Legal Term of Control -power m



From 16th Century Latin accidens meaning literally “to submit to, yield to action, doing”. From the abbreviation of two ancient pre-Vatican Latin wordsactus=doing, action, esp. on stage” and cedo= “give ground to, submit to, be inferior to. yield” . The claim that the word “accident” is derived from the Latincado (to sink, fall, drop) is deliberately misleading and incorrect. Strictly speaking when an individual admits to being involved in an accident, regardless of pleading no fault, they are in fact “yielding/giving ground” and admitting to guilt–the true intention of the word.


16th Century English word meaning literally “the action of admitting fault, guilty mind, confession”. From Latin actus=doing, action, esp. on stage”, Old English knowlechen = “admit” and Latin mentis = “mind, thought, intention”. The modern meaning of acknowledgment as forged in LAW DICTIONARIES is deliberately false and misleading, stating “A declaration or avowal of one’s own act, to give it legal validity; as, the acknowledgment of a deed before a proper officer. Also, the certificate of the officer attesting such declaration”. An individual should never CONSENT to “acknowledgment” in a matter of controversy before a COURT unless they freely admit a confession, guilt and/or fault”.


16th Century Latin phrase meaning literally “(the) actions of the accused (defendant)”. From Latin actus=doing, action, esp. on stage” andreus=”defendant, accused, answerable”. It originates from a Latin phrase created by Edward Coke (b.1552-d.1634) actus non facit reum nisi mens sit reacommonly and incorrectly translated as meaning “an act does not make a person guilty unless (their) mind is also guilty”–reus never originally meaning guilt in Latin. Nonetheless, the maxim actus reus is most frequently misquoted as “Guilty act” in conjunction with the equally misquoted Latin phrase MENS REA. In strict legal terms, actus reus is defined as “The offence of which the defendant is accused”–therefore a logically necessary element of criminal law (the offence) and in classical JURISPRUDENCE requiring CONCURRENCE withmens rea .


From 13th Century Arabic title amir-ar-rahl “chief of the transport”. 15th Century English admiraltyMARITIME Naval branch of the English executive”.


18th Century Latin legal phrase abbreviated from AD QUOD DAMNUM meaning “according to the harm” or “appropriate to the harm”. In TORT LAW, the phrase applies to the concept that any REMEDY ought to correspond specifically and only to the damage suffered. Ad damnum is also used in PLEADING by the PLAINTIFF of their alleged monetary los or damages claimed.


An opponent. The defendant is the plaintiff’s adversary.


From 16th Century Latin affidavit meaning “to bring forward, present a promise/assurance concerning a fault or crime”. A word created from the abbreviation of three ancient Latin words offero = “to bring forward, place before, present, offer, expose”, fides = “promise, assurance, word of honor, engagement” and vitium = “fault, vice, crime”. Unlike the earlier term AFFIRMATION, affadavit contains the notion of “fault, vice and crime” which in some JURISDICTIONS means when an individual accepts being treated as a PERSON, they also unwittingly admit GUILT. Today, the generally accepted legal definition is “a sworn or affirmed STATEMENT made in writing and signed; if sworn, it is NOTARIZED”.


An AFFIDAVIT intended to certify the service of a WRIT, NOTICE, or other document.


From 14th Century Latin affirmare “to bring forward, present a reliable and strong promise/assurance”. A word created from the abbreviation of two ancient Latin words offero = “to bring forward, place before, present, offer, expose” and firmus = “firm, strong, reliable, solid”. Unlike the more common legal instrument of AFFADAVIT under ROMAN LAW, an Affirmation does not contain any implied notion of “fault, vice or crime” in its original and true meaning, nor does it require an OATH. Instead, an Affirmation requires an individual to demonstrate a superior STATUS to justify the alleged “strength” implied by the instrument.


From 14th Century French agreer, English agree from older Latin a=”to” andgratum/gratus= “pleasing (to God), God’s favour” meaning literally “to please God/yield to God’s favor”.


From 14th Century French/English agree and pre-3rd Century Latin mentis = “mind” meaning literally “to yield to the favour of God in mind” with the church (Roman Cult) being the interpreter of what “God” has in mind. Its earliest legal definition is “a legally binding contract enforceable in a court of law”.


Latin for “A friend of the court” – A party who is not supposed to represent any individual party in the case asked by the Court to make representations from an independent viewpoint.


From 13th Century Latin apparere “to appear,” from ad- “to” + perere “to come forth, be visible.”


To beg, plead petition, implore, entreat or request


to make void, as to dissolve the bonds of marriage


The taking of property into legal custody by an enforcement officer (see specialty section: Recovery of Chattel).


The act of attendance in which an individual–knowingly or unknowingly– accepts the role of attendant, implying they are one who owes a duty or service to another, or in some sort depends upon him.



From 13th Century Latin bail and 13th Century English bail meaning “a MONEY BOND“. From the pre 8th Century Latin baiulus = “coffin bearer, carrier of a burden”. In the 15th Century, the word acquired the additional legal meaning “a money bond for the temporary release from jail”.


From 13th Century English created from Latin bancus (bench,table) and ruptus(break,tear, burst). Insolvent – unable to pay creditors and having all goods/effects administered by a liquidator or trustee and sold for the benefit of those creditors;


The members of the legal profession.


From 12th Century English belēof itself from pre 10th Century words beo=”life, living” lēof=”beloved, dear”. The earliest meaning was “A TRUST in the CLAIMS of the Church (Roman Cult) being TRUE.” A deliberate corruption of the earlier words from which Belief was born which sould render the meaning “A love of life”. By the 15th Century, the word belief was simplified to mean “RELIGIOUSFAITH“.


The Judge’s seat or the judge, himself/herself, (e.g., the attorney addressed the bench)


“In good faith” – A Bona Fide Agreement is one entered into genuinely without attempt to fraud.


From 14th Century Latin bond and 14th Century English bond meaning “a serf or slave by binding agreement/covenant”. A deliberate and cruel corruption of the pre 12th Century English word bonda and Old Norse bondi meaning “free-born farmer”. By the 16th Century, the word also acquired the meaning “An agreed obligation/oath to pay a DEBT or to perform a CONTRACT“. The key operating factor is CONSENT. Once an indivividual gives their content, they are “bonded” (slaves) to that obligation and subject to BONDAGE.


From 14th Century Latin bondagium meaning “conditions of a bonded serf or slave”. As a BOND is a legally binding agreement of service/slavery, it must contain at least one condition. The accumulative conditions are bondage. The sexual sado-masochism sense of this word is first recorded in 1966.


a written or printed document prepared by the lawyers on each side of a dispute and submitted to the court in support of their arguments – a brief includes the points of law which the lawyer wished to establish, the arguments the lawyer uses, and the legal authorities on which the lawyer rests his/her conclusions.


A common abbreviation for PAPAL BULL, an official CHARTER or LETTERS PATENT promulgated by a Pope of the Roman Cult (Vatican).


Pre 3rd Century Latin literally meaning “bubble” but commonly known for their use a SEAL. Originally, Bulla were hollow clay envelopes affixed with chords to important documents to prevent tampering (often with images on the outside). However, official Ancient Imperial documents were also “sealed” using lead bulla. This practice of bulla (seals) was resurrected in the 12th Century by the Roman Cult.



From ancient Greek κανών (kanón) meaning “measuring rod, standard for carpentry/building”. Hence, a literal translation from ancient Greek is as the “carpenter’s standard”–an obvious association to the false claim of Jesus being a carpenter as first created by the ROMAN CULT into CATHOLIC CHURCH liturgy from the 12th Century onwards. The word pre-dates its use in ancient Greek back to Hebrew קנה (qaneh) = “reed” and Akkadian qanū = “reed”. In common legal usage, a “canon” represents a law of the CATHOLIC CHURCH.


The false LAWS and forgeries first formed by the ROMAN CULT from the 12th Century onwards that now constitute the highest laws of the CATHOLIC CHURCH and COMMON LAW. The name “Canon Law” literally translates as “the law of the Carpenter”– –an obvious association to the false claim of Jesus being a carpenter as first created by the ROMAN CULT into CATHOLIC CHURCH liturgy from the 12th Century onwards. As Christians claim Jesus to be the Son of God and highest SOVEREIGN BODY, by default Canon Law by its name alone claims superior STATUS above all other LAW.


19th Century Latin forgery deliberately introduced into early LAW DICTIONARIES to protect the use of UPPER CASE naming and discourage its wider practice. The phrase claims the meaning “The highest, most comprehensive loss of status through CAPITALIZATION” and attributes this to the alleged ancient pre-Vatican Roman Law of naming slaves in CAPITALS. Contrary to misleading historical accounts, bicameral scripts (UPPER CASE andLOWER CASE) known as MAJUSCULE and MINUSCULE did not officially appear in European languages until the arrival of the printing press in the 15th Century, nor did the word CAPITAL have its meaning in terms of letters.


19th Century Latin forgery deliberately introduced into early LAW DICTIONARIES to protect the use of UPPER CASE naming and discourage its wider practice. The phrase claims the meaning “The lowest, minimal loss of status through non-CAPITALIZATION” and attributes this to the alleged ancient pre-Vatican Roman Law of bicameral scripting (UPPER CASE and LOWER CASE) known as MAJUSCULE and MINUSCULE. However, pre-Vatican controlled Rome did not have a formal bicameral script system, only inscription capitals and everyday cursive in which no formal rules for capitalization applied. Under CASE LAW, UPPER CASE names carry special privileges and powers, hence lower case names carry little or no authority–the complete opposite to the meaning of the forgery.


From ancient Latin casus meaning literally “chance, ill fortune”. In COMMON LAW, the name of a legal proceeding.


From colloquial English, the name given to the general body of rules of law, judicial opinions and even administrative regulations as recorded and recognized by the COURTS.


“Beware/take care” – An entry in the court records that effectively prevents action by another party without first notifying the party entering the Caveat.


Copy of a document signed and certified as a true copy of an original by the Clerk of the Court or other authorized persons (e.g., lawyer).


From 14th Century Latin certificare meaning literally “to give permission, suffer in dispute/contention”. From Latin certo = “to contend, settle, dispute, to settle by combat” and facio= “to give permission / to experience, suffer (troubles)”. In modern legal terms, “a document containing a certified statement, or evidencing ownership or debt”.


article of personal property


From 13th Century Latin charta meaning “highest officially sanctioned paper/map/tablet”. From pre-3rd Century Greek khartes meaning “official document of papyrus” and possibly even ancient Egyptian. The word “charter” both represents the highest of official documents both in authority and construction. For a document to be considered a charter, it is traditionally to be constructed from fine velum (animal skin). For the most senior of Roman Cult documents there is even evidence that the ink used was a mixture of ink and blood–hence the preference of a charter to be written in red as opposed to black. A charter begins with the INCIPIT –the opening phrase which announces the document. It ends with the DATUM –as to its place and date of signature all on one continuous single document/scroll/tablet. In many cases, a charter is then sealed with a BULLA (metal/clay seal). A PAPAL BULL is a form of charter.


From the combined words CHARTER and COMPANY meaning literally “the highest officially sanctioned paper granting exclusive rights to a body of men chained to the ring of the Papacy”. As some Protestant sovereigns issued Royal CHARTERS without the authority of the Vatican, only Papal authorised Chartered Companies were permitted to claim the full effect of ROMAN LAW within their exclusive JURISDICTION using the abbreviation SS. to denote the authority of the HOLY SEE on official documents. Today, both valid Chartered Companies (using their right to print SS. on official documents) exist as well as invalid Chartered Companies with inferior legal rights according to ROMAN LAW.


1) summons to appear; 2) reference to authorities in support of an argument


From 14th Century Latin clamo/clamare meaning “to make an ORALDECLARATION” . The generic definitions “call, shout, cry aloud” commonly attached to the word are all deliberately misleading and not its true and original legal definition. Prior to the corrupted legal concepts of the Roman Cult, the proper ancient Roman legal word was indico = “to proclaim, make publicly known, announce, disclose”. In the 18th Century the procedural meaning was added = “a written legal demand (declaration) for compensation or damages”. In spite of this contradictory legal definition, by its earliest and true meaning, a “claim” is only valid when spoken.


From 13th Century Latin communis meaning “to entrust, commit to a burden, public duty, service or obligation”. Created from the combination of two ancient pre-Vatican Latin words com/comitto = “to entrust, commit” and munis = “burden, public duty, service or obligation”. From its earliest creation by the College of Abbreviators of the ROMAN CULT, the word has literally implied “willing CONSENT to public order and control over the many”. The word acquired its historical meaning as an insult by nobles and clergy against “the ignorant and uneducated”– especially trades people and woman –from the 14th Century at the time it was first used to describe the Commons “the third estate of the English people as represented in Parliament” from 1377. The word has since retained both its assumed meaning as “representing in general, the public, by all or many” as well as a term of insult by the wealthy and elite against the public ever since.


From 14th Century English usage following the formation of the Commons “the third estate of the English people as represented in Parliament” from 1377. Therefore, the popular (but incorrect) assumed meaning of Common Law as being “the LAW of the people”. In a strict literal sense, the correct etymological meaning of common law is more accurately defined as “the laws to entrust, commit to a burden, public duty, service or obligation” — completely opposite to the popular misinterpretation of the phrase. The main procedural foundations of Common Law since its inception remains the false Roman Law was VENETIAN LAW (more commonly known as MARITIME LAW and/or ADMIRALTY LAW) introduced in the 12th and early 13th Century during the creation of the highest legal PERSONALITY under Common Law–the HOLY SEE (Sea). Hence, under the corrupted Roman Law of the ROMAN CULT living men and women are considered VESSELS subject to JURISDICTION of the SEE (Sea) with the WATERMARK of all nations with diplomatic recognition (CONCORDATS) of the SEE (Sea) set at the highest mountain peaks–hence all land is therefore “Under the Sea” and PROPERTY of the SEE (Sea). However, in many JURISICTIONS, CUSTOM LAW is also accepted as part of Common Law thus providing some RELIEF. In the late 16th and early 17th Century, Common Law was further modified with the introduction of the LEGAL FICTIONS, LEGAL PROCEDURE and PRECEDENT embedded in Jesuit constructed works embedded in popular culture and plays. Today, Common Law is incorrectly and deliberately defined as “The law established, by precedent, from judicial decisions and established within a community”.


From 13th Century Latin companio meaning “a body of (normally) Jewish servants bonded to a vassal of the Vatican under the rules of SERVI CAMERAE REGIS and USURY”. Contrary to the deliberately false etymology attributed to the word, it is constructed from two ancient Latin words compes = “fetters, shackles, chained” and ani = “ring” meaning literally “chained to the ring (of the Pope)”. The word first acquired its military meaning in the 16th Century only after it was deliberately used as the official name of the Jesuits (Company of Jesus). From the 17th Century onwards, the word became a key component of title of business ventures as a CHARTERED COMPANY –with many of the 1st being influenced/created by the Jesuits.


From 13th Century Latin companioneo meaning “a trusted fellow, mate of a COMPANY”. From Latin companio + neo = “to spin, thread, interweave”. Contrary to deliberately false etymology the word literally means “threaded to a COMPANY”. Initially applied only to (normally) Jewish servants BONDED under the rules of SERVI CAMERAE REGIS and USURY. By the 15th Century, the word acquired its nautical meanings as “framework on the quarterdeck, covering or hatchway”. Its 1st historic use to mean “friend, acquaintance or partner” was with the Jesuits describing themselves in the 16th Century.


“Of sound mind” – Legally fit to conduct/defend proceedings


From 13th Century Latin concordia = “agreement, union”, from earlier Latinconcordis = “of the same mind”. A formal agreement between the Roman Cult and a state representing an international treaty taking precedence over previous domestic statutes (laws). Unlike normal international treaties that cease to have effect once one or more signatory parties rescind the agreement, a Concordat can only legally be ended once the Roman Cult agrees to withdraw it, or replace it with a new one. A Concordat may be formally known by the public as such, or by a host of different titles. Furthermore, a Concordat may also be kept private between a Government and the public as in the case of the Secret US Concordat of 1984.


From 13th Century Latin consentire = “An agreement to something proposed” from earlier Latin con-“with, together” and sentio “judge, suppose, vote”. It may be by voice, in writing or legally implied by silence (since silence legally implies consent).


From Latin constituo : to arrange, decide, appoint, settle, found, set up.


From 14th Century Latin contractus meaning “to make a plea or bargain which is legally enforceable”. From the combination of pre 8th Century Latin wordscon=”A disadvantage of something/or someone” and tractus= “to extract/pull something”. Therefore the literal meaning of contract is more accurately “to extract a disadvantage for someone/something”. By the 16th Century, the inherit “one-sided” nature of contract was further blurred with the additional meaning “an AGREEMENT that is legally binding”.


From 14th Century Latin corporatus meaning “a body formed by CHARTERhaving legal PERSONALITY“. From the ancient pre 3rd Century Latin corpus = “body”. Not to be confused with a COMPANY which has always denoted ultimate ownership by the Roman Cult. In contrast, the first GUILDS established were Corporates. Today, the word Corporate is mistakenly considered synonymous with COMPANY.


From 18th Century English corporation meaning “INCORPORATED COMPANYfor doing business”. Unlike a CORPORATE or a COMPANY, the invention of the legal fiction known as a CORPORATION permitted a body to use the pre-existingCHARTER of a superior COMPANY to register as a subsidiary–effectively eliminating the need for a new and unique CHARTER to be drawn for each and every new body. In addition, Corporations were permitted to register their own subsidiaries, creating potentially long chains of bodies all belonging to superior entities until the final entity holding a valid CHARTER. Today, over 99% of CORPORATES and COMPANIES are actually subsidiary Corporations of subsidiary Corporations themselves having no original CHARTER, but holding legal rights by virtue of being a REGISTERED SUBSIDIARY of a body ultimately holding a valid recognized CHARTER.


A person to whom money is owed by a debtor


A Latin expression of LAW meaning “obligations in negotiation”.



Ancient Latin legal maxim meaning literally “concerning fact”– more commonly understood as “as a matter of fact”. From pre-5th Century Latin de= “from, concerning, about” and factum/factus = “deed, accomplishment, work, act, achievement”.


Ancient Latin legal maxim meaning literally “concerning law “, or more commonly “as a matter of law “. From pre-5th Century Latin de= “from, concerning, about” and iuris = “justice, law, right”.


Ancient Latin legal maxim literally meaning “concerning (the) law of (the) land and nature”. Sometimes quoted in abbreviated form de jure soli. In COMMON LAW, when no explicit reference is made to the land, soil or nature, ROMAN LAW and therefore the fictions of the HOLY SEE are assumed to apply in which the land becomes “under the SEE (Sea)” and living men and women may be unnaturally treated as FICTIONS. However, when quoted with an understanding as to its meaning, a COURT cannot properly apply the Roman fictions. The common term “ON THE LAND” has a similar but less effective meaning.


Ancient Latin legal maxim literally meaning “concerning (the) law of (the) blood of crowns” In COMMON LAW since the end of the 16th Century, royal or noble blood has claimed superior status — in particular to the freedom of their body, protection of property and the obligation of any matter brought against then to follow DUE PROCESS (of the LAW), especially right of RELIEF. When an individual claims de jure sanguinis coronae, providing they demonstrate a comprehension of the term and why they should be granted such status (for example–knowledge of the valid argument that you are of royal birth by virtue of being Sons and Daughters of the King of Kings) then the COURT must grant such recognition. This means any failure of DUE PROCESS or failure to account for RELIEF by the COURT obligates to compensate the individual accused.


From 12th Century Latin decretus, decretum meaning “an official (church sanctioned) order pronounced in public by a duly appointed representative”. Designed to usurp the ancient (pre 5th Century) Roman legal tradition ofmandatum meaning “official order, decree, mandate, instruction”. The word decree was created from the Latin prefix de = “to” (in this case) and credo=”to believe / trust, commit / trust in, rely on / think”.


From 14th Century Latin declarare and meaning “to weaken clarity”. From deliberately shortened Latin word debilito as de = “to weaken, sap, exhaust” (in this case) and clarus = “clarity”. Contrary to centuries of deliberate misinformation, the word declare has never meant “make clear” as a pre-4th Century Latin word (1,000 years before “declare”) called aperio = “to uncover, lay bare, reveal, make clear” was already in general use.


From 14th Century Latin declarationem (as well as English declaracion and French déclaration) meaning “A written or oral statement of CLAIMS by aPERSON witnessed by an OATH and given with CONSENT“. As any STATE and/or CORPORATION is also legally a PERSON this definition holds legally accurate for statements by electors of a STATE (such as the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE). By the 18th Century, the word acquired a more formal legal procedural meaning = “the formal document specifying plaintiff’s cause of action, including the facts necessary to sustain a proper cause of action, and to advise the defendant of the grounds upon which action is being pursued”.


From 14th Century Old English daed/deed and 14th Century German daedismeaning “the written legal document that bestows or surrenders a right withPROOF“. From pre 8th Century Latin de= “away” (in this context) and edo=”put forth, give out”. From 15th Century, an additional legal meaning was added= “A legal contract concerning BONDAGE”. By the 17th Century, the word was further confused with the meaning “an act done”.


By right


A person who owes money to someone or to an organisation


is where you admit to the facts but challenge the sufficiently of the process or law.  Demurrers are motions to dismiss, motion to suppress evidence, motions for lack of service, due process, valid complaint, proper official office and powers, constitutionality and special circumstances like the officer lost sight in the chase or was outside his jurisdiction as well as common law defenses to the act complained of such as intent or lawful defense.


From 16th Century Latin disclaudere, English/French desclore meaning “the act of providing information on discoveries, uncovered truth and exposures to a higher authority by legal CONSENT“. Contrary to deliberately misleading definitions attributed to the word, Disclose/Disclosure has never been about revealing truth and knowledge, but about hiding it, controlling and (sometimes) destroying it. The word is constructed from two pre-6th Century Latin words dis = “away” and clausus “to confine, shut up, close, blockade, besiege”. The word “disclosure” means literally “to confine away, to shut up away, to close away”. Disclosed information can legally be withheld from public view, seized and destroyed. In contrast, the correct ancient Roman legal term for full disclosure is comperio = “to disclose fully, find out with certainty, lay open / learn, find out”.


a document which summarizes a case


Incapable of crime


that place where a person has a true and permanent home – a person may have several residences, but only one domicile


“Bring with you” – Order to produce document to court


A fundamental principle of COMMON LAW which obligates the COURTS and court appointed officers to follow correct legal process as well as the obligations of their office as established by legal PRECEDENT and reflected in CASE LAW. The ancient pre-Vatican Latin maxim for due process is VIRTUTE OFFICII –which translates literally as “by virtue of their office”. Due Process is frequency misunderstood as pertaining to the rights of individuals before the courts and even the notion of “natural justice”, which is strictly incorrect. Instead, it is the LAW itself that is granted certain rights under Due Process and which the COURT and its Officers are obliged to honor and follow “to the letter”.



right held by one person to use the land of another for a special purpose


the power to take private property for public use by condemnation, i.e., the legal process by which real estate of a private owner is taken for public use without the owner’s consent, but upon the award and payment of just compensation


to require a person, by writ of injunction from a court of equity, to perform or to abstain or desist from some act


equitable action (equity matter):

an action which may be brought for the purpose of restraining the threatened infliction of wrongs or injuries, and the prevention of threatened illegal action; case in which payment of money damages will not be adequate compensation


An error


From 14th Century French estat of “physical condition as regards form or structure of country, supreme civil power and/or government as a PERSONALITY” itself from 13th Century Latin status meaning STATE = “circumstances, conditions and/or temporary attributes of a PERSON or THING”. From 15th Century, estate acquired the additional meaning “property/assets attributed to a PERSON or THING subject to higher legal authority”.


to stop, bar, or impede


a rule of law which prevents a person from alleging or denying a fact, because of his/her own previous act


a proceeding, order, motion, application, request, submission etc., made by or granted for the benefit of one party only; done for, in behalf of, or on application of one party only


“By a subsequent act” – Something that occurs after the event but having a retrospective effect



From pre-5th Century Latin factum/factus = “deed, accomplishment, work, act, achievement”. In the 16th century, the word fact came to be used interchangeably with the word truth and reality namely ” something that hasREALLY occurred or is the case; hence a datum of experience as distinct from conclusions” (1632).


From 12th Century English feith, itself from contemporary 12th Century Latinfides = “duty of fulfilling one’s TRUST (agreement) with the Church (Roman Cult)”. Deliberately corrupted from the earlier – non legal meaning of the word including “confidence, reliance, belief, word of honor”. The word only acquired its spiritual association in the 14th Century = “An obligation of loyalty or fidelity to the Doctrine of the Church (Roman Cult)”. By the 18th Century, the word faith finally acquired its generic meaning “A BELIEF that something isTRUE and/or REAL“.


1646, from L. factitius “artificial,”


A decree or command.



“Having discharged duty” – A judicial or official person prevented from taking a matter further because of limitation by certain regulations



Someone who promises to make payment for another if payment is not made by the person responsible for making the repayments of a loan or hire purchase agreement.


“You have the body.” – the name given a variety of writs whose object is to bring a person before a court or judge – in most common usage, it is directed to the official or person detaining another, commanding him/her to produce the body of a person detained so the court may determine if such person has been denied his/her liberty without due process of law.


The common English name of the highest legal PERSONALITY under ROMAN LAW and COMMON LAW being the SEDES SACRORUM (Latin Sedes for seat/see, Sacrorum for holy/ holy right) otherwise known as Santa Sede and the “SS.” founded in the 13th Century by AntiPope Innocent IV and Venetian Doge Giovanni (a.k.a. Francis of Assisi). Under both ROMAN LAW and COMMON LAW, all PERSONALITIES are “owned” by the Holy See, also commonly known as the VATICAN which encompasses the legal apparatus by which the ROMAN CULT Pope and its Curia of Bishops claim SOVEREIGNTY over the whole Earth.


From Latin Humanus= “a lesser/inferior man or woman defined legally as an animal and/or monster as distinct from the ancient (pre Vatican) Roman term homo = man “. A key rule of Law from the 14th Century describing a fundamental legal fiction –that is the notion of an inferior man or woman as an animal (as defined by Papal Decree) and therefore not subject to the laws of free men, but the laws of property. The decision to create a 2nd word for Homo (man), denoting an inferior “animal” man was crucial to the legal implementation of the Vatican global slave trade from the 14th Century–to overcome the questions of legality and morality of the Vatican slave trade. Therefore, unbaptized indigenous populations were legally defined as “humans” –therefore animals. Legally, the name of a human must always be in CAPITALS to identify that individual as property as distinct from a free man.



Ignorance of the law is no excuse – If committing an offence a guilty party cannot use as a defence the fact that they did so without knowledge that they were breaking the law.



“In the chamber”- The hearing of a case in private without the facts being reported to the public


From 14th Century Latin incorporatus meaning “the action of uniting into one body having legal PERSONALITY according to some valid CHARTER“. From the combination of ancient Latin in– “into” and corpus “body”. By the 17th Century the word was also given a scientific meaning with “to put (something) into the body or substance of (something else)”.


From 12th Century Latin incipit meaning “the official beginning element of a CHARTER” as in the case of a PAPAL BULL. From the ancient pre 3rd Century Latin incipio = “to take in hand, begin, commence”. By law, a document may only be valid as a Charter if it carries the correct style of INCIPIT. In the case of Papal Bulls, the tradition of the INCIPIT is constructed from (1) name of Pope, (2) the Latin phrase episcopus servus servorum Dei meaning “bishop, servant of the servants of God” and (3) a unique opening sentence not previously proclaimed by any other Papal Bull.


“In open court” – The hearing of a case before a court sitting in public



Against the PERSON- “Proceedings issued against or with reference to a specific person – an admiralty action in personam would be issued against the owner of a ship”.


Security against loss or damages, exemption from penalty or liability, amount paid as compensation under an indemnity agreement.


Regarding the right or title to property.


“Within the power of” – An act that falls within the Jurisdiction of the Court


“By the fact”- The reliance upon facts that together prove a point



literally “to join in the cause” can be forced by the court but must be done by open and notorious declaration of the court.  If you appear specially without joinder and not admitting to the jurisdiction of the court, the only recourse is for the court either to force joinder or dismiss the case


The area and matters over which a court has legal authority


Latin COMMON LAW Phrase meaning literally “right of blood” by which the rights of an individual including their citizenship and status is determined not by place of birth, but by ancestral blood relations. For instance, an ancient Roman practice was to permit the children of citizens to also be made citizens by jus sanguinis–because their father was a Roman citizen. This practice is commonly continued today.


Latin COMMON LAW Phrase meaning literally “right of soil (land) ” by which the rights of an individual including their citizenship and status is determined by the location/territory in which they were born. This form of granting rights is less common than jus sanguinis and in the past few centuries has typically only applied to the policies of a few former European colonial powers.


From 13th Century Latin justus Old English justice, Old French justise meaning “LAWS, RIGHT of LAW- the exercise of legal authority in vindication of ancient Imperial (Roman) rights and precepts by assigning reward or punishment”. The word was formed upon the claims of the Roman Cult Popes to have in their possession “untampered” ancient legal documents from Constantinople such as the Codex Justinian and earlier which (apart from several extraordinary anomolies) also claimed the Catholic Church to be “above the law”–hence the ultimate origin of the word Justice = forged laws of Justin and Emperors = Church above the law. The first and foremost pledge of all senior legal representatives of the “Justice” systems in Western christian nations is not to impart fair and true legal judgment, but to protect the Roman Cult from being held accountable for their actions = fundamental meaning of Justice.




From 3rd Century BCE Latin lāres = “a group ancient Roman deities (gods) defining localized activities, customs and practices accumulated over time including (but not limited to) home, family, the state, the sea, land and travel”. 12th Century Old English lārs = “a collection of common doctrines, customs and practices accumulated over time; and the teaching of such customs”, later 16th Century Middle English lore/law = “A collection of rules (doctrines), customs and practices (accumulated over time) enjoining or prohibiting certain action; also the individual rules themselves “. Contrary to misleading information, the Ancient Roman Legal System never considered the customs of lāres as being other than religious doctrine and ancient superstitions (witchcraft). Instead, the Roman Empire was founded on lēx/lēgis (statutes) and later (under Constantine) ilex (universal statutes). The modern western legal systems of nations are therefore based on inferior lāres –religious doctrines and concepts designed by the Roman Cult–while the Roman Cult reserved the formal structure of superior lēx/lēgis in the form of covenants and agreements such asConcordats, Official Church Councils and Papal Bulls.




From 16th Century English law = “law” and pre 13th Century English/French -ieür=”a person or thing connected with-” meaning “a layman (non cleric) qualified and authorized to practice law”.


From the late 18th Century in English COMMON LAW such as Sir William Blackstone (b. 1723- d. 1780) author of Commentaries on the Law of England, containing the first consolidated lists of claimed legal terms within COMMON LAW and later the mysterious Henry Campbell Black (b. 1860 – d. 1927) publisher of the 1st definitive legal dictionary in 1891 known as Black’s Law Dictionary. The invention of the list of legal terms first by Blackstone and later refined by Black greatly reduced the influence of RHETORIC and Knowledge of DUE PROCESS (of the Law) in favour of agreement of alleged LEGAL TERMS. Prior to the invention of the fiction of “universal common meaning” to legal words, historic records of CASE LAW prior to the 20th Century demonstrates quite different interpretations of the meaning for a wider number of legal terms. Furthermore, it has been conclusively proven that from the very 1st editions of Law Dictionaries such as Black’s Law Dictionary included completely forged legal terms were created, including substantial re-editing of definitions between editions, particularly in promoting the importance of PERSON and other LEGAL FICTIONS under ROMAN LAW. Far from the credibility of Law Dictionaries being questioned due to wildly changing and contradictory definitions being created constantly in newer editions, Law Dictionaries are now considered a fundamental component of most COMMON LAW systems.


From 12th Century Latin litteræ English letter and French lettre meaning “official writing, epistle, note, literature”. A deliberate corruption of the ancient pre 6th Century Latin littera “character of the alphabet”.


Letters Patent from a COMPANY under CHARTER owned by the HOLY SEE granting permission and indemnity to an agent to act unlawfully.


From 14th Century Latin litterae patentes meaning literally an “open (official) letter”. From 12th Century latin litteræ see LETTER and patentes see PATENT. A Letters Patent is similar in respect to a CHARTER in being used for official grants, titles, laws, right or monopoly and also in respect of honoring traditional form including the INCIPIT, the DATUM and the SEAL. However, Letters Patents may be on several pieces of paper and not velum (animal skin), may use black ink instead of red and a printed seal, instead of a BULLA. As such a Letters Patent is always legally inferior to a proper CHARTER. The most common Letters Patent today are Degrees and Diplomas from Colleges and Universities–most of which fail to adhere to the valid legal form.



From 15th Century French “a legal claim upon the property of another as security for some debt”. From 13th Century Latin ligamen “bond”, from earlier Latin ligare “to bind, tie”.


Responsibility or obligation. For example, a debt is a liability or responsibility.


From 18th Century English printing/typographical terminology meaning “smaller characters” as stored by printers in small drawers called type cases for letterpress printing. According to ROMAN LAW since the 18th Century, the correct legal term is MINUSCULE.



From ancient pre-Vatican Latin mandamus=”we command”. A WRIT in COMMON LAW that compels a COURT or government officer to perform their obligations of office correctly as defined by DUE PROCESS.


From 18th Century English as legal term meaning “a capital letter”. More commonly known as UPPER CASE. From Latin magnus = “large, great, important” and vulgar Latin culus = “anus, arse”. The meaning of the word literally translates as “great arse” indicating a general contempt by the authors of early LAW DICTIONARIES to those who do not recognise UPPER CASE legal fictions as having superiority over lower case names under ROMAN LAW.


From 13th Century Latin maritimeo/maritimus = “The mariner fleet of the Sea (Holy See) to be feared”. From earlier Latin maris “sea” and timeo “to fear, be afraid, dread”. From 16th Century English/French “Of the (Holy) Sea”.


16th Century Latin phrase meaning literally “(the) mind of the accused (defendant)”. From Latin actus=doing, action, esp. on stage” andmens/mentis=”mind, thought, intention”. It originates from a Latin phrase created by Edward Coke (b.1552-d.1634) actus non facit reum nisi mens sit reacommonly and incorrectly translated as meaning “an act does not make a person guilty unless (their) mind is also guilty”–reus never originally meaning guilt in Latin. Nonetheless, the maxim mens rea is most frequently misquoted as “Guilty mind ” in conjunction with the equally misquoted Latin phrase ACTUS REUS. In strict legal terms, mens rea is defined as “The intention/knowledge/forethought of the defendant in relation to the crime for which they are accused” –in classical JURISPRUDENCE requiring CONCURRENCE with actus reus. Contrary to popular misinterpretation, the original purpose of mens rea was to ensure the legal enforceability of any penalty–not to protect those mentally incompetent–ensuring CONSENT is given with COMPOS MENTIS (sound mind) through DUE PROCESS before any SENTENCE is given.


From 18th Century English as legal term meaning “a lower-case letter or cursive writing “. More commonly known as LOWER CASE. From Latin minor = “smaller, less, slighter ” and vulgar Latin culus = “anus, arse”. The meaning of the word literally translates as “small arse” indicating a general contempt by the authors of early LAW DICTIONARIES to those who do not recognise UPPER CASE legal fictions as having superiority over lower case names under ROMAN LAW.


From 13th Century Latin moneta meaning “the precious gift (coinage) of/to Cybele”. Originally from pre 3rd Century CE Latin monera meaning “a warning, a reminder” also applied to the geese of the temple to Juno (another name for Cybele-Queen of Heaven) and to the goddess Juno herself. Some of the most valuable minted coins in Rome were in honor to Juno Moneta–who warned and “saved Rome from a Carthaginian attack”. In the 19th Century, the original meaning of money being based on “precious metals” was depreciated with the meaning “A currency (including paper) maintained by a STATEwhich can guarantee its value”.


May when describing a directive as distinct from an imperitive.



From 13th Century Latin negligens = “(Belonging to) a particular system of faith that denies the primacy of the scriptures (of the Roman Cult) and official doctrines of the Church “. From ancient Latin nego=”to deny”, liber/li=”book” andgens=”clan, people, nation, tribe”. By the 16th Century, the word was legally enhanced to include “carelessness, without due attention” and by the 18th Century to mean “The tort whereby a duty of reasonable care was breached, causing damage: any conduct short of intentional or reckless action that falls below the legal standard for preventing unreasonable injury”.





An ancient Latin phrase and fundamental principle of both ancient pre-Vatican LAW and COMMON LAW meaning literally “agreements must be kept”. In it most basic sense, the principle infers that CLAUSES within a CONTRACT agreed in good faith (BONA FIDE) are LAW and that non-fulfulment of respective obligations is a breach of the pact. However, today this maxim has been thoroughly corrupted by two modern “escape clauses” namely: JUS COGENS (“compelling law”) and REBUS SIC STANTIBUS (“things thus standing”) which are usually reserved for the treatment and interpretation of INTERNATIONAL LAW and not granted to lesser courts.


From 14th Century common abbreviation for litterae patentes see: LETTERS PATENT. In the 15th Century, the Republic of Venice became the first state to issue “Patents” as we understand them today being “a set of exclusive rights granted by a STATE to an inventor or assignee for a period of time in exchange for the DISCLOSURE of an invention”.



From 13th Century Latin persona = “the (fictional) legal character representing an individual HUMAN BEING or CORPORATION by CONSENT “. Person is a key rule of Law describing a fundamental legal fiction –that is any individual or formal organization subject to the Curia (courts) or lesser courts. Providing consent is given without duress, legally an individual, a corporation and even a nation may be considered a PERSON and therefore subject to the principles of common law and commercial (maritime) law of the Vatican/Roman Cult. Legally, the name assigned to a Person must always be in CAPITALS to distinguish a “person” from a free man or free society.


From 14th Century Latin personalis = “The quality or fact of being a PERSON”. Itself a combination of persona=PERSON and alius = “other, another, someone/something else”. At the beginning of the 19th Century, a new definition was added to reflect the real-world fact of unique differences between individuals, namely “A set of qualities that makes a PERSON distinct from another”. The use of the word “personality” in the creation of the fictional and extremely dangerous “science” of psychology is attested from the early 20th Century meaning “assumed role or manner of PERSONAL behaviour”.


“By itself” – Denoting that the topic should be taken alone.



previously adjudged action or decision on same or similar point, serving as a rule or example for present guidance


To prevent or stop


“First sight” – Prima Facie evidence would be considered sufficient to prove a case unless disproved – if no Prima Facie evidence can be offered there is no case to answer


From 15th Century Latin proclamatio meaning “a formal public announcement of an official STATEMENT or STATUTE“. The word is derived from the same dated Latin word proclamare “cry or call out” itself from two ancient Latin wordspro = “forth” and clamare = “to cry out”. In COMMON LAW history, STATUTES were not effectively LAW until they are publicly announced, regardless of whether they had been published. The performance of Proclamations in medieval times was a key role of the town cryer. Today, the same role is largely performed by the MEDIA.


From ancient pre-Vatican Roman Latin pronuntio meaning “to make publicly known, declare; (in the senate), to account a resolution; at a sale, to make a oral statement as to defects.” From very early Latin pro = “in front of, before / on behalf of, for” and nuntio = “to announce, report, relate”. Carried through into COMMON LAW, but depreciated in favour of less effective words such as PROCLAMATION and DECLARATION–both of which are within the Vatican ROMAN LAW apparatus. However, where a Pronouncement can demonstrate superior STATUS, it holds superiority over other forms of official oral instruments.


From 13th Century English preove = “EVIDENCE accepted by a duly appointed legal power to establish the FACT of some DEED/act”. From combination of earlier Latin Pro= “in front of, before / on behalf of, for” and offero = “and to bring forward, place before, present, offer, expose”. Frequently mistakenly believed to be interchangeable in meaning with evidence. In a strict legal sense Proof is rooted in procedure. In contrast, the ancient Latin legal term probo “to show, prove, demonstrate, approve, find good, judge” emphasizes the value of evidence, not its procedural merit. In many countries, it remains possibly to render hard scientific EVIDENCE of a crime inadmissible (not proof) based on the procedural nature of proof in a court of law.



Latin meaning “for oneself; in one’s own behalf”. In formal legal terms a pro se party is one who, without representation, acts as his/her own attorney. Contrary to many deliberately incorrect definitions in LAW DICTIONARIES, it does not in any way imply a man or woman admits to being a PERSON. When a COURT seeks to trick an individual by first refusing to recognize their COMMON LAW right to PRO SE, it may be necessary to further state that one is anUNREPRESENTED MAN (or woman).


Means in your proper person.






From 14th Century Latin ratificare = “confirm, approve by recounting/relating to previous “approved” item”. From earlier Latin ratus=”fixed, established” and reri=”think/reckon”. Contrary to the popular misunderstanding, the original and accurate meaning of something “Ratified” is when it can be confirmed/approved to belong to something already accepted such as religious scripture and/or previous laws–not whether it has been signed or not. Legally, a concept/claim/judgment without precedence can never be Ratified, even if it is signed by all parties.


The principles of law applied by a Court upon which a judicial decision is based


From 14th Century Latin rationalis = “of or belonging to REASON“. A deliberate corruption of the ancient Roman legal principle of ratio = “reckoning, account, judgment, consideration”. In the 17th Century the word was used as the basis of a philosophical doctrine creating further “noise” (reason) to again corrupting ancient Roman legal principle of ratio.


From 13th Century Latin realis “genuine, without doubt”. From ancient Latinres= thing and rem=see. In the mid 16th century, the word real came to mean “that which is actually and truly such as its name implies; possessing the essential qualities denoted by its name; hence genuine, undoubted” (1559). Around the beginning of the 17th century, the definition of real developed further to mean ” having an objective existence; actually existing as a thing.” (1601). Around 1647 the word reality acquired the additional meaning: “real existence; the aggregate of real things or existences that which underlies and is the TRUTH of appearances or phenomena.”


From 13th Century French/English resoun/raison meaning “a statement in a (legal) argument giving cause”. From two earlier Latin words re=”about, regarding, with reference to” and sono=”to make a noise, the meaning of word(s)”. By the 16th Century, the original meaning of the word was masked by an additional definition “To argue, discourse, converse, talk in a sensible manner”. By the end of the 17th Century, it was now a scientific term “Of aFACTevent, or thing not dependent on HUMAN agency”. By the end of the 19th Century acquired its logical meaning “to think in a connected, sensible, logical manner in forming conclusions”.




From 13th Century Latin religiens = “the specific obligation (as an oath) and bonding of clergy to their holy orders (to the Roman Cult)”. A deliberate corruption of the ancient Latin spiritual word religio = “respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods”. In a strict legal sense, the word “religion” should only apply to groups professing an oath of alliegence to the supremacy of the Roman Cult. The correct legal term for describing a faith that does not serve the Roman Cult is negligens the origin of the word NEGLIGENCE.


From 13th Century Latin requirere = “to demand an act/response in matter of complaint/charge” from earlier Latin re = “thing, matter” and querimonia = “complaint, a charge in court”. A “required” act (such as a formal response) implies the existence of a complaint/charge to answer and that the person demanding the “required” act, or “query” holds such right/authority.


Latin legal COMMON LAW phrase which means literally: “A thing ajudged” – Once a case has been finally decided upon by a Court the same parties cannot attempt to raise the issue by or during further proceedings.


Latin legal COMMON LAW phrase which means literally: “The thing speaks for itself” – An event that has occurred which, if the subject of litigation, would not require an onus of proof by the plaintiff because of the obvious negligence of the defendant.


From 11th Century Latin ritus=” correct usage, morally correct rule, correct ceremony”. A deliberate corruption of the ancient Latin rectus ='”straight, correct”. Later used to also deliberately corrupt ancient pre 8th Century Irishrecht, English riht and German reht all meaning “just law, righteous, wise”.


A pseudo-christian CULT first established by pagan and satanist Hilderbrand also known as AntiPope Gregory VII (1057-1084) and his benefactor Pietro Leoni (b.1033- d.1102), son of King Pietro II Urseolo of Hungary (1041-1047) of the famed exiled Jewish Venetian Pietro dynasty to claim superior status in controlling the CATHOLIC CHURCH first formed by the French Pippin dynasty in the 8th Century.


Common name for CANON LAW — a forgery first formed by the ROMAN CULT in the 11th Century claiming certain ficticious ancient Roman maxims and precedents which falsely place the ROMAN CULT above all secular LAW. Deliberately and falsely claimed by COURTS subservient to CURIA of the ROMAN CULT as pertaining to ancient Roman Empire Laws. The main procedural foundations of the false Roman Law was VENETIAN LAW (more commonly known as MARITIME LAW and/or ADMIRALTY LAW) introduced in the 12th and early 13th Century during the creation of the highest legal PERSONALITY under COMMON LAW–the HOLY SEE (Sea). Hence, under the corrupted Roman Law of the ROMAN CULT living men and women are considered VESSELS subject to JURISDICTION of the SEE (Sea) with the WATERMARK of all nations with diplomatic recognition (CONCORDATS) of the SEE (Sea) set at the highest mountain peaks–hence all land is therefore “Under the Sea” and PROPERTY of the SEE (Sea). Few genuine pre-Roman Cult maxims of Roman Law survive into present day COMMON LAW.


Latin legal COMMON LAW phrase which means literally: “Deceptive Roman Speech”. From Latin loquor = “to say, speak, tell”, decipio= “ensnare, trap, beguile, deceive” and romanus = “Roman”. When a LEGAL TERM is used in COURT having a deliberately counter or deceptive meaning to its true etymology, by right an individual may challenge the meaning, presenting its true intent and must then offer a term that is consistent with the claimed meaning to be conveyed. romanus decipio loquitor only gives relief to deliberately deceptive LEGAL TERMS, not DUE PROCESS or CONSENT.



From 13th Century as the official mark (brand) of the Sedes Sacrorum (HOLY SEE), especially on official documents. Its presence on a document, design or as part of a uniform has always denoted the object having the full legal rights and effect of ROMAN LAW–a documented legal practice for over 700 years. Since the 17th Century, the mark “SS.” of the HOLY SEE has been most commonly used on official legal documents issued under CHARTER for lands ultimately “owned” by the Vatican. The deliberate fiction created by authors of the earliestLAW DICTIONARIES that such a mark means “to wit; namely” is generally regarded as representing neither historic fact, nor sensible etymological reasoning. The Legal effect of “SS.” on any document signed by an individual, particularly where CONSENT is given is to be treated as a PERSON is to transfer temporal and often “spiritual” ownership to the “SEE”. The most famous use of the official mark of “SS.” of the Holy See was an official ensignia of the Papal Army of the Holy Inquistion also known as the “Knights of the Holy See” or “Nazi SS”.



From the 13th Century as the official name of the HOLY SEE and the historically correct meaning of the abbreviation SS. (Latin Sedes for seat/see, Sacrorum for holy right) From the 14th Century, the full and proper name “Sedes Sacrorum” is rarely printed, instead the mark of SS. is used.


Late 13th Century phrase meaning “serfs of the Royal Treasury” (translates literally as “servants of the royal chamber”) associated with the co-ordinated action of the Roman Cult and its key vassals –including Rudolph Habsburg, Edward I of England and Louis II Wittlesbach of Bavaria–to subjugate Jewish Venetian trading families and their property that had settled in their key cities, namely Zurich, London and Munich using the fraud of USURY to demand all transactions be conducted by these Jewish families. The individual members of these banking franchises controlled by the Roman Cult were called COMPANIONS and each major group within a city was called a COMPANY.



Mispelled and wrong name generally.


Legal evidence of an oath.



A number of people joined by mutual consent to deliberate, determine and act for a common goal.


is an appearance only to challenge jurisdiction.  If  you make any motions other than motions to dismiss or quash, you join in the cause.  If you join in the cause, you have to defend or acquiesce by default, even if you stand there and say nothing.



A 12th Century abbreviation of one of founding principles of Vatican ROMAN LAW namely Stare decisis et non quieta movere which means “maintain what has been decided; not alter that which has been established”. First applied to protecting CANON LAW as first formed by the Roman Cult and later falsely claimed as an ancient pre-Vatican Roman Maxim, it remains the legal principle under which judges in COMMON LAW today are obligated to follow the PRECEDENTS established in prior decisions.


From 13th Century Latin status meaning “circumstances, conditions and/or temporary attributes of a PERSON or THING”. In 14th Century, State as defined in English state, French estat and German staat inherited the additional legal meaning of “physical condition as regards form or structure of country, supreme civil power and/or government as a PERSONALITY”. In 17th Century, the word state was further refined in terms of a legal personality by the meaning “a semi-autonomous political entity having legal PERSONALITY subject to higher legal authority”.


From 18th Century English statement— itself formed from 13th Century Latinstatus = STATE and pre-3rd Century Latin mentis = “mind”– meaning “a writtenDECLARATION“.


A legislated rule of society that has the force of law.


To leave to another’s discretion, to bend to the will of another.


“To produce evidence” – A writ directed to a person commanding him/her, under a penalty, to appear before a Court and give evidence


a subpoena requiring a person to produce specified documents or records in a trial


an order issued by the court to a person to attend court and give testimony


You are an adult and have legal capacity andare competent in all ways to testify to the facts of the CASE.




an injury or wrong committed, either with or without force, and either intentionally or negligently, to the person or property of another


From 13th Century Latin trādere “to surrender”. Later adopted in the 16th Century to mean “the buying and selling of goods according to the rules/market controlled by the company” as it applied to the Dutch East India company and later the British East India Company. The meaning of trade has always been the forcing of the other party to “surrender” to your terms and never about fair or open markets. Therefore, there it is no such thing possible as “free trade agreement” – only a one sided agreement.


is where you have facts necessary to prove you weren’t the one doing the act.  Examples here are mistaken identity, alibi, inability to do the act, statistical probability and circumstantial evidence


From 13th Century Latin tractatus “an official documented discussion/agreement recognized by the Roman Cult”. From earlier Latintractare “to handle, manage”. While the word “treaty” is now used to describe formal agreements between nations without the involvement of the Roman Cult, such agreements are strictly not treaties–only legal agreements in which the Vatican is involved and agrees to its validity may be ultimately considered a valid treaty. Furthermore, all proper (Vatican related) treaties remain in force until the Holy See deems it so, regardless if one or more signatories later refuse to continue to recognize the agreement. That way, all Roman Cult Treaty are technically “until the end of time”, or if a new one replaces it by mutual consent.


From 12th Century Latin trausti = “an approved agreement, DEED, oath or alliance with/by the church”. By 14th Century Old German trost, Dutch, troost, Norse traust all meaning “confidence, credit, belief, fidelity”. Its claimed origins from Old Norse is deliberately misleading. In its strictest sense, a trust is a fictional legal concept claimed to have independent existence–therefore a Trust does not exist unless some formal approval is given under the control of the Roman Cult is given to a particular agreement, deed, oath or alliance can be proven.


From 8th Century Old Norse troth “faithfulness to the laws of the gods”. From ancient Egyptian god Thoth the god of wisdom and faithfulness to religious laws. From 13th Century English triewe “of persons steadfast in adherence to a leader, to a principle or cause to one’s promises, or faith; firm/loyal in allegiance”. Of the original meanings of the word, the most important concepts are loyalty and consistency to religious laws. Secondly it is important to recognize that it is the consistent individual display of loyalty that underpins the earliest meaning of the word “true”. In the middle of the 16th Century, truth confirmed its status as a scientific term with the meaning ” agreeing with a standard, pattern, or rule; exact, accurate, precise, correct, right” (1550). It wasn’t until the 17th Century that the word true/truth took on the added meaning linking it to a FICTIONAL concept of an underlying reality and linking it with the concept of fact, the 17C definition being ” of a statement or belief consistent with FACT agreeing with REALITY representing the things as it is.” In strict legal sense, truth is interpreted to its ancient meaning, in contrast to its modern scientific meaning–hence the oath of a witness is legally and literally to troth/thoth “faithfulness to the laws of the gods”.



“Beyond the power” – An act that falls outside or beyond the jurisdiction of the court.


To stand under the authority of the Church (Roman Cult).


A Common English expression clearly stating an individual is without legal representation and not to be confused with PERSON under the LAW. The preferred and proper legal term is PRO SE. However, the phrase “Unrepresented Man (or Woman)” can be used should a COURT seek to test/trick an individual in their comprehension and exact status.


From 18th Century English printing/typographical terminology meaning “larger characters” as stored by printers in small drawers called type cases for letterpress printing. According to ROMAN LAW since the 18th Century, the correct legal term is MAJUSCULE.


From 13th Century Latin usuria/usura “the sin of lending money at interest ” outside the control of the Roman Cult. From earlier Latin us “foreigners” andōrāre “to plead, beg, pray”. Prior to the 13th Century there is no comparitive concept as the claim of money lending being a sin was original to the Roman Cult in devising a plan to control global banking and finance–essential to trade since the beginning of Empires by outlawing all competition, excluding Jewish merchants bonded to the service of the Vatican.



From 14th Century Latin validus meaning “having force (strength) in law, legally binding”. From earlier Latin valens= “strong, powerful, able, worthy”. Since the 19th Century, valid is frequently misinterpreted as “well grounded, pertinent and/or logical”. In contrast, a valid legal argument does not have to be well grounded, pertinent or logical, merely have force (strength) in law and/or legally binding.


From 13th Century Latin vascellum meaning “small container” as it pertains to either a SHIP or a HUMAN BEING. From earlier Latin vās “vessel” and cella“small room/cavity”. A legal fiction created by the Roman Cult as part of MARITIME LAW for the purpose of controlling trade. Under MARITIME LAW, a HUMAN is deemed a “vessel”.


From pre-Vatican Roman Law Latin and carried through into COMMON LAW meaning “by virtue of their office” pertaining to both the rights and obligations of office holders as it relates to DUE PROCESS. An ancient phrase stating the obligation and duty of those holding official office, also enshrined in the ancient pre-Vatican Latin word officium.