If after you read the following information and you feel you have not been fed a load of Zionist Racist Hate propaganda That is your opinion…But If the land of Israel is for sale to Jews and Jews alone that in itself is racist in the 21st century Read on and make your own Judgement and do not be swayed or scared by claims of Anti-Semitism if you have an opinion contrary to that of the writers Anonymous!

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GUARANTEE YOUR SHARE IN THE LAND OF ISRAEL NOW!

Every Jew deserves a stake in the land. Claim yours today!

It is a fact. Israel has been confirmed* the fastest growing real-estate market in the world. In a period of uncertainty, and economic weakness, one thing is assured – the value of property in Israel will prosper.
What started more than 130 years ago continues today through the Israel Land Fund – that all Jews own a piece of Israel. The Israel Land Fund allows you to fulfill a religious obligation, share a dream and realize a vision. Join us today and watch as both the spiritual and physical benefits of possessing a stake in the land, keep on rising.

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HISTORY OF THE STRUGGLE FOR THE LAND OF ISRAEL

Who can condemn a harassed and scattered people’s quest for a State in their ancient homeland by overt economic and political efforts…”
Reverend Edward H. Flannery, President of the National Christian Leadership Conference for Israel, (June 1969).

The Claim of the Arabs for the Land of Israel

The Arabs living in Israel today claim that they are descendents of the Edomites, Arameans, Jebusites, Hittites and Assyrians from whom the ancient Jews conquered the country. They also claim that the Jewish scriptures are forgeries and the validity of God’s promise to the Jews has expired. Furthermore, they say that the attachment of Moslems to Palestine is deeper than that of the Jews.

The Arabs also claim that for centuries they lived in the land, before the Jews returned to the land in the 19th century. They add that they, the Arabs, had nothing to do with the Holocaust and the unfortunate condition of the Jews in Europe. They therefore feel it was unjust to have solved those conditions at their expense.

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Key Facts

  • The land of Israel, or ‘Palestine’ as it is called today by the Arabs, was never considered a national home for the Arabs at all. Abdul-Hadi, a local Arab leader told the Peel Commission in 1937: “There is no such country as Palestine. ‘Palestine’ is a term the Zionists invented! There is no Palestine in the Bible. Our country was, for centuries, part of Syria.”
  • The word “Arab” originated in southern Arabia where the majority of the people were sedentary and engaged in agriculture. The term was then used for Bedouin, to describe the nomads from the north. The word “Arab” in the Koran is used exclusively to mean Bedouin, and never townsfolk.
  • Prior to the period of the Zionist settlement, the Arabs living in Israel never demanded national self-determination. Even after the War of Independence, there was no request for a separate Palestinian state. Until the Six-Day War in 1967, the Arabs did not call for national self-determination as a Palestinian people.
  • Jewish religious tradition has impressed on every successive generation that God promised the Land of Israel to the Jewish people. The Bible reiterates the promise of return. The oath that the Lord made with the Jewish Patriarchs for redemption in the Land of Israel is also the leitmotif in the Five Books of Moses.
  • Throughout the two thousand years of exile, the Jews were always recognized as both a religion as well as a nation. Nobody challenged this notion. Based on these grounds, together with the natural right of every people to form a state of their own, the Jews lay special claim to their land.
  • The laws and customs of Judaism are based on the Land of Israel. The religious festivals follow the seasons of Israel and/or are linked to events in the history of the people and the Land of Israel. 
  • The Yishuv or Jewish community in the Land of Israel survived for thousands of years in cities such as Jerusalem and Safed, despite the national exile and the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth. The people clung stubbornly to the country, making its indestructibility a magnet for all Jewish spiritual movements. It was through the Yishuv that numerous important rabbinical works were completed. In fact, the restrictions, persecutions and sufferings the Jews experienced as a result of their exile, only increased their love for their homeland.
  • The Jewish people have no other home. They were forced out under duress. Other people have lost their land, but they either found another land or perished. The Jews never ceased to assert their rights to the Land of Israel.

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A GLIMPSE INTO HISTORY

The origins of the struggle for land in Israel between the Arabs and the Jews did not begin with the first Zionist Aliyah (immigration) or the return of Jews from Eastern Europe in 1881. Neither did it begin with the exile of Jews from the land after the destruction of the Second Temple. Rather, the land of Israel refers to an entity of Biblical history. The struggle began in Biblical times when God promised the land to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. He again repeated this promise to Moses and from Moses to Joshua. Joshua conquered the land and all the Jewish leaders since him, whether they were judges, kings, rabbis and Biblical scholars have guided the people in light of this promise.

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Biblical Times

God promised Abraham, “And I will give to you and to your offspring after you the land of your dwelling – the whole of the land of Canaan – as an everlasting possession,” (Genesis 17:8).

The patriarch Abraham fathered two sons, Isaac and Yishmael. Abraham understood even then, if he wanted peace, the brothers could not live together. The Bible notes that God promised of Yishmael “He will make of him a great nation” (Genesis, 17:20.21) Some commentators explain further that God also promised Yishmael a share in the land, “In the face of all his brothers shall fall out his portion” (Genesis 25:12). However, it was the great Matriarch Sara that understood, “The son of the handmaiden is not capable of sharing an inheritance with my son, with Isaac.” (Genesis 21:10) for “…His hand is against everything” (Genesis 16:11).

God reconfirmed His promise that He gave to Abraham, with Isaac saying, “Dwell in this land and I will be with you and bless you, for to you and your offspring will I give all of these lands, and establish the oath that I swore to Abraham your father.” (Genesis 26:3)

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Birth of Zionism

Towards the late eighteenth century, there was an influx of Jews returning to the Land of Israel after the nation had been exiled centuries before, and the Zionist movement was born.
Zionism is a modern expression of the ancient Jewish ideal to return the Jewish people to its own country of origin – to Zion (another name for Jerusalem). It is historically based on the unique and unbroken connection extending 3,000 years between the People and the land of Israel. The Zionists did not return to the land to rule over its inhabitants. Rather the Zionist movement stressed the return had to be carried out in peaceful ways based on international agreements and legal purchase of land.  The goal was to develop the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants as well as future Jewish settlers.
The Zionist settlement was carried out in a legal and ethical manner. The Zionists strove to settle and work the lands they bought. They paid full price for the land, which was often deteriorated, poor land. They endeavored to create a new type of society and national economy, where Jews would engage in all types of labor without exploiting anyone, in their native Homeland.

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Arabs Sell the Land

It was the Arabs themselves that primarily contributed sale of land to the Jews in Israel, thus enabling a Jewish national home to be created. For example, from 1920 to 1928, one-quarter of the 89 member committee of the Arab Executive were, either personally or through family members, directly involved in land sales to Jews. At the Seventh Arab Congress in June 1928, 14 delegates out of 48 had participated in land sales to Jews.
Some of these included Musa Kazim al-Husayni who sold an unspecified amount of land in the village of Dilb (Kiryat Anavim) near Abu Gosh and Jerusalem before the British Mandate. Mu’in al-Madi, formerly the head of intelligence for Faysal in Damascus and a member of the Arab Executive at the time, sold land to Jews near Atlit in Haifa. Asim Bey al-Said, the mayor of Jaffa at the time, sold 1,200 dunams of land to the JNF through an Arab land broker. Muhammad Tahir al-Husaini sold an unknown quantity of land to Jews in the Jerusalem region. Raghib al-Nashashibi, the mayor of Jerusalem in 1920-1934 sold the land on Mount Scopus on which the Hebrew University was built. There were many more like these people, with the transactions benefitting both the Jewish purchaser and the Arab sellers.

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Israel Land Fund

The State of Israel today was built on land which was legally purchased by Jewish organizations such as the Jewish National Fund (JNF) and other private individuals.  Unfortunately today there are large portions of the land that rightfully belong to the Jewish people that still remain inaccessible.
The Israel Land Fund is continuing the chain of events that began centuries ago. It strives to encourage the Jewish people to participate privately in redeeming the land, by encouraging the movement of Jewish people back to the Land of Israel. As it is commanded in the scriptures and was promised to the Jewish Forefathers, the Land of Israel is part and parcel of its traditions and obligations. These obligations include commandments one can only perform while Jews live and own land in Israel (such as shmita, bikurim, orlahand so forth).

As history has been a witness, the Jewish people have a connection to the land of Israel, not just from 500 years ago, but more than 3,000 years ago. The Land of Israel is the nation’s past, present and future.

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Hallachik Aspects

BIBLICAL SOURCES

“And you shall possess it and dwell therein…”

The land of Israel is the Jewish Homeland of the past, present and future. Dating back centuries, the Bible describes how the Land of Canaan was promised to the Jewish forefathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Today, it is widely accepted that living in and possessing the Land of Israel is a religious commandment, as seen in the Bible, and found in the following sources:

Biblical Sources

  • And you shall possess it and dwell therein. And you shall observe to do all the statutes and ordinances which I set before you this day. (Deuteronomy 11:31-32)
  • To your offspring I will give this land (of Canaan) (Genesis, 12:7)
  • On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram saying, “To your descendants I have given this land” (Genesis, 15:18)
  • The land that the Lord seeks out, the eyes of the Lord are always upon it, from the beginning of the year to the year’s end (Deuteronomy, 11:12)

1. Sifrei Devarim, Re’eh 80: Living in Israel = All the Commandments in the Bible

A story is told in the Talmud where Rabbi Elazar Ben Shamua and Rabbi Yohanan Hasandlar were traveling to learn torah from Rabbi Yehudah Ben Beteira. It is told that they arrived at Tzidon (in Lebanon today) and remembered the land of Israel; as it says they lifted their eyes and tears began to flow. The tore their clothes and recited the verse (from Deuteronomy 11:31-32) “And you shall possess it and dwell therein. And you shall observe to do all the statutes and ordinances which I set before you this day.” They then said “Living in the land of Israel is considered equal to all the commandments in the torah”. Then they turned and went back to the land of Israel (from where they had come).

Commentaries

2. Em Habanim Semeicha* (pages 148-149): Through the Love of the Land, we increase the merit of our patriarchs

It is written: “And also, the merit of the patriarchs will not support us except through the love of the land.”

It is written in Em Habanim Semeicha that the Torah describes how if we (the Jewish people) take hold of their (the patriarch’s) traits to love and care for the land, and to do likewise then Hashem, Blessed be He, remembers the merit of the patriarchs. As it is written: “And I shall remember my covenant with Jacob and even my covenant with Isaac I shall remember, but only under the condition ‘And I shall remember the land’ – (which is) according to your love for the Land.” It is also written in the Midrash “Whenever the Holy One, blessed be He, remembers the Patriarchs, He remembers the Land with them.”

*Em Habanim Semeicha was written while in hiding by the great rabbi, HaRav Yisachar Shlomo Teichtal, head of the Slobodka Yeshiva, in Budapest, Hungary and published in 1943 during the Holocaust.

3. Em Habanim Semeicha (pages 278, 279, 355, 366): Only the mitzvah (commandment) of settling the Land has the ability to bring unity to Israel

It is written in Em Habanim Semeicha: “Choose please this mitzvah (commandment) of settling the Land that we may all be involved in it together, every Israelite soul that lives in the world. And through it, we will become one nation in the land and unity shall return to its place…

And know, my brother, that the things I have written here should not be taken lightly in your site for our salvation rests precisely on the coming together of Israel in unity. And there is no other way to come to the unity of all Israel except by the advice I have given above: to unify and organize the entire nation in the matter of settling and building the Land. For all the words of our rabbis, make this evident…

The Holy One, Blessed be He, asks from us to come together in acts of building up the land for only this mitzvah is able to bring unity…

Therefore it is incumbent upon us to pull the entire nation together, and the unifying factor that will pull us together will come only through building up of the settlement of our Holy Land, for only this mitzvah is able to accomplish this.”

4. Maaracha Hatziburit (page 110): “The Wholeness of the land comes before Jewish identity”

Harav Tzvi Yehudah (Kook) was asked the most pressing question, dealing with the sanctity of the Jewish people, “What is your position on the question of “Who is a Jew?”
He replied without hesitation; “Right now we won’t go into the full breadth of the matter of ‘Who is a Jew?’ But one thing is clear. For me, the wholeness of the land comes before (the matter of) ‘Who is a Jew’. In prayer we first say “For the Lord has chosen Zion, and only afterwards do we say “Who has chosen Israel”. There is no Zion without Israel and there is no Israel without Zion.”

5. Kol Hator (page 27): The building of the land of Israel comes before revealing the Mashiach Ben David (messiah)

The Vilna Gaon is quoted as explaining the verse in the Midrash “And a redeemer shall come to Zion”. He describes how as long as Zion is not built, the redeemer shall not come. The Midrash says “The son of David will not come until Jerusalem is built.” The sages explain “When Jerusalem is built, the son of David will come.”

People Behind ILF

Arieh King, Founder

Arieh King, director and founder of the Israel Land Fund (ILF), developed the idea over the course of ten years of working in the East Jerusalem area with several organizations and government bodies. Arieh realized the desire of Diaspora Jews to take a more active role in redeeming the land of Israel, especially in Jerusalem.

Jewish activist Aryeh King handing Arabs eviction notices

Born on Kibbutz Alumim, Arieh, 35, is one of the ten original residents of Ma’ale Zeitim (Ras-Al-Amud) where he currently resides with his wife and six children. Arieh was also one of the first people in the national religious camp to take legal action against the injustices of the State against the Jewish people. This included standing up to extreme left-wing organizations pushing the post-Zionist agenda.

Bringing more than ten years of experience in redeeming the land of Israel, Arieh started the Israel Land Fund while trying to recover land on the Mt. of Olives in 2007. Since then, he has been active both in recovery and preservation of Jewish land in East Jerusalem as well as throughout the Land of Israel. Arieh started the Israel Land Fund to offer unique opportunities for any Jew to personally acquire a piece of the land, part of a building or a number of buildings in Israel. His work encompasses empowering the donor or investor to become an active and eternal part of the aims of the organization. Arieh endeavors to acquire land of strategic national importance as well as areas of historical and religious value to the Jewish people.

*Name Withheld, Founder(The Rothschild connection no doubt)

A Jewish, prolific Zionist and American citizen helped establish the Israel Land Fund together with Arieh King. Married with children, he is devoted to the furthering the goals of the Israel Land Fund. An active partner, he helps set the Fund’s agenda, priorities and policies. He desired an organization which helps any Jew acquire a place and heritage in Israel, with the minimal possible costs, and with no financial danger or advance payment. Covering overhead, up front and brokerage costs of deals; he enables any investor to put 100% of their money into bringing the greatest possible amount of land back into Jewish hands.

*name withheld to maintain privacy

Management of the Fund

The Israel Land Fund employs three full time employees who help manage and run the daily operations of the Fund. The three are well versed in Arabic, and all served as officers in the ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCE. These(KILLER) skills are frequently called into play in their dealings with Arab sellers and with the local population in areas that the Fund is active. The Fund’s employees are also proficient in English, which is a basic requirement of the work, since the Fund’s main proponents are from the English speaking public.

In addition, the Fund employs numerous lawyers, appraisers, surveyors, investigators, translators and other professionals as outsourcers in order to run as cheaply and efficiently as possible. A result of years of experience, this system allows the Fund to focus on locating potential sellers, and leaves the nitty-gritty work of meshing out deals to the professionals. When the time comes to signing deals, the Fund is with the buyers throughout the process from start to finish, right up to the affixing of the mezuzah or planning of the land.

The Israel Land Fund’s offices are located near the Old City of Jerusalem representing its steadfast ambition to be an active and integral part of the city, in particular, East Jerusalem.

About ILF

One Individual – One Great Change:
You can make a difference!

Take part in the restoration of the Land of Israel now!

The Israel Land Fund was established in 2007 as a registered not-for-profit organization. It was created to continue the original efforts by the Jewish Forefathers, and in more recent history, over a century ago, by pioneers of The State. This includes acquiring all the land of Israel for the Jewish people.

The Significance:

The Jewish People have always held the land of Israel as their eternal homeland. The relevance and importance of Jews to purchase property in Israel has not diminished in one hundred, five hundred, or even a thousand years. Today, the Israel Land Fund is continuing what the pioneers of the State of Israel set out to do. It believes that all the land of Israel belongs, not just to a Jewish organization or to a government body, but to each and every Jew.

The Danger:

The Israel Land Fund was founded after realizing a need to disrupt the purchase of Jewish owned land in Israel by hostile, non-Jewish and enemy sources. The State of Israel is a democracy. It enjoys freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion. Together with this, any individual that wishes to purchase property in Israel is able to do so. As a result, more and more Arabs and non-Jews are living and owning land all over Israel, from West Jerusalem, to Tel Aviv and beyond.(This is an outright lie and twisting of words  because of this later statement of “House by house, lot by lot, the Israel Land Fund is ensuring the land of Israel stays in the hands of the Jewish people forever”)

The Israel Land Fund is dedicated to enable all Jewish non-Israeli citizens to own a part of Israel. It strives to ensure that Jewish land is once again reclaimed and in Jewish hands. With hundreds of properties all over Israel being offered for sale, the Israel Land Fund offers every Jew, regardless of location, the opportunity to obtain a portion of the land.

House by house, lot by lot, the Israel Land Fund is ensuring the land of Israel stays in the hands of the Jewish people forever. You, too, can take part in this great endeavor.(This statement excludes all other races and is therefore racist)

Invest in Israel  and yield high returns. For a minimum purchase amount of $6,000, you can own land in Israel.

Learn more about the Israel Land Fund: mission statement, People Behind ILF
Donations of any amount are greatly appreciated.

Contact Israel Land Fund today at:
Tel: +972-2-622-3195 or email office@israellandfund.com

( ) Comment by Anonymous

I wonder if a Goy can really get in on this deal???

 

And now the SUPER WEAPON they wield That of ANTI-SEMITISM as per there definition:

Anti-Semitism – a detailed overview and Historical summary

This overview outlines the essential history and characteristics of anti-Semitism. A more detailed discussion from a slightly different perspective is available at Judeophobia or ‘Antisemitism – a History.

Ancient Anti-Semitism

Anti-Jewish sentiments and theories were in evidence in pagan culture. Apion of Alexandria (about 20 BCE -45 CE)  alleged that Jews killed non-Jewish children for ritual purposes. This fable was repeated as true by others. and found its way into Christian belief as the Blood libel   A large anti-Jewish riot took place in Alexandria about 38 years before the birth of Christ. Tacitus’ views of the Jews are given in The Histories5.2-5 (see  here  ) http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antisemitism/antisemitism-t.html). Jews are also reviled in the satires of Juvenal.

Following is a summary of ancient views of the Jews:

  • The Jews were  descendants of lepers (Manetho) or victims of a wasting disease (Tacitus), who had been exiled by the Egyptians  .
  • The Jews were rescued in the desert by a wild ass or other animal, and therefore worshipped the ass.
  • In the Symposium of  Plutarch of Chaeronea (c.45-120),states  that the object of the Jewish cult was the pig.
  • The Jews did not worship the usual gods, like others did. Jews were sometimes considered to be responsible for the divine anger when disasters befell a community.
  • In their temple in Jerusalem, the Jews sacrificed human beings.
  • Jews are lascivious and "sexy" – this is found in Tacitus and elsewhere.
  • Jews were considered to be lazy, and therefore observed the Sabbath, according to the Fourteenth satire of the Roman poet Juvenal (c.67-c.145).
  • The Jews had strange customs. The kashrut and other laws were the object of many jokes and superstitions.
  • Those who followed the Law of Moses were thought to ignore the law of the state in which they resided.
  • Jews were believed to be antisocial ("Exclusivist"). They separated from the other people living in the ancient Mediterranean world. Perhaps this arose from separate dietary habits or failure to sacrifice to pagan gods, or perhaps it was because pious Jews were had to live within walking distance of their synagogues.
  • The ‘mutilation of genitals’ (circumcision)  was considered barbarous.  In 132, the Roman emperor Hadrian tried to root out this practice, which led to the Bar Kochba revolt. Romans and Greeks felt the human form and particularly the phallus was sacred. This was confounded with homosexuality. In particular, Hadrian was in love with a beautiful young man.

The emperors Tiberius and Claudius are said to have expelled the Jews from Rome.

Philostratus (170-c.244) states that Jews are subhuman or different from humanity:

For the Jews have long been in revolt […] against humanity; and a race that has made its own a life apart and irreconcilable, that cannot share the pleasures of the table with the rest of mankind  nor join in their libations or prayers or sacrifices, are separated from ourselves by a greater gulf than divides us from Susa or Bactra or the more distant Indies.

[Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5.33; ]

Christian anti-Semitism

According to early fathers of the church, "the Jews" were damned because they had killed Christ.

Saint Hippolytus, 170-236, evidently was the first to pioneer the theme that the Jews deserved punishment for the killing of Jesus:

"Now then, incline thine ear to me and hear my words, and give heed, thou Jew. Many a time does thou boast thyself, in that thou didst condemn Jesus of Nazareth to death, and didst give him vinegar and gall to drink; and thou dost vaunt thyself because of this. Come, therefore, and let us consider together whether perchance thou dost boast unrighteously, O, Israel, and whether thou small portion of vinegar and all has not brought down this fearful threatening upon thee and whether this is not the cause of thy present condition involved in these myriad of troubles." (Hippolytus Expository Treatise Against the Jews)

For this reason, according to Eusebius of Caesaria, Jews could not rebuild the Jerusalem or the temple in Jerusalem, as their destruction had been visited upon them for killing the Messiah.

St Augustine of Hippo developed the idea that the Jews must be kept alive, their sufferings serving witness to the correctness of Christian doctrine:

The Jews who killed him [Jesus] and who refused to believe in him… were dispersed all over the world… and thus by the evidence of their own scriptures, they bear witness for us that we have not fabricated the prophecies about Christ… It is in order to give this testimony which, in spite of themselves, they supply for our benefit by their possession and preservation of those books, that they themselves are dispersed among all nations, wherever the Christian Church spreads… Hence the prophecy in the Book of Psalms: "..My God has shown me concerning mine enemies, that You shall not slay them, lest they should at last forget Your law: disperse them in Your might." Therefore God has shown the Church in her enemies the Jews the grace of His compassion, since, as says the apostle, "their offence is the salvation of the Gentiles." Romans 11:11 And therefore He has not slain them, that is, He has not let the knowledge that they are Jews be lost in them, although they have been conquered by the Romans, lest they should forget the law of God, and their testimony should be of no avail in this matter of which we treat. But it was not enough that he should say, "Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Your law," unless he had also added, "Disperse them;" because if they had only been in their own land with that testimony of the Scriptures, and not every where, certainly the Church which is everywhere could not have had them as witnesses among all nations to the prophecies which were sent before concerning Christ.. [City of God, 18:46]

In addition to bearing witness, the Jews must also be preserved, according to Augustine, for their ultimate conversion to Christianity, which is their only route to salvation.(Robert Chazan. The Jews of Medieval Western Christendom, 1000-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 36-37 )

The Catholic Church insisted that it must protect the Jews, elaborating on the doctrines of Aquinas. Yet, on the other hand,  if  the suffering of the Jews was deserved punishment from God, it was a short step to believing it was a holy duty to help God out and make the Jews suffer.

The thesis of the collective guilt of "the Jews" inherently anti-Jewish and anti-Semitic. It formed the basis for a cultural norm that treated the Jews as a single legal and moral person. If all the Jews, for all eternity were guilty because someJews had allegedly crucified Jesus, then all "the Jews" could likewise be collectively guilty of poisoning wells, or supporting this or that political party or any other imagined or real misdeed.

The Crusades became first major occasion for wholesale slaughter of Jews in Germany and elsewhere despite the attempt of the Catholic church to moderate the violence. During the Crusades and in other anti-Jewish riots, whole Jewish towns and Jewish quarters were burned and people were thrown from the walls of cities. Often Jews were rounded up in the synagogue and burned  alive. This treatment has been characterized euphemistically by some modern Christian writers as "indignities suffered by the Jews."

The record of early persecutions is surely incomplete, but that does not mean there was no anti-Semitism in the early years of Christianity, other than the theological judgments of Church fathers. There was violence and discrimination. It is certain that synagogues were burned from the 4th century. Jews were expelled from a number of places:

  554 – France – Diocese of Clement
  561 – France – Diocese of Uzzes
  612 – Visigoth Spain
  642 – Visigoth Empire
  855 – Italy
  876 – Sens
1012 – Mainz
1182 – France
1182 – Germany

In the Middle ages, Jews were periodically expelled from  European countries and their property was confiscated. For example, Jews were expelled  from Spain more than once. The time was  in 1492 (followed in 1496-7 by expulsion from Portugal). They had been expelled from England under Edward I (1290) and France under Philip Augustus (1182), and previously from other places. Philip readmitted the Jews in 1198, carefully regulating their banking business for his benefit. In Spain, Jews were forced to convert, often on pain of death, over a very long period, and then under Ferdinand and Isabella, the "conversos" were subject to an Inquisition and forced to admit that they were secretJews and heretics under torture. The motivations for the Inquisition were Christian piety, consolidation of the rule to the state as against noblemen who either were conversos or were supported by them, and confiscation of converso lands and wealth. Inquisitors were canonized as saints by the Roman Catholic Church as late as the 19th century.

Forced Conversions – In addition to conversions effected in Spain under the the threat of expulsion or death, Jews were sometimes forced to attend periodic sermons intended to convert them.

Disputations – A characteristic persecution consisting of holding a public debate between a Christian priest or church official and a Rabbi or leader of the Jewish community. The debate was meant to "prove" the correctness of the Christian faith. At the conclusion of the debate, Jews were killed or subjected to mass conversion, or Jewish books such as the Talmud were burned (see illustration at right).

Medieval Anti-Semitism - Burning the Talmud

Anti-Semitism – Pope Gregory orders the Talmud to be burned A.D. 1239 after a disputation. Panel – Pedro Berruguete, 15th century. Note the non-heretical book floating above the fire.

Replacement Theology – The Old Testament prophets stated that Israel were the chosen people of God who would be rescued and restored to the holy land. Church fathers devised replacement theology to reinterpret references to "Israel" as the Christians and the Christian Church. This notion was a central tenet of anti-Jewish thinking in the Middle Ages. The emperor Ferdinand of Spain believed that he was destined to bring about the restoration of "Israel" which required expulsion of the Jews from Spain, and ultimately a crusade to reconquer the holy land. Replacement theology has been revived and popularized by "anti-Zionists" such as the Reverend Sizer.

Medieval Superstitions about Jews – Some of the typical medieval superstitions about Jews included:

Jews poison the wells – This libel was supposed to be the origin of plagues and particularly the black plague.

Jews desecrate the host – Spoilage of communion wafers, which turned red from a fungus, was attributed to Jews who had dipped the wafers in the blood of slaughtered Christians.

Jews kill Christians in secret – For example, explaining the reasons for expulsion of the Jews from France, the French monk Rigord (d. 1205) related that [Philip Augustus had often heard] that the Jews who dwelt in Paris were wont every year on Easter day, or during the sacred week of our Lord’s Passion, to go down secretly into underground vaults and kill a Christian as a sort of sacrifice in contempt of the Christian religion. For a long time they had persisted in this wickedness, inspired by the devil, and in Philip’s father’s time, many of them had been seized and burned with fire.

The blood libel – A variation of the secret killings theme, the blood libel insists that Jews kill pre-pubertal Christian boys in order to prepare the unleavened bread (Matzoth) of the Passover. It was possibly born in 1144 in England, where a Christian mob accused Jews of murdering the boy William of Norwich during Easter. This story was related in The Life and Miracles of St William of Norwich, by Thomas of Monmouth, a Norwich monk. This story, did not claim that theJews used the blood to bake unleavened bread, but rather claimed the boy had been crucified. Nonetheless, it is often considered to be the first "blood libel." Others soon followed, including Simon of Trent and Andreas of Rinn. In one variant, the child was not killed but rather bled to death.

In Spain in 1490 or 1491 Spanish inquisitors forced Jews to confess that they had killed a Christian child, one Christopher of Toledo or Christopher of La Guardia, later made a saint of the Roman Catholic church and venerated as Santo Nino de La Guardia. No missing child was ever reported that would correspond to this child and corroborate the tale. The tale was elicited from the victims by the holy inquisitors under torture, by suggestion (for example, "Confess that on this date you did do X") it is likely that the blood libel was well known by this time.

The Talmud – The Talmud supposedly contained conspiratorial formulae, imprecations against Jesus and Mary and injunctions to cheat and discriminate against non-Jews. Therefore it would often banned or censored.

Physiognomy – In addition to characteristic large noses and stooped postures, Jews in the Middle Ages may be shown with tails and horns, similar to the devil.

Anti-Semitism of the Catholic Church

The attitude of the Catholic church regarding Jews was equivocal. In some cases, the Church intervened to grant Jews protection or to decry mass murders such as those that occurred during the Crusades.

At other times, it pursued forced conversions and promulgated various encyclicals and bulls ordering the examination of Jewish books of Law, burning of the Talmud and restriction or expulsion of the Jews. Though the origins of there atrocities were in the Middle Ages, the practices continued and were actually renewed after the end of the Middle Ages during the counter reformation.

Since the promulgation of the code of Justinian, the position of the Jews in Rome had been that of an inferior race held in suspicion andexcluded from important functions of the city. They could not expect civil employment and the law declared them forever disqualified.

Throughout the Christian world ecclesiastical authority severely excluded Jews from the Christian community. In France the councils were unanimous;  Vannes 465, Agde 506, Epaone, of the diocese of Vienna 517, all forbade the marriage of Christians with Jews; the second council of Orleans likewise prohibited marriages between Christians and Jews; that of Clermont in 535 excluded Jews from the magistracy; that of Macon 581 which deprived them of collecting taxes; that of Paris 615 confirmed at Reims, which declared them disqualified for all civil employment.

The constant humiliation of the Jews was carried out in symbolic ways as well as in material injury. In the Middle Ages, when the Popes  received the homage of the delegates of the Roman-Jewish community on the day of their coronation, they traditionally answered: "Legum Probo, sed improbo gentium"("I approve of the law but I disapprove of the race.")

Later, when the Rabbis of Rome were forced to offer a magnificent copy of the Pentateuch, the Pope would  answer: "Confirmamus sed non consentimus."("We ratify but we do not consent.")

Much of this history has been deliberately repressed. Relevant documents include:

Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum – An example of European anti-Semitism in the renaissance period, this Papal decree of 1555. established the ghetto of Rome as well as re-imposing restrictions on Jewish dress and trades that had been enforced intermittently.

Hebraeorum gens solaa, Bull of Pope Pius V, issued on Feb. 26, 1569, restricted Jews in the Papal States to Rome and Ancona, temporarily reversed subsequently).

Caeca et Obdurata Hebraeorum perfidia – (Blind and obdurate is the perfidy of the Hebrews) of February 25, 1593, expelling the Jews from all Papal states and territories other than Rome, Ancona and Avignon, and in particular from Bologna and several other cities.

Cum Hebraeorum malitia (or Quum Habraeorum malitia) of 1592 or 1593, a Bull of Pope Clement VIII, decreeing that all copies of the Talmud and Kabbalah were to be turned over to the inquisition  for burning. It was evidently soon rescinded or superseded however.

Bull Beatus Andreas – In 1755 Gregory XIV examined a request for canonization of Andreas of Rinn, a child supposedly murdered by Jews. Centuries after the end of the Middle Ages, the bull unequivocally supported the claim that Jews perform ritual murders of Christians.

Additional Bulls and background are listed here: List of Papal Bulls concerning Jews

Anti-Semitism in European Culture

Anti-Semitic stereotypes were fed by Christian beliefs and popular folklore also fed Christian anti-Semitism. Hatred of Jews became a staple of European culture that was autonomous of religion and eventually, in the twentieth century, became a scourge within the Catholic church that has been combated with only modest success by successive Popes since Vatican II. One cultural motif that repeated itself was the Judensau – a pig that was somehow connected with Judaism, along with persistent beliefs in Jewish sex perversions, lasciviousness of "Jewesses" and other pornographic themes.

The cultural motif of the Judensau was by no means limited to the Middle ages, as it appeared throughout the 19th century and was revived under Nazism. The Frankfurt  engraving below expresses two dominant themes. Its upper panel depicts the child martyr Simon of Trent, subject of a blood libel case. The lower panel shows a Judensau. The Devil is  looking on while at left, a Jewish woman is having sex with a goat, and in the foreground, two Jews are having sexual communion with a pig, while a Jewish child is suckling from the same pig. Similar themes are found both in German books and in cathedral and Protestant Church decorations and bridges in Germany.  

Anti-semitism - Judensau

Modern European Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism was evident in the enlightenment writings of Voltaire and others. Edward Gibbon, who wrote the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, stated in a footnote  quoting Dio Cassus that Jews had rioted and engaged in cannibalism. Like many enlightenment figures, one of his complaints against the Christian religion was that it was derived from Judaism. Modern anti-Semitism is associated with racial theories of 19th century Germany, who insisted that Jews are a separate and inferior race. Adolf Stoecker, Wilhelm Marr,  Richard Wagner and Heinrich von Treitchke were prominent anti-Semites   This notion probably developed as a reaction to assimilation of Jews who had converted to Christianity. Popular figures such as  Mendelsohn, Heine and others who were convertedJews attracted the envy and suspicion of fellow Germans. Russia became vigorously anti-Semitic. Pogroms (anti-Jewish riots) occurred in a number of cities and towns in the 1880s. These were ignored or encouraged by authorities. The Tsarist secret police forged the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a document that claims to outline the secret plan of the Jews to conquer the world.

In France, hopes that the enlightenment had put an end to race prejudice were dashed by the Dreyfus Affair (beginning in 1894). Dreyfus, a Jew, was accused of treason against France. The affair was accompanied by a large anti-Semitic outcry, claiming thatJews are not loyal to the countries in which they live. Dreyfus was eventually exonerated thanks to Emile Zola and others.

Elsewhere in Europe and North American exclusion of Jews and denigration of Jews according to standard stereotypes was considered acceptable in polite society. Novelists such as Dorothy Sayers, Agatha Christie and F. Scott Fitzgerald portrayed Jewish characters who were shifty gangsters or loud, pushy and gauche. Somerset Maugham wrote a diary as a young man that is filled with imaginative descriptions of dishonest and seedy looking Jewish men and lascivious "Jewesses." Strangely, in Britain these sentiments coexisted with growing sentiment for restoration of the Jews (see Daniel Deronda ). In the USA, the industrialist Henry Ford published the forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion in his Dearborn Independent newspaper, and kindled the myth that they were true. Father Coughlin, the popular Captain Charles Lindbergh and  others agitated against Jews and in favor of Nazi Germany in the period prior to WW II.

Common European social restrictions on Jews included forcing them to live in special areas (Pale of Settlement in Russia or ghettosbefore the late19th century), special taxes on Jews, censorship or banning of Jewish law books, quotas on entrance to university allowing only a limited number of Jews ("numerous clausus"), barring from employment in government positions or universities, barring of Jews from social clubs and associations and banning Jews from residence in "exclusive" neighborhoods.

Communism was officially non-racist, but in fact, persecution of the Jews as "rootless cosmopolitans" or "Zionists" was initiated during several periods under Stalin, and reincarnated as "anti-Zionism" under his successors.

European anti-Semitism seemed to have culminated in the Nazi Holocaust. The Nazis attempted to kill the Jewish population of Europe, and managed to kill about 6 million of them.

After WW II, the horror of the Holocaust produced a revulsion against anti-Semitism in polite society in Europe, except for the USSR, but it seems to be slowly returning, either directly or under the guise of thinly veiled "anti-Zionism.

Modern Anti-Semitism Surveys

A 2008 survey found that anti-Semitic attitudes persist in Europe:

Substantial numbers of people in seven European countries agreed with these statements:

Jews are more loyal to Israel than to this country.
Jews have too much power in the business world.
Jews have too much power in international financial markets.
Jews still talk too much about what happened to them in the Holocaust.

In some countries there were were clear majorities who agree with anti-Semitic beliefs. For example, for the question, "Jews have too much power in the business world:"

Austria – 36%, down from 37% in 2007
France –  33%, up from 28% in 2007
Germany – 21%, unchanged from 2007
Hungary – 67%, up from 60% in 2007
Poland – 55%, up from 49% in 2007
Spain – 56%, up from 53% in 2007
The United Kingdom – 15%, down from 22% in 2007

Arab/Muslim anti-Semitism

Considering the treatment of Jews in European countries, the experience of Jews under Islamic rule was relatively benign, , giving rise to the idea that Muslims, Jews and Christians lived in perfect harmony. That is far from the truth, but it is true of the best of times and the best rulers in Islam, such as the Ottoman Sultans who invited Jews to settle in Turkey after they had been expelled by Spanish and Portuguese inquisitions, or to settle in communities such as Tiberias and Safed in the holy land.

The status of Jews under Islam, was variable, depending on the time and place. The Quran has mixed injunctions about Jews and Christians, variously praising them as people of the book and damning them as hypocrites because they didn’t follow Muhammad. Early in his career, Muhammad attacked and destroyed the Jewish town of Khaybar, and the cry "Khaybar, Khaybar" became the rallying cry of Muslim anti-Jewish riots. In all cases, Jews, like Christians were formally considered to be protected second class citizens in Muslim countries. Only Muslims could fight in wars, and therefore Jews and Christians could not receive land grants in conquered countries as knights, which was a major source of wealth and social status. Jews and Christians paid a special tax and usually had to wear special clothing. Jews were confined to a "Mellah" (ghetto) in certain places. In many countries such as Morocco and Yemen, it was customary for little children to throw rocks at Jews and curse them. At times Jews were forced to convert to Islam or be expelled as under the Al-Mohad dynasty in Morocco, beginning in 1146.

Jews were generally despised as wily but weak people with no courage. For example, following the revolution of the Young Turks in Ottoman Turkey, Jews could serve in the army. A Turkish joke related that at great length it was possible to recruit and train a Jewish unit. They were then sent to the front. They returned quickly however, because they had been scared by a gang of bandits that they met on the road. A Muslim hadith (legend associated with the Qur’an)  relates that the end of days, Muslims will kill all the Jews, who will try to hide in trees. Only one sort of tree will agree to hide them however. This hadith is repeated in the charter of the Hamasorganization, but it is of venerable origin.

In modern times, beginning in the 19th century, Muslim and Arab countries adopted European anti-Semitic themes such as the blood libel (an incident occurred in Damascus in 1840) and later, the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, publication of Mein Kampf and other trappings of European Christian anti-Semitism such as Holocaust denial. Cartoons in Arab and Muslim journals regularly show Jews as having the characteristic "traits" of anti-Semitic portrayals such as best posture, beady eyes and hooked noses.

Anti-Semitism - Arab cartoon

A more extensive treatment of the historical position of Jews in Arab countries, including source readings, is given in Jews in Arab lands: Introduction and readings,

Anti-Semitic Jews – Apostate Jews and some others have often made a career of adopting and disseminating anti-Semitic opinions, libels on the Talmud and "revelations" about supposed secret and obnoxious Jewish customs. As there are anti-American Americans and Christians who denounced Christianity, there is no logical reason why there should not be anti-Semitic Jews. The mere fact that they are or were Jews lends a false authority to their claims. In some cases, the person in question is not really Jewish.

Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism – Anti-Zionism is opposition to the existence of the state of Israel or the idea of reconstituting a Jewish homeland. It is not necessarily anti-Semitic, but it usually is so, especially when the complaints against Israel and "Zionists" include controlling the government of the United States, conspiring to take over the world, starting world wars etc. (see above for characteristics of anti-Semitic Web sites). Anti-Zionism is usually based on the premise that Jews are inferior or different from any other group of people, and therefore do not have the right to declare themselves a nation or people. See article by John L. Strawson for a discussion of anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism).

Anti-Zionist Web sites – "Anti-Zionist" Web sites such as abbc.com, ziopedia, radio-islam, serendipity and rense.com regularly feature articles about the Protocols of the Elders of Zion or Hitler’s Mein Kampf, libels against the Talmud and Holocaust denial. Other sites, such as Stormfront, feature the same materials without the protective guise of "anti-Zionism"

Anonymous

I have found that most of what they call Lies,Untruths and Fabrication are in fact the opposite and very provable…  example The Talmud read it for yourself and you be the Judge…

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