"There manifests itself in the fully developed being, Man, a desire mysterious, inscrutable and irresistible: to imitate nature, to create, to work himself the wonders he perceives. Long ago he recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, or tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Akasa or luminiferous ether, which is acted upon by the life giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infintesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance." – Man’s Greatest Achievement, 1907
"So astounding are the facts in this connection, that it would seem as though the Creator, himself had electrically designed this planet." – Tesla describing what is now known as Schumann Resonance (7.8Hz) in The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires As A Means Of Furthering World Peace 1905.
"Of all the frictional resistances, the one that most retards human movement is ignorance, what Buddha called ‘the greatest evil in the world.’ The friction which results from ignorance can be reduced only by the spread of knowledge and the unification of the heterogeneous elements of humanity. No effort could be better spent."
"Science is but a perversion of itself unless it has as its ultimate goal the betterment of humanity.
— Nikola Tesla
Tesla was awarded 221 worldwide patents, and 113 US patents. These covered polyphase AC power alternators, transformers, and motors, radio communication, fluorescent lighting, automotive ignition systems, VTOL aircraft, efficient bladeless turbines, etc. Tesla was relatively unconcerned about getting rich, seeking funds only to continue his research for the betterment of humanity. After 1915, Tesla slowly faded into obscurity, finally dying penniless in 1943. Later that year, the US Supreme Court declared Tesla the TRUE inventor of radio.
The famous physicist, Niels Bohr summed it up nicely:
"Tesla’s ingenious invention of the polyphase system as well as his explorations of the amazing phenomenon of high frequency oscillations were the basis for developing completely new conditions for industry and radio communications, and had a profound influence upon the whole civilization."
Nikola Tesla (July 9/July 10, 1856 – January 7, 1943) was a physicist, inventor, and electrical engineer of unusual intellectual brilliance and practical achievement. He was of Serb descent and worked mostly in the United States.
Tesla is most famous for conceiving the rotating magnetic field principle (1882) and then using it to invent the induction motor together with the accompanying alternating current long-distance electrical transmission system (1888). His patents and theoretical work still form the basis for modern alternating current electric power systems.
He also developed numerous other electrical and mechanical devices including the fundamental principles and machinery of wireless technology, including the high frequency alternator, the "AND" logic gate and the Tesla coil, as well as other devices such as the bladeless turbine, the spark plug and numerous other inventions.
Tesla was born around midnight between July 9th and July 10th, 1856 in the village of Smiljan near Gospic, in the Lika region of the Military Frontier (Krajina) of the Habsburg Monarchy, now in Croatia. His father, the Rev. Milutin Tesla, was a priest in the Serb Orthodox Metropolitanate of Karlovci. His mother, uka Mandi, made home craft tools. Tesla was one of five children, having one brother and three sisters.Tesla went to school in Karlovac (then Austria-Hungary, now Croatia), then studied electrical engineering at the Austria Politechnic in Graz, Austria (1875). While there, he studied the uses of alternating current.
In 1881 he moved to Budapest to work for the telegraph company, American Telephone Company. On the opening of the telephone exchange in Budapest, 1881, Tesla became the chief electrician to the company, later engineer to the Yugoslav government and the country’s first telephone system. He also developed a telephone repeater (or amplifier).
For a while he stayed in Maribor. He was employed at his first job as an assistant engineer. Tesla suffered a nervous breakdown during this time. In 1882 he moved to Paris to work as an engineer for the Continental Edison Company on designing improvements to electric equipment. In the same year, Tesla conceived the induction motor and began developing various devices that use rotating magnetic fields (for which he received patents in 1888). Tesla hastened from Paris to his mother’s side as she lay dying, arriving hours before her death in 1882. After her death, Tesla fell ill. He spent two to three weeks recuperating at home near Gospic.
In 1884, leaving the warfare of his birthplace behind, Tesla moved to the United States of America to accept a job with the Edison Company in New York City. He arrived in the US with 4 cents to his name, a book of poetry, and a letter of recommendation from Charles Batchelor, his manager in his previous job.
When Tesla first arrived in the United States, he was offered a job by Thomas Edison when the latter saw his letter of recommendation from Charles Batchelor which read simply "I know two great men and you are one of them. This young man is the other".
Tesla’s work for Edison began with simple electrical engineering. Eventually Tesla earned the respect of Edison and offered to undertake a complete re-design of the Edison company’s DC dynamos. After Tesla described the nature of the benefits from his proposed modifications, Edison offered him $50,000 if they were successfully completed. Tesla worked nearly a year to redesign them and gave the Edison company several enormously profitable new patents in the process. When Tesla inquired about the $50,000, Edison replied to him, "Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor" and reneged on his agreement, offering a raise in Tesla’s salary of $10 per week as a compromise – at which rate it would have taken almost 100 years to earn the money Edison had originally promised. Tesla resigned on the spot. In some accounts of the final confrontation, he didn’t say a single word to Edison but simply turned his back on the inventor and walked off the premises.
In 1886, Tesla formed his own company, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. The initial financial investors disagreed with Tesla on his plan for an alternating current motor and eventually relieved him of his duties at the company.
Tesla worked in New York as a common laborer from 1886 to 1887 to feed himself and raise capital for his next project. In 1887, he constructed the initial brushless alternate-current induction motor, which he demonstrated to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE) in 1888. In the same year, he developed the principles of his Tesla coil and began working with George Westinghouse at Westinghouse’s Pittsburgh labs. Westinghouse listened to his ideas for polyphase systems which would allow transmission of AC electricity over large distances.
Tesla’s generation of electricity resulted in what is known as alternating current, or AC. In alternating current the polarity and strength of the energy is continuously changing or alternating. Prior to Tesla’s innovation, the Edison company was promoting direct current, or DC, as a safer way to power both homes and factories. In fact, Edison, despite knowing that Tesla’s AC was superior, mounted an ugly publicity stunts designed to discredit Tesla and to save Edison’s own financial investment in DC.
Animals were brutally electrocuted with AC, including an elephant, which were recorded by Edison and shown at public gatherings.
Edison embarked on a number of propaganda campaigns which attempted to persuade the general public that AC was dangerous. Nicknamed the "death current" by Edison, public demonstrations were staged in which animals were brutally electrocuted with AC, including an elephant, which were recorded by Edison and shown at public gatherings.
Despite the public’s fear of AC, Tesla had the upper hand. Direct current was good only for short distances. The accumulated resistance in metallic wires and cables greatly reduced the electrical power as it traveled through the transmission lines. AC, on the other hand, did not suffer the same loss and was able to travel great distances with little loss of potential.
Also, because alternating current could react with coils of wire (transformers) to increase or decrease the voltage, electricity could be produced at high power levels at the generation stations and then reduced just prior to being distributed locally. Eventually, Edison lost his battle and alternating current became the electric industry standard. To this day, the three-phase form of Tesla’s polyphase system is still used for the generation and transmission of most electricity. Moreover, the conversion of electricity into mechanical power is made possible by updated versions of Tesla’s three-phase and split phase motors.
X-rays and friendships
In April 1887, Tesla began investigating what would later be called X-rays using his own single node vacua tubes (similar to his US514170 patent). This device differed from other early X-ray tubes in that they had no target electrode. The modern term for the phenomena produced from this device is termed the bremsstrahlung process. He also used Crookes tubes. A modern day x ray tech would not use this type of technology.
On July 30, 1891, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and established his Houston Street laboratory in New York. He lit vacuum tubes wirelessly in it, providing evidence for the potential of wireless power transmission. Around this time, Tesla developed a close and lasting friendship with Mark Twain. They spent a lot of time together in Tesla’s lab and elsewhere. Tesla’s closest friends were artists. He also befriended Century Magazine editor Robert Underwood Johnson, who adapted several Serbian poems of Jovan Jovanovi Zmaj (which Tesla translated).
When he was 36 years old, the first patents concerning the polyphase power system were granted. He continued research of the system and rotating magnetic field principles. By 1892, Tesla became aware of what Wilhelm Rontgen later identified as effects of X-rays. He performed several experiments (including photographing the bones of his hand; later, he sent these images to Rontgen) but didn’t make his findings widely known; much of his research was lost in the 1895 Houston Street lab fire.
Tesla commented on the hazards of working with single node x-ray producing devices, attributing the skin-damage to ozone rather than the radiation: "As to the hurtful actions on the skin… I note that they have been misinterpreted… They are not due to the Roentgen rays, but merely to the ozone generated in contact with the skin. Nitrous acid may also be responsible, but to a small extent." (Tesla, in Electrical Review, 30 November 1895). This is incorrect concerning cathodic x-ray tubes. Tesla later observed an assistant severely "burnt" by x-rays in his lab.
Wireless and the AIEE
Tesla served as the Vice-President of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now part of the IEEE) from 1892 to 1894. From 1893 to 1895, he investigated high frequency alternating currents. He generated AC of one million volts using a conical Tesla coil and investigated the skin effect in conductors, designed tuned circuits, invented a machine for inducing sleep, cordless gas discharge lamps, and transmitted electromagnetic energy without wires, effectively building the first radio transmitter.
Tesla sitting under the fury of his Tesla Coil
In St. Louis, Missouri, Tesla made a demonstration related to radio communication (he demonstrated radio energy crossing space (one side of a stage to the other)) in 1893. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated in detail its principles. Heinrich Hertz had made such demonstrations, repeatedly, five years previously. Hertz’ demonstrations were not public (they were conducted during his physics lectures) but strictly speaking neither were Tesla’s (the Franklin Institute didn’t open to the general public until 1934).
Tesla held over forty U.S. patents (circa 1888) covering our entire system of Polyphase Alternating Current (AC). These patents are so novel that nobody could ever challenge them in the courts.
Tesla’s four-tuned circuits (two on the receiving side and two on the transmitting side, secured by U.S. patents #645,576 and #649,621) were the basis of the U.S. Supreme Court decision (Case #369 decided June 21, 1943) to overturn Marconi’s basic patent on the invention of radio.
Alternating-current power transmission
The Death Ray Machine
Polyphase alternating-current system
Rotating magnetic field principle
Tesla coil transformer
World’s Fair Exposition
At the 1893 World’s Fair, the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, an international exposition was held which for the first time devoted a building to electrical exhibits. It was a historic event as Tesla and George Westinghouse introduced visitors to AC power by using it to illuminate the Exposition. In protest, Edison would not allow use of any of his lightbulbs for this event.
As if lighting the Exposition was not enough, Tesla explained the principles of the rotating magnetic field and induction motor by demonstrating how to make an egg (made of copper) stand on end in his version of the Egg of Columbus.
War of currents
In the "War of Currents" era in the late 1880s, Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edison’s promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the more efficient alternating current (AC) advocated by Tesla.
When Tesla was 41 years old, he filed the first basic radio patent (No. US645576). A year later, he demonstrated a remote controlled boat to the US military, believing that the military would want things such as radio-guided torpedoes. In 1898 a radio controlled boat was also demonstrated to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden. These devices had an innovative coherer and a series of logic gates. Radio remote control remained a novelty until the Space Age. In the same year, Tesla devised an electric igniter for gasoline engines which was nearly identical to ideas about the same process used by modern internal combustion engines.
In 1896, according to an interview he gave in 1916, Tesla invented a type of loudspeaker. The sounds were of the quality of the telephones of that time. The invention was never patented nor released publicly (till years later by Tesla himself).
As a result of the "War of Currents" Edison and Westinghouse were almost bankrupt, so in 1897 Tesla released Westinghouse from contract providing Westinghouse a break from Tesla’s AC motor royalties.
In 1899, Tesla decided to move and began research in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where he could have room for his high-voltage high-frequency experiments. He chose this location primarily because of the frequent thunderstorms, the high altitude (where the air, being at a lower pressure, had a lower dielectric breakdown strength, making it easier to ionize), and the dryness of the air (minimizing leakage of electric charge through insulators). Also, the property was free and electric power available from the El Paso Power Company. Today, magnetic intensity charts also show that the ground around his lab possesses a denser magnetic field than the surrounding area. Tesla reached Colorado Springs on May 17, 1899. Upon his arrival he told reporters that he was conducting experiments transmitting signals from Pikes Peak to Paris.
Tesla kept a diary of his experiments in the Colorado Springs lab where he spent nearly nine months. It consists of 500 pages of handwritten notes and nearly 200 drawings, recorded chronologically between June 1, 1899 and January 7, 1900, as the work occurred, containing explanations of his experiments. He was developing a system for wireless telegraphy, telephony and the transmission of power, experimented with high-voltage electricity and the possibility of wireless transmitting and distributing large amounts of electrical energy over long distances. He also conceived a system for geophysical exploration–seismology–which he called telegeodynamics, based on his reciprocating mechanical oscillator patented in 1894, and explained that a long sequence of small explosions could be used to find ore and create earthquakes large enough to destroy the Earth. He did not experiment with this as he felt there would not be "a desirable outcome".
Much of what Tesla discovered while in this lab has been lost to history and Tesla’s own secrecy. To this very day there is talk of Tesla’s Death Ray being invented there as well as communication with other planets. How much of this is true is now unknown, but has made Tesla’s time at this remote lab a wellspring for Urban legends about him.
Tesla, a local contractor, and several assistants commenced the construction of the laboratory shortly after arriving in Colorado Springs. The lab was established on Knob Hill, east of the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind and one mile (1.6 km) east of downtown. Its primary purposes were experiments with high frequency electricity and other phenomena, and secondary–research into wireless transmission of electrical power.
Tesla’s design of the lab was a building fifty feet by sixty feet (15 by 18 m) with eighty-foot (24 m) ceilings. A one-hundred-forty-two foot (43 m) conducting aerial with a thirty-inch (760 mm) copper-foil-covered wooden ball was erected on the roof. The roof was rolled back to prevent fire from sparks and other dangerous effects of the experiments. The laboratory had sensitive instruments and equipment.
Missing imageTesla_colorado_444px.jpgDouble exposure publicity photo of Tesla sitting in his laboratory in Colorado Springs with his "magnifying transmitter" generating millions of volts of electricity. The arcs are about 22 feet (7 m) long.
The lab possessed the largest Tesla Coil ever built, fifty-two feet (16 m) in diameter, known as the Magnifying Transmitter (further MT). Not identical to a classic Tesla Coil, it was a three-coil magnifying system requiring different forms of analysis than lumped-constant coupled resonant coils presently described to most. It resonated at a natural quarter wavelength frequency and could work in a continuous-wave mode and in a partially damped-wave resonant mode.
According to accounts, Tesla used it to transmit tens of thousands of watts of power wirelessly; it could generate millions of volts of electricity and produce lightning bolts more than one-hundred feet (30 m) long. Tesla posted a large fence around it with a sign "Keep Out – Great Danger".
Tesla became the first man to create electrical effects on the scale of lightning. The MT produced thunder which was heard as far away as Cripple Creek. People near the lab would observe sparks emitting from the ground to their feet and through their shoes. Some have observed electrical sparks from the fire hydrants (Tesla for a time grounded out to the plumbing of the city). The area around the laboratory would glow with a blue corona (similar to St. Elmo’s Fire).
One of Tesla’s experiments with the MT destroyed Colorado Springs Electric Company’s generator by backfeeding the city’s power generators, and blacked out the city. The company denied Tesla further access to the backup generator’s feed if he did not repair the primary generator at his own expense; it was working again in a few days.
Tesla also constructed many smaller resonance transformers and discovered the concept of tuned electrical circuits. He also developed a number of coherers for separating and perceiving electromagnetic waves and designed rotating coherers which he used to detect the unique types of electromagnetic phenomenon he observed. They had a mechanism of geared wheels driven by a coiled spring-drive mechanism which rotated small glass cylinders. These experiments were the final stage of years of work on synchronized tuned electrical circuits.
These transceivers were constructed to demonstrate how signals could be "tuned in". Tesla logged in his diary on July 3, 1899 that a separate resonance transformer tuned to the same high frequency as a larger high-voltage resonance transformer would transceive energy from the larger coil, acting as a transmitter of wireless energy, which was used to confirm Tesla’s patent for radio during later disputes in the courts. These air core high-frequency resonate coils were the predecessors of systems from radio to radar and medical magnetic resonance imaging devices.
Propagation and resonance
On July 3, 1899, Tesla discovered terrestrial stationary waves within the earth. He demonstrated that the Earth behaves as a smooth polished conductor and possesses electrical vibrations. He experimented with waves characterized by a lack of vibration at points, between which areas of maximum vibration occur periodically. These standing waves were produced by confining waves within constructed conductive boundaries. Tesla demonstrated that the Earth could respond at predescribed frequencies of electrical vibrations. At this time, Tesla realized that it was possible to transceive power around the globe. A few years later, George Westinghouse stopped funding Tesla’s research when Tesla showed him that he could offer free electricity to the whole world by simply "ramming a stick in the earth in your backyard". Westinghouse said he would go bankrupt if that happened.
Tesla conducted experiments contributing to the understanding of electromagnetic propagation and the Earth’s resonance. It is well documented (from various photos from the time) that he lit hundreds of lamps wirelessly at a distance of up to twenty-five miles (40 km). He transmitted signals several kilometres and lit neon tubes conducting through the ground. He researched ways to transmit energy wirelessly over long distances. He transmitted extremely low frequencies through the ground in his experiments and made mathematical calculations and computations based on his experiments and discovered that the resonant frequency of the Earth was approximately 8 Hz (Hertz). In the 1950s, researchers confirmed resonant frequency was in this range (interesting to note, Theta brain waves also cycle in this range).
In the Colorado Springs lab, Tesla recorded what he concluded were extraterrestrial radio signals and announced his findings in some of the scientific journals of the time.  His announcements and data were rejected by the scientific community who did not believe him. He notes measurements of repetitive signals from his receiver which are substantially different from the signals he had noted from storms and earth noise. Specifically, he later recalled that the signals appeared in groups of clicks 1, 2, 3, and 4 clicks together. He stated in the article "A Giant Eye to See Round the World", of February 25, 1923, that:
"Twenty-two years ago, while experimenting in Colorado with a wireless power plant, I obtained extraordinary experimental evidence of the existence of life on Mars. I had perfected a wireless receiver of extraordinary sensitiveness, far beyond anything known, and I caught signals which I interpreted as meaning 1–2–3–4. I believe the Martians used numbers for communication because numbers are universal."
Clearly, Tesla felt the signal groups originated on the planet Mars. In 1996 Corum and Corum published an analysis of Jovian plasma torus signals which indicate that there was a correspondence between the setting of Mars at Colorado Springs, and the cessation of signals from Jupiter in the summer of 1899 when Tesla was there. Further, analysis by the Corums indicate that Tesla’s transceiver was sensitive in the 18 kHz gap in the Kennelly-Heaviside layer which would have allowed that reception from Jupiter. Therefore, there is evidence the signals Tesla noticed came from Jupiter, among other possible sources. Tesla spent the latter part of his life trying to signal Mars.
It is important to recognize that when he says he "recorded" these signals, it is meant that he wrote down the data and his impressions of what he had heard. He did release reports at the time. Tesla¹s initial announcement of the existence of extraterrestrial radio signals was in 1899. In March of 1907, Tesla wrote about signaling to Mars in Harvard Magazine and how it was a problem of electrical engineering. Additional descriptions come from remembrances twenty years later. All this was met with resistance and disbelief by his contemporaries.
Tesla left Colorado Springs on January 7, 1900. The lab was torn down, broken up, and its contents sold to pay debts. The Colorado experiments prepared Tesla for his next project, the establishment of a wireless power transmission facility that would be known as Wardenclyffe. On March 21, 1900, Tesla was granted US685012 patent for the means for increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations.
Main article: Wardenclyffe TowerIn 1900, with $150,000 (51%) from J. Pierpont Morgan, Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility. In June 1902, Tesla’s lab operations were moved to Wardenclyffe from Houston Street.
Among the various application of the 700-plus patents accumulated by Tesla, the most controversial today is his Wardenclyffe Tower. The tower was billed as the start of a global system for wireless telecommunications but was also intended by Tesla as a demonstration of wireless electrical power distribution. In 1903, upon hearing of Tesla’s plans for wireless power transmission, Morgan refused any more funding to support the Wardenclyffe Tower project. The tower was finally dismantled for scrap during wartime. Newspapers of the time labeled Wardenclyffe "Tesla’s million-dollar folly."
Wireless Electricity Of Nikola Tesla
by Melvin D. Saunders
If a single one-megaton nuclear warhead were exploded 300 miles over the center of the country, a high-voltage electromagnetic pulse would in theory disrupt communication and electrical systems all over the continental U.S. Gamma rays emitted by such an explosion would instantly strip away the electrons from air molecules in the upper atmosphere in roughly a circular, pancake-shaped zone. The free electrons would then accelerate radially with the earth’s magnetic field, separating from the heavier, positively charged ions and creating a downward directed high-voltage electromagnetic pulse. This in turn results in electrical surges in all exposed conductors on the ground.
When Nikola Tesla discovered alternating current (AC) electricity, he had great difficulty convincing men of his time to believe in it. Thomas Edison was in favor of direct current (DC) electricity and opposed AC electricity strenuously. Tesla eventually sold his rights to his alternating current patents to George Westinghouse for $1,000,000. After paying off his investors, Tesla spent his remaining funds on his other inventions and culminated his efforts in a major breakthrough in 1899 at Colorado Springs by transmitting 100 million volts of high-frequency electric power wirelessly over a distance of 26 miles at which he lit up a bank of 200 light bulbs and ran one electric motor! With this souped up version of his Tesla coil, Tesla claimed that only 5% of the transmitted energy was lost in the process. But broke of funds again, he looked for investors to back his project of broadcasting electric power in almost unlimited amounts to any point on the globe. The method he would use to produce this wireless power was to employ the earth’s own resonance with its specific vibrational frequency to conduct AC electricity via a large electric oscillator. When J.P. Morgan agreed to underwrite Tesla’s project, a strange structure was begun and almost completed near Wardenclyffe in Long Island, N.Y. Looking like a huge lattice-like, wooden oil derrick with a mushroom cap, it had a total height of 200 feet. Then suddenly, Morgan withdrew his support to the project in 1906, and eventually the structure was dynamited and brought down in 1917.
……..A Tesla coil is a special transformer that can take the 110 volt electricity from your house and convert it rapidly to a great deal of high-voltage, high-frequency, low-amperage power. The high-frequency output of even a small Tesla coil can light up fluorescent tubes held several feet away without any wire connections. Even a large number of spent or discarded fluorescent tubes (their burned out cathodes are irrelevant) will light up if hung near a long wire running from a Tesla coil while using less than 100 watts drawn by the coil itself when plugged into an electrical outlet! Since the Tesla coil steps up the voltage to such a high degree, the alternating oscillations achieve sufficient excitations within the tubes of gases to produce lighting at a minimal expense of original power! Fluorescent tubes can be held under high-tension wires to produce the same lighting up effect. Remember the farmer a few years ago who was caught with an adaptive transformer under a set of high tension lines that ran over his property? Through the air, he pulled down all the power he needed to run his farm without using any connecting apparatus to the lines overhead! Any electrical engineer with the proper materials can do the same thing.
……..Incandescent bulbs burn high resistance filaments that gobble up energy. Fluorescent tubes burn filaments (cathodes) to create an electrical flow that sets their internal phosphorus coatings aglow. Using a Tesla coil, high voltage AC can light up glass-enclosed vacuum bulbs coolly without any gases inside them at all! Any number of cold light bulbs can be lit using only one Tesla coil, and since there is nothing inside them to burn out, they can last indefinitely. It seems like a low cost form of street lighting, doesn’t it?
……..When Tesla was determining the resonant frequencies of the earth to potentially transmit unlimited electric power, he also recognized frequencies that acted as a damping field to nullify electric power. With the advent of the wireless and Tesla’s unique investigations into broadcasting electricity, a dozen or more inventors thereafter announced their own means for transmitting electrical energy without wires. One British inventor, H. Grindell-Matthews, actually demonstrated his "mystery ray" apparatus in 1924 to a Popular Science Monthly writer in London (See: Pop. Sci. Monthly, Aug. 1924, P. 33). When his beam was directed toward the magneto system of a gasoline engine, it stopped the system. Afterwards, it ignited gun powder, lit an electric lamp bulb from a distance and killed a mouse in seconds! Grindell-Matthews said the secret was involved with the "carrier beam" he used to conduct a high-voltage, low-frequency electrical current. During 1936, Guglielmo Marconi experimented with extremely low frequency (ELF) waves and displayed their exceptional ability to penetrate metallic shielding. These waves could affect electrical devices, overload circuits and cause machines like generators, electric motors and automobiles to stall. Diesel engines, which do not rely on electrical ignition, were not affected. Mysteriously, Marconi’s research on the subject was never found after the war.
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Between the nearly perfectly conducting terrestrial surface and ionosphere, a resonating cavity is formed. Broadband electromagnetic impulses, like those from lightning flashes, fill this cavity, and create globally the so-called Schumann resonances at frequencies 5 – 50 Hz (Schumann, 1952; Bliokh et al., 1980; Sentman, 1987). The nominal average frequencies observed are 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, and 45 Hz with slight diurnal variation (the three first lines can be seen in the figure displaying data from northern Finland, the Kilpisjärvi station). It has been suggested that the intensity of these lines could be used to monitor the global lightning activity, especially after the local time modulation by changes in D region height has been removed (e.g., Sentman and Fraser, 1991).
Note that the ionospheric Alfvén resonator -related spectral resonance structures (SRS) are formed due to the lightnings, and cover partly the same frequency range. In the figure here only the two first SRS lines are clearly visible. Finally, the strong spike in the figure just below 17 Hz is due to the Swedish railroads!
Standard magnetometers are not able to measure the Schumann resonances, and even the search coil (i.e., pulsation) magnetometers are most often sampled at about 0.1 Hz that does not allow such studies. Special equipment are thus needed. That also holds true if one wants to study lightning activity with Schumann resonances in other planetary systems: this might work at least for Venus and Jupiter!
The Schumann Resonance: a set of peaks in the ELF portion of the Earth’s electromagnetic field spectrum. ELF – Extremely Low Frequencies (or ELF) refers to a band of radio frequencies from 3 Hz to 300 Hz. ELF is used by the US Navy to communicate with submerged submarines. The extremely high electrical conductivity of seawater shields submarines from most electromagnetic communications. Signals in the ELF frequency range, however, can penetrate much more deeply. The low transmission rate of most ELF communications limits their use as communications channels; generally an ELF signal serves to request that a submarine surface and initiate some other form of contact. One of the difficulties posed when broadcasting in the ELF frequency range is antenna size. In order to transmit internationally using ELF frequencies, an extremely large antenna is required. The US maintains two sites, in Wisconsin and Michigan. Both sites use long power lines as antennae, in multiple strands ranging from 14 to 28 miles long. Considerable amounts of power are generated and emitted by ELF, and there have been some concerns over the possible ecological impact of such signals
The electromagnetic field (EMF) is composed of two related vectorial fields, the electric field and the magnetic field. This means that the vectors (E and B) that characterize the field each have a value defined at each point of space and time. If only E, the electric field, is nonzero and is constant in time, the field is said to be an electrostatic field.
The electromagnetic field generates a force F on a charged particle, given by the Lorentz equation where q is the charge of the particle, and v is its current velocity (expressed as a vector.) The behavior of electromagnetic fields can be described with Maxwell’s equations, and their quantum basis by quantum electrodynamics.
Scientists believe that the Schumann resonance is due to the space between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere acting as a resonant cavity that is then excited by energy from lightning strikes. A resonant cavity is a cavity in which standing waves can be built up. It is used in lasers. The lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance is at a frequency of approximately 7.8 Hz. The phenomenon is named after W. O. Schumann, who predicted this phenomenon in the 1950s, and helped detect its existence.
The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation, and too tenuous to be cooled by contact with other air. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere and has practical importance because it reflects radio waves to distant places on Earth. The ionosphere is generally recognized to have three, sometimes four layers. The D layer is the innermost layer, and mostly absorbs radio waves. The E layer is the middle layer. The F layer combines into one layer at night, but in sunlight divides into two layers, the F1 and F2. The F layers are responsible for most skywave propagation of radio, and are thickest and most reflective of radio on the side of the Earth facing the sun. Scientists explore the structure of the ionosphere by bouncing radio waves of different frequencies from it, and using special receivers to detect how the reflected waves have changed from the transmitted waves.
Schumann Resonance & Zero Point
December 1999 -By Gregg Bradon
Changes are occurring on the physical, emotions, mental, and spiritual levels.
Ancient prophecies predicted it. Indigenous traditions honor it. Changes within the Earth are affecting your sleep patterns, relationships, the ability to regulate your immune system and your perception of time.
You are living a process of initiation that was demonstrated over 2,000 years ago, preparing you to accept tremendous change within your body. That change is happening now.
Migraine headaches, tiredness electrical sensations in the limbs and spinal column Cramps in the muscular networks Flu like symptoms Intense dreams.
These could all be caused by the changes taking place on Earth now!
The human body will become more sensitive as a result of the new vibrations. The resonance of Earth (Schumann Resonance) has been 7.8Hz for thousands of years.
Since 1980 it has risen to over 12Hz.
This means that 16 hours now equate to a 24 hour day.
Time appears to be speeding up!
The physical body has already begun to change. A new light body is being created. Our DNA is being re-programmed from the Universe(as predicted in the Mayan Prophecy).
We are going from 2 strand back to 12 strand DNA. Greater intuitive and healing abilities will emerge.
As the Earth’s magnetic field drops, the bio-energetic systems of the living organisms of Earth are likewise responding, thus, altering any previous entrainments that they may have had due to their resonance with the Earth’s field.
Our "auras" are cleaning out! This means that, correspondingly, there is a proportional increase in the "strength of the electrical component." Our thoughts have more punch! Quite simply, as our field clears, our power goes up!
This is saying that quite naturally, in response to the Earth Changes, our emotional shields are loosening up– we are actually meshing with each other’s more and more; and our intentions are getting stronger– our thoughts are reaching out even farther than ever before; and so, there is much less of a buffer zone, or less delay time, between our "Intentionality" and its "Actuality by a Universal-Source" in our usual interactions with this world and those in it.
This is being noticed all around us, for example, in the increased reports of such things as effectual prayer, spontaneous remissions and spiritual-energy healings, and in the increased general use of "intentional manifestation" or "co-creation" skills as advocated by proponents of "abundance affirmation," "guided visualization," etc… and also in the synchronistic happenings that are occurring more and more frequently to many people.
Gregg Braden tells of the scientific proof of the Earth passing through the Photon Beltand the slowing of the Earth’s rotation.
At the same time there is an increase in the resonant frequency of the Earth (Schumann Resonance). When the Earth stops its rotation and the resonance frequency reaches 13 cycles we will be at a zero point magnetic field. The Earth will be stopped, and in 2 or 3 days it will start turning again in the opposite direction. This will produce a reversal in the magnetic fields around the earth and so forth.
Geophysical Condition #1: Earth’s Rising Base Frequency: Earth’s background base frequency, or "heartbeat," – called Schumann Resonance, or SR – is rising dramatically.
Though it varies among geographical regions, for decades the overall measurement was 7.8 cycles per second.
This was once thought to be a constant; global military communications developed on this frequency.
Recent reports set the rate at over 11 cycles,and climbing. Science doesn’t know why, or what to make of it.
Gregg Braden found data collected by Norwegian and Russian researchers on this; it’s not widely reported in the U.S. (The only reference to SR to be found in the Seattle Library reference section, is tied to the weather.
Science acknowledges SR as a sensitive indicator of temperature variations and worldwide weather conditions. Braden believes the fluctuating SR may be a factor in the severe storms, floods, and weather of recent years.)
Geophysical Condition #2: Earth’s Diminishing Magnetic Field
While earth’s "pulse" rate is rising, her magnetic field strength, on the other hand, is declining.
According to Professor Bannerjee of the University of New Mexico, the field has lost up to half its intensity in the last 4,000 years.
Because a forerunner of magnetic polar reversals is this field strength, Prof. Bannerjee believes that another reversal is due. Braden believes that because these cyclical Shifts are associated with reversals, Earth’s geological record indicating magnetic reversals also marks previous Shifts in history.
Within the enormous time scale represented, there were quite a few of them.
What is a Schumann Resonance?
The Earth behaves like an enormous electric circuit. The atmosphere is actually a weak conductor and if there were no sources of charge, its existing electric charge would diffuse away in about 10 minutes.
There is a ‘cavity ‘defined by the surface of the Earth and the inner edge of the ionosphere 55 kilometers up.
At any moment, the total charge residing in this cavity is 500,000 Coulombs. There is a vertical current flow between the ground and the ionosphere of 1 – 3 x 10^-12 Amperes per square meter.
The resistance of the atmosphere is 200 Ohms. The voltage potential is 200,000 Volts. There are about 1000 lightning storms at any given moment worldwide.
Each produces .5 to 1 Ampere and these collectively account for the measured current flow in the Earth’s ‘electromagnetic’ cavity.
The Schumann Resonances are quasi standing wave electromagnetic waves that exist in this cavity. Like waves on a spring, they are not present all the time, but have to be ‘excited’ to be observed. They are not caused by anything internal to the Earth, its crust or its core.
They seem to be related to electrical activity in the atmosphere, particularly during times of intense lightning activity. They occur at several frequencies between 6 and 50 cycles per second; specifically 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hertz, with a daily variation of about +/- 0 .5 Hertz. So long as the properties of Earth’s electromagnetic cavity remains about the same, these frequencies remain the same.
Presumably there is somechange due to the solar sunspot cycle as the Earth’s ionosphere changes in response to the 11-year cycle of solar activity.Schumann resonances are most easily seen between 2000 and 2200 UT.
Given that the earth’s atmosphere carries a charge, a current and a voltage, it is not surprising to find such electromagnetic waves.
The resonant properties of this terrestrial cavity were first predicted by the German physicist W. O. Schumann between 1952 and 1957, and first detected by Schumann and Konig in 1954.
The first spectral representation of this phenomenon was prepared by Balser and Wagner in 1960. Much of the research in the last 20 years has been conducted by the Department of the Navy who investigate Extremely Low Frequency communication with submarines.
1. Time will appear to speed up as we approach Zero Point. A 24 hour day will seem to about 16 hours or less. Remember the Schumann Resonance (or "heart beat" of Mother Earth) has been 7.8 cycles for thousands of years, but has been rising since 1980. It is at about 12 cycles at present. It stops at 13 cycles.
2. Zero Point or the Shift of the Ages has been predicted by ancient peoples for thousands of years. There have been many shifts including the one that always occurs every 13,000 years at each half ofthe 26,000 year, Procession of the Equinox.
3. Zero Point or a flip of the magnetic poles will probably happen soon, within the next few years. It could possibly synchronise with the Earth’s four cycle biorhythm that occurs every 20 years on the 12th of August. The next occurance is 12th August 2003. The Philadelphia Experiment and Montauk Project (secret military time travelling) both locked up to the 12th August/20 year biorhythm.
4. It is said that after Zero Point the Sun will rise in the west and set in the east, approx. Past occurances of this change have been found in ancient records.
5. Interestingly, the New World Order plan to be in power by 2003. This may or may not happen, depending on many factors and agendas. Stay centred and follow your intuition.
6. The Zero Point flip will probably introduce us to the 4th dimension. Here, everything we think or desire will instantly manifest. This includes love and fear. Our INTENTION will be of utmost importance.
7. Most technology that we know will cease to operate. Possible exceptions could be technology based on so called "Zero Point" or free energy.
8. Our physical body is changing as we approach Zero Point. Our DNA is being "upgraded" to 12 strand. A new light body is being created. We are becoming more intuitive.
9. The Mayan Calendar predicted all the changes that are occuring now. They say we are going beyond technology and back to the natural cycles of nature and the Universe. By 2012 we will have entered the 5th Dimension (after the flip to the 4th Dimension at Zero Point).
10. All this information is not fearful. Be prepared for changes that will bring in the new age of light. We are going beyond money and time where fear based concepts are totally dissolved.