osama bin Laden.  Everything is “Mullah Omar”now.  In his talk at West Point, President Obama never mentioned Osama bin Laden.  Col. Pappas makes it clear, Vice President Cheney let it “out of the bag” long ago.  Bin Laden was killed by American troops many many years ago.

America knew Osama bin Laden died December 13, 2001.  After that, his use was hardly one to unite America but rather one to divide, scam and play games.  With bin Laden gone, we could have started legitimate nation building in Afghanistan instead of the eternal insurgency that we invented ourselves.

Without our ill informed policies, we could have had a brought diplomatic solution in 2002 in Afghanistan, the one we are ignoring now, and spent money rebuilding the country, 5 cents on the dollar compared to what we are spending fighting a war against an enemy we ourselves recruited thru ignorance.

The bin Laden scam is one of the most shameful acts ever perpetrated against the American people.  We don’t even know if he really was an enemy, certainly he was never the person that Bush and Cheney said.  In fact, the Bush and bin Laden families were always close friends and had been for many years.

What kind of man was Osama bin Laden?  This one time American ally against Russia, son of a wealthy Saudi family, went to Afghanistan to help them fight for their freedom.  America saw him as a great hero then.  Transcripts of the real bin Laden show him to be much more moderate than we claim, angry at Israel and the US government but showing no anger toward Americans and never making the kind of theats claimed.  All of this is public record for any with the will to learn.

osama_bush_capturedHow much of America’s tragedy is tied with these two children of the rich, children of families long joined thru money and friendship, the Bush and bin Laden clans.

One son died in remote mountains, another lives in a Dallas suburb hoping nobody is sent after him.  One is a combat veteran, one never took a strong stand unless done from safety and comfort.  Islam once saw bin Laden as a great leader.  Now he is mostly forgotten.

What has America decided about Bush?

We know this:  Bin Laden always denied any ties to 9/11 and, in fact, has never been charged in relation to 9/11.  He not only denied involvement, but had done so, while alive, 4 times and had vigorously condemned those who were involved in the attack.

This is on the public record, public in every free country except ours.  We, instead, showed films made by paid actors, made up to look somewhat similar to bin Laden, actors who contradicted bin Ladens very public statements, actors pretending to be bin Laden long after bin Laden’s death.

These were done to help justify spending, repressive laws, torture and simple thievery.

For years, we attacked the government of Pakistan for not hunting down someone everyone knew was dead.  Bin Laden’s death hit the newspapers in Pakistan on December 15, 2001.  How do you think our ally felt when they were continually berated for failing to hunt down and turn over someone who didn’t exist?

What do you think this did for American credibility in Pakistan and thru the Islamic world?  Were we seen as criminals, liars or simply fools?  Which one is best?

This is also treason.

How does the death of bin Laden and the defeat and dismemberment of Al Qaeda impact the intelligence assessments, partially based on, not only bin Laden but Al Qaeda activity in Iraq that,not only never happened but was now known to have been unable to happen?

How many “Pentagon Pundits,” the retired officers who sold their honor to send us to war for what is now known to be domestic political dirty tricks and not national security are culpable in these crimes?

I don’t always agree with Col. Pappas on things.  I believe his politics overrule his judgement at times.  However, we totally agree on bin Laden, simply disagree with what it means.  To me lying and sending men to their deaths based on lies is treason.

Falsifying military intelligence and spending billions on unnecessary military operations for political reasons is an abomination.  Consider this, giving billions in contracts to GOP friends who fill campaign coffers, and doing so based on falsified intelligence is insane.  This was done for years.

We spent 8 years chasing a dead man, spending billions, sending FBI agents, the CIA, Navy Seals, Marine Force Recon, Special Forces, many to their deaths, as part of a political campaign to justify running American into debt, enriching a pack of political cronies and war profiteers and to puff up a pack of Pentagon peacocks and their White house draft dodging bosses.

How many laws were pushed thru because of a dead man?

How many hundreds were tortured to find a dead man?

How many hundreds died looking for a dead man?

How many billions were spent looking for a dead man?

Every time Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld stood before troops and talked about hunting down the dead bin Laden, it was a dishonor.  Lying to men and women who put their lives on the line is not a joke.duffster

Who is going to answer to the families of those who died for the politics and profit tied to the Hunt for Bin Laden?

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