Natural disaster

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_disaster

For the professional wrestling tag team, see The Natural Disasters.

A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, and their resilience.[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability."[2] A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement.[3]

Natural disasters

Main articles: Disaster and List of natural disasters

Land movement disasters
Avalanches

Avalanche on the backside (East) of Mt. Timpanogos, Utah at Aspen Grove trail

Notable avalanches include:

Earthquakes

An Earthquake is a sudden shake of the Earth’s crust caused by the tectonic plates colliding.The vibrations may vary in magnitude. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the "focus". The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the"epicenter". Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and evacuation planning.Earthquakes are caused by the discharge of accumulated along geologic fault.

Lahars

A lahar is a volcanic mudflow or landslide. The 1953 Tangiwai disaster was caused by a lahar, as was the 1985 Armero tragedy in which the town of Armero was buried and an estimated 23,000 people were killed.

Volcanic eruptions

Main article: Types of volcanic eruptions

See also: World’s largest eruptions

Pu’u ‘Ō’ō

  • An Eruption may in itself be a disaster due to the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock but there are several effects that may happen after an eruption that are also hazardous to human life.
  • Lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano a material consisting of superheated rock. There are several different forms which may be either crumbly or gluey. Leaving the volcano this destroys any buildings and plants it encounters.
  • Volcanic ash – generally meaning the cooled ash – may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete like material. In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will cause ill health if inhaled. Since the ash has the consistency of ground glass it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines.
  • Supervolcanoes : According to the Toba catastrophe theory 70 to 75 thousand years ago a super volcanic event at Lake Tobareduced the human population to 10,000 or even 1,000 breeding pairs creating a bottleneck in human evolution. It also killed three quarters of all plant life in the northern hemisphere. The main danger from a supervolcano is the immense cloud of ash which has a disastrous global effect on climate and temperature for many years.
  • Pyroclastic flows consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up in the air above under its own weight and streams very rapidly from the mountain burning anything in its path. It is believed that Pompeii] was destroyed by a pyroclastic flow.
Water disasters
Floods

Main article: List of floods

The Limpopo River, in southernMozambique, during the 2000 Mozambique flood

Some of the most notable floods include:

Tropical cyclones can result in extensive flooding and storm surge, as happened with:

Limnic eruptions

A cow suffocated by gases from Lake Nyos after a limnic eruption

A limnic eruption occurs when a gas, usually CO2 suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the threat of suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans. Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising gas displaces water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such an eruption. To date, only two limnic eruptions have been observed and recorded:

  • In 1984, in Cameroon, a limnic eruption in Lake Monoun caused the deaths of 37 nearby residents.
  • At nearby Lake Nyos in 1986 a much larger eruption killed between 1,700 and 1,800 people byasphyxiation.
Tsunami

The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.

Tsunamis can be caused by undersea earthquakes as the one caused in Ao Nang, Thailand, by the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, or by landslides such as the one which occurred at Lituya Bay, Alaska.

(This also fits within the "Land movement disaster" category because it started with an earthquake.)

Weather disasters

Main article: Meteorological disasters

Young steer after a blizzard, March 1966

Blizzards

Significant blizzards in the United States include:

Cyclonic storms

Main articles: Tropical cyclone and Cyclone

Cyclone, tropical cyclone, hurricane, and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. The deadliest hurricane ever was the 1970 Bhola cyclone; the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was the Great Hurricane of 1780 which devastated Martinique, St. Eustatius and Barbados. Another notable hurricane is Hurricane Katrina which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005.

Droughts

Well-known historical droughts include:

  • 1900 India killing between 250,000 and 3.25 million.
  • 1921-22 Soviet Union in which over 5 million perished from starvation due to drought
  • 1928-30 northwest China resulting in over 3 million deaths by famine.
  • 1936 and 1941 Sichuan Province China resulting in 5 million and 2.5 million deaths respectively.
  • As of 2006, states of Australia including Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland had been under drought conditions for five to ten years. The drought is beginning to affect urban area populations for the first time.
  • In 2006, Sichuan Province China experienced its worst drought in modern times with nearly 8 million people and over 7 million cattle facing water shortages.
Hailstorms

Hailstorms (AKA hailstones) are rain drops that have formed together into ice. A particularly damaging hailstorm hit Munich, Germany, on July 12, 1984, causing about 2 billion of dollars in insurance claims.

Heat waves

The worst heat wave in recent history was the European Heat Wave of 2003.

Hurricane Katrina

A summer heat wave in Victoria, Australia, caused the massive bushfires in 2009.Melbourne experienced three days in a row of temperatures exceeding 40°C. The bushfire, otherwise known as "Black Saturday" was also started intentionally.

Tornadoes

Main article: Tornado

Different Types of Tornadoes:

Supercell Tornadoes

Main article: Supercell

Some of the most violent tornadoes develop from supercell thunderstorms. A supercell thunderstorm is a long-lived thunderstorm possessing within its structure a continuously rotating updraft of air. These storms have the greatest tendency to produce tornadoes, some of the huge wedge shape. The supercell thunderstorm has a low-hanging, rotating layer of cloud known as a "wall cloud." It looks somewhat like a layer of a layer cake that hangs below the broader cloud base. One side of the wall cloud is often rain-free, while the other is neighbored by dense shafts of rain. The rotating updraft of the supercell is seen on radar as a "mesocyclone."

The tornadoes that accompany supercell thunderstorms are more likely to remain in contact with the ground for long periods of time—an hour or more—than other tornadoes, and are more likely to be violent, with winds exceeding-200 mph.

Landspout

Main article: Landspout

Generally weaker than a supercell tornado, a landspout is not associated with a wall cloud or mesocyclone. It may be observed beneath cumulonimbus or towering cumulus clouds and is the land equivalent of a waterspout. It often forms along the leading edge of rain-cooled downdraft air emanating from a thunderstorm, known as a "gust front."

Gustnado

Main article: Gustnado

Weak and usually short-lived, a gustnado forms along the gust front of a thunderstorm, appearing as a temporary dust whirl or debris cloud. There may be no apparent connection to or circulation in the cloud aloft. These appear like dust devils.

Waterspout

A waterspout is a tornado over water. A few form from supercell thunderstorms, but many form from weak thunderstorms or rapidly growing cumulus clouds. Waterspouts are usually less intense and causes far less damage. Rarely more than fifty yards wide, it forms over warm tropical ocean waters, although its funnel is made of freshwater droplets condensed from water vapor from condensation – not saltwater from the ocean. Waterspouts usually dissipate upon reaching land.

The following are tornado-like circulations

Dust Devils

Main article: Dust devil

Dry, hot, clear days on the desert or over dry land can bring about dust devils. Generally forming in the hot sun during the late morning or early afternoon hours, these mostly harmless whirlwinds are triggered by light desert breezes that create a swirling plume of dust with speeds rarely over 70 mph. These differ from tornadoes in that they are not associated with a thunderstorm (or any cloud), and are usually weaker than the weakest tornado.

Typically, the life cycle of a dust devil is a few minutes or less, although they can last much longer. Although usually harmless, they have been known to cause minor damage. They can blow vehicles off the road and could damage your eyes by blowing dust into them.

Firewhirls

Main article: Fire whirl

Sometimes the intense heat created by a major forest fire or volcanic eruption can create what is known as a firewhirl, a tornado-like rotating column of smoke and/or fire. This happens when the fire updraft concentrates some initial weak whirl or eddy in the wind. Winds associated with firewhirls have been estimated at over 100 mph. They are sometimes called fire tornadoes, fire devils, or even firenadoes.[4]

Fire

Main article: List of forest fires

Wildfires are an uncontrolled fire burning in wildland areas. Common causes include lightning and drought but wildfires may also be started by human negligence or arson. They can be a threat to those in rural areas and also wildlife.

A notable case of wildfire was the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia.

Nine elderly Russians have died in a blaze at a nursing home that may have been started by a resident setting himself on fire.The fire at the facility in Tver, northeast of Moscow, injured two others and forced the evacuation of some 480 people early on Monday,and investigators found a canister of flammable liquid in the room where the fire started, leading to speculation the resident set himself ablaze.

Health and diseases
Epidemic

Main article: List of epidemics

The A H5N1 virus, which causes Avian influenza

An epidemic is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads at a rapid rate through a human population. A pandemic is an epidemic whose spread is global. There have been many epidemics throughout history, such as Black Death. In the last hundred years, significant pandemics include:

  • The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, killing an estimated 50 million people worldwide
  • The 1957-58 Asian flu pandemic, which killed an estimated 1 million people
  • The 1968-69 Hong Kong flu pandemic
  • The 2002-3 SARS pandemic
  • The AIDS epidemic, beginning in 1959
  • The H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) Pandemic 2009-2010

Other diseases that spread more slowly, but are still considered to be global health emergencies by the WHO include:

Famine

Main article: List of famines

In modern times, famine has hit Sub-Saharan Africa

Space

Fallen trees caused by the Tunguska meteoroid of the Tunguska event in June 1908.

Gamma ray bursts

Main article: gamma ray burst

Impact events

Main article: impact event

One of the largest impact events in modern times was the Tunguska event in June 1908.

[edit]Solar flares

Main article: solar flare

A solar flare is a phenomenon where the sun suddenly releases a great amount of solar radiation, much more than normal. Some known solar flares include:

  • An X20 event on August 16, 1989
  • A similar flare on April 2, 2001
  • The most powerful flare ever recorded, on November 4, 2003, estimated at between X40 and X45
  • The most powerful flare in the past 500 years is believed to have occurred in September 1859
Supernovae and hypernovae

Main articles: supernova and hypernova

Future of natural disasters

The United Kingdom based charity Oxfam publicly stated that the number of people hit by climate-related disasters is expected to rise by about 50%, to reach 375 million a year by 2015.[5]

Insurance

Natural disasters play a major role in the insurance industry, which pays for certain damages arising from hurricanes, wildfires, and other catastrophes. Large reinsurance companies are particularly involved.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN ISBN 1-85383-964-7.
  2. ^ B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk – Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN ISBN 0-415-25216-4.
  3. ^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBN ISBN 1-903544-10-6.
  4. ^ Weather Encyclopedia, The Weather Channel, Accessed on June 2, 2009, http://www.theweatherchannelkids.com.
  5. ^ BBC: Oxfam warns of climate disasters
  6. ^ III. (2008). 2008 Natural Catastrophe Review.

External links

Categories: Natural disasters

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_disaster

 

List of natural disasters

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters

The following is a list of the most notable natural disasters by type.

Ten deadliest natural disasters

Rank↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓
Death toll (estimate)↓

1.
1931 China floods
China
July, November, 1931
1,000,000–2,500,000*[1]

2.
1887 Yellow River flood
China
September, October, 1887
900,000–2,000,000[2]

3.
1556 Shaanxi earthquake
Shaanxi Province, China
January 23, 1556
830,000[3]

4.
1970 Bhola cyclone
East Pakistan (nowBangladesh)
November 13, 1970
500,000[1]

5.
1839 India Cyclone
India
November 25, 1839
300,000[citation needed]

6.
526 Antioch earthquake
Antioch, Turkey
May 526
250,000–300,000

7.
1976 Tangshan earthquake
Tangshan, Hebei, China
July 28, 1976
242,419[1]

8.
1920 Haiyuan earthquake
Haiyuan, NingxiaGansu, China
December 16, 1920
234,117[1]

9.
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Sumatra, Indonesia
December 26, 2004
230,210

10.
2010 Haiti earthquake
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
January 12, 2010
222,000[4]

* Estimate by Nova’s sources are close to 4 million and yet Encarta’s sources report as few as 1 million. Expert estimates report wide variance.

An alternative listing is given by Hough in his 2008 book Global Security.[5]

Ten deadliest natural disasters of the past century

Rank↓
Event*↓
Location↓
Date↓
Death toll (estimate)↓

1.
1931 China floods
China
November 1931
1,000,000–2,500,000

2.
1970 Bhola cyclone
East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)
November 1970
500,000

3.
1976 Tangshan earthquake
China
July 1976
300,000

4.
1920 Haiyuan earthquake
China
December 1920
234,000

5.
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Indonesia
December 2004
230,000+

6.
2010 Haiti earthquake
Haiti
January 2010
222,000

7.
1923 Great Kanto earthquake
Japan
September 1923
142,000

8.
Cyclone Nargis
Myanmar
May 2008
138,000+

9.
1991 Bangladesh cyclone
Bangladesh
April 1991
138,000

10.
1948 Ashgabat earthquake
Turkmen SSR, (nowTurkmenistan)
October 1948
110,000

* Does not include industrial or technological accidents.

Lists of natural disasters

Blizzards

Main article: Blizzard

Rank↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓
Death toll (estimate)↓

1.
1972 Iran blizzard
Iran
1972
4,000

2.
2008 Afghanistan blizzard
Afghanistan
2008
926

3.
Great Blizzard of 1888
United States
1888
400

4.
1993 North American Storm Complex
United States
1993
318

5.
Schoolhouse Blizzard
United States
1888
235

6.
Hakko-da Mountains incident
Japan
1902
199

7.
Armistice Day Blizzard
United States
1940
144

8.
2008 Chinese winter storms
China
2008
133

9.
1995 Kazakh Blizzard
Kazakhstan
1995
112

10.
Northeastern United States blizzard of 1978
United States
1978
54

Contractible diseases

See also: List of epidemics

Pandemics killing at least 1,000,000 people:

Rank↓
Event↓
Location↓
Death toll (estimate)↓
Date↓

1.
Black Death
Asia, Europe, Africa
100,000,000 approx.
1300s–1720s

2.
Spanish Flu
Worldwide
50,000,000–100,000,000
1918–1920

3.
Plague of Justinian
Asia, Europe, Africa
40,000,000–100,000,000
540–590

4.
Third Pandemic of Bubonic Plague
Worldwide
12,000,000 ?
1850s–1950s

5.
Antonine Plague
Roman Empire
5,000,000
165–180

6.
Asian Flu
Worldwide
4,000,000
1956–1958

Other deadly communicable diseases. Death counts are historical totals unless indicated otherwise.

Rank↓
Disease↓
Death toll (estimate)↓
Notes↓

1.
Smallpox
300,000,000 approx.
1900 to eradication.[6] Declared eradicated May 8, 1980.[7]

2.
Measles
200,000,000 ?
last 150 years[8]

3.
Malaria
80,000,000–250,000,000
20th century – present

4.
Tuberculosis
40,000,000–100,000,000
20th century – present[8]

5.
AIDS pandemic
25,250,000
1981–present.

6.
Seasonal influenza
at least 250,000 annually
As of April 2009[9]

Cyclones

Main article: Tropical cyclone

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
500,000
1970 Bhola cyclone
East Pakistan, Pakistan (nowBangladesh)
November 13, 1970

2.
300,000
1839 Indian cyclone
India
November 25, 1839

3.
300,000[10]
1737 Calcutta cyclone
India
October 7, 1737

4.
210,000
Super Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure
China
August 7, 1975

5.
200,000[11]
Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876
present day Bangladesh
October 30, 1876

6.
~146,000
Cyclone Nargis
Myanmar
May 2, 2008

7.
138,866
1991 Bangladesh cyclone
Bangladesh
April 29, 1991

8.
100,000
1882 Bombay cyclone
Bombay, India
1882

9.
60,000
1922 Swatow Typhoon
China
August 1, 1922

9.
60,000
1864 Calcutta Cyclone
India
October 5, 1864

Earthquakes

Main article: List of earthquakes

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
830,000
1556 Shaanxi earthquake
China
January 23, 1556

2.
242,419–779,000
1976 Tangshan earthquake
China
July 28, 1976

3.
250,000
526 Antioch earthquake
Antioch, Byzantine Empire(now Turkey)
May 526

4.
235,502
1920 Haiyuan earthquake
China
December 16, 1920

5.
230,000+
2004 Indonesian earthquake
Indonesia
December 26, 2004

6.
230,000
2010 Haiti earthquake
Haiti
January 12, 2010

7.
230,000
1138 Aleppo earthquake
Syria

8.
200,000
856 Damghan earthquake
Iran
December 22, 856

9.
150,000
893 Ardabil earthquake
Iran
March 23, 893

10.
142,000
1923 Great Kanto earthquake
Japan
September 1, 1923

11.
137,000
1730 Hokkaido earthquake
Japan
1730

12.
110,000
1948 Ashgabat earthquake
Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union(now Turkmenistan)
October 5, 1948

13.
100,000
1290 Chihli earthquake
China
1290

14.
100,000
1755 Lisbon earthquake
Portugal
November 1, 1755

15.
100,000
1908 Messina earthquake
Italy
December 28, 1908

16.
100,000
1667 Shamakhi earthquake
Azerbaijan
1667

17.
79,000
2005 Kashmir earthquake
Pakistan
October 8, 2005

18.
77,000
1727 Tabriz earthquake
Iran
1727

19.
75,000
1970 Ancash earthquake
Peru
May 31, 1970

20.
70,000
1932 Changma earthquake
Gansu, China
1932

21.
68,712 (18,392 missing)
2008 Sichuan earthquake
China
May 12, 2008

22.
60,000
1268 Cilicia earthquake
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia(now Turkey)
1268

23.
60,000
1693 Sicily earthquake
Italy
January 11, 1693

24.
60,000
1935 Balochistan earthquake
British India (now part ofPakistan)
May 31, 1935

25.
50,000
1783 Calabrian earthquakes
Italy
1783

26.
50,000
1990 Manjil-Rudbar earthquake
Iran
June 21, 1990

27.
45,000
1999 İzmit earthquake
Turkey
August 17, 1999

28.
40,000
1498 Nankaido earthquake
Japan
September 20, 1498

29.
40,000
1797 Riobamba earthquake
Ecuador
1797

30.
40,000
1927 Gulang earthquake
Gansu, China
1927

31.
32,962
1939 Erzincan earthquake
Turkey
December 26, 1939

32.
30,000
1202 Syria earthquake
Syria
May 20, 1202

33.
30,000
1939 Chillán earthquake
Chile
January 24, 1939

34.
28,000
1949 Khait earthquake
Tajikistan
July 10, 1949

35.
26,271
2003 Bam earthquake
Iran
December 26, 2003

36.
25,000
1988 Spitak earthquake
Armenia
December 7, 1988

37.
23,700
1293 Kamakura earthquake
Japan
1293

38.
23,000
1976 Guatemala earthquake
Guatemala
February 4, 1976

39.
22,066
1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake
Japan
June 15, 1896

40.
20,000
1812 Caracas earthquake
Venezuela
March 26, 1812

41.
20,000
1905 Kangra earthquake
British India
April 4, 1905

42.
19,727
2001 Gujarat earthquake
India
January 26, 2001

43.
15,621
1970 Tonghai earthquake
China
January 4, 1970

44.
15,000
1960 Agadir earthquake
Morocco
February 26, 1960

45.
15,000
1978 Tabas earthquake
Iran
September 16, 1978

46.
12,225
1962 Bou’in-Zahra earthquake
Iran
September 1, 1962

47.
12,000–15,000
1907 Qaratog earthquake
Tajikistan
October 21, 1907

48.
12,000
1968 Dasht-e Bayaz and Ferdows earthquake
Iran
August 31, 1968

49.
10,500
1934 Bihar earthquake
British India
January 15, 1934

50.
10,153
1985 Mexico City earthquake
Mexico
September 19, 1985

51.
10,000
1509 Istanbul earthquake
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire (nowTurkey)
September 10, 1509

52.
10,000
1703 Apennine earthquakes
Italy
1703

53.
10,000
1703 Genroku earthquake
Japan
December 31, 1703

54.
10,000
1854 Ansei-Nankai earthquake
Japan
December 24, 1854

55.
10,000[12]
1944 San Juan earthquake
Argentina
January 15, 1944

56.
9,000
1933 Diexi earthquake
China
August 25, 1933

57.
8,064
1966 Xingtai earthquake
China
March 8, 1966

58.
7,928
1993 Latur earthquake
India
September 30, 1993

59.
7,273
1891 Mino-Owari earthquake
Japan
October 28, 1891

60.
6,433
1995 Great Hanshin earthquake
Japan
January 17, 1995

61.
6,000[12]
1861 Mendoza earthquake
Argentina
March 20, 1861

62.
6,000
1960 Valdivia earthquake
Chile
May 22, 1960

63.
5,300
1974 Hunza earthquake
Pakistan
December 28, 1974

64.
5,000
1707 Hōei earthquake
Japan
October 28, 1707

65.
5,000
1972 Nicaragua earthquake
Nicaragua
December 23, 1972

66.
4,000
1945 Balochistan earthquake
British India
November 28, 1945

67.
3,800
1929 Koppeh Dagh earthquake
Iran
January 5, 1929

68.
3,769
1948 Fukui earthquake
Japan
June 28, 1948

69.
3,000
1906 San Francisco earthquake
United States
April 18, 1906

70.
3,000
1933 Sanriku earthquake
Japan
March 2, 1933

Famines

Main articles: List of famines and Famine

Please Note: Some of these famines may be partially or completely caused by humans.

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
15,000,000–43,000,000
Great Chinese Famine
China
1958–1961

2.
24,000,000
Chinese Famine of 1907
China
1907

3.
19,000,000
Indian Famine
British India
1896–1902

4.
15,000,000
Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa
India
1769–1771

5.
13,000,000
Northern Chinese Famine
China
1876–1879

6.
10,000,000
Indian Great Famine of 1876–78
India
1876–1879

7.
7,500,000
Great European Famine
Europe (all)
1315–1317

8.
5,000,000
Chinese Famine of 1936
China
1936

8.
5,000,000
Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (Holodomor)
Soviet Union
1932–1934

8.
5,000,000
Russian famine of 1921
Russia, Ukraine
1921–1922

11.
3,000,000
Chinese Drought 1941
China
1941

11.
3,000,000
Chinese Famine of 1928–1930
China
1928–1930

13.
2,000,000
Russian famine of 1601–1603
Russia (Muscovy)
1601–1603

13.
2,000,000
Vietnamese Famine of 1945
Vietnam
1943–1945

13.
2,000,000
Deccan Famine of 1630–32
India
1630–1630

16.
1,500,000–4,000,000
Bengal Famine of 1943
India
1943

17.
1,200,000
North Korean famine
North Korea
1996–1998

18.
1,000,000–1,500,000
Great Irish Famine
Ireland
1846–1849

18.
1,000,000
1984–1985 famine in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
1984

18.
1,000,000
Horn of Africa famine
Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia
1888

21.
26,000–1,000,000
Bangladesh famine of 1974—Official records claim 26,000. However, various sources claim about 1,000,000.
Bangladesh
1974

22.
150,000
Finnish famine of 1866–1868
Finland
1866–1868

22.
18,000
Dutch famine of 1944
The Netherlands
1944

Floods and landslides

Main articles: Flood and List of landslides

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
2,500,000–3,700,000[13]
1931 China floods
China
1931

2.
900,000–2,000,000
1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood
China
1887

3.
500,000–700,000
1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood
China
1938

4.
231,000
Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina. Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease.
China
1975

5.
145,000
1935 Yangtze river flood
China
1935

6.
more than 100,000
St. Felix’s Flood, storm surge
Netherlands
1530

7.
100,000
Hanoi and Red River Delta flood
North Vietnam
1971

8.
100,000
1911 Yangtze river flood
China
1911

9.
50,000–80,000
St. Lucia’s flood, storm surge
Netherlands
1287

10.
2.400
North Sea flood, storm surge
Netherlands
31 December 1953

Heat waves

Main article: Heat wave

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
20,000–35,000
2003 European heat wave
Europe
2003

2.
15,000
2010 Russian heat wave
Russia
2010

3.
5,000–10,000
1988 United States heat wave
United States
1988

4.
1,700
1980 United States heat wave
United States
1980

5.
1,500
Southern India heat wave
India
2003

6.
946
Los Angeles heat wave
United States
1955

7.
891
New York City heat wave
United States
1972

8.
739
1995 Chicago heat wave
United States
1995[14]

Limnic eruptions

Main article: Limnic eruption

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
1,746
Lake Nyos
Cameroon
1986

2.
37
Lake Monoun
Cameroon
1984

Storms (non-cyclone)

Main article: Storm

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
15,100
Torrential rains and mudslides
Venezuela
1999

2.
500
Lofoten, Heavy storm
Norway
1849

3.
250
Great Lakes Storm of 1913
United States and Canada (Great Lakes region)
1913

4.
242
1996 Amarnath Yatra tragedy
India
1996

5.
210
Trøndelag, storm ("Follastormen")
Norway
1625

6.
189
Eyemouth, Scotland, storm ("Black Friday")
United Kingdom
1881

7.
140
Trøndelag, storm ("Titran disaster")
Norway
1899

8.
96
Lofoten, storm
Norway
1868

9.
46
Columbus Day Storm
United States
1962

10.
30
Haugesund, storm ("Røvær disaster")
Norway
1899

Tornadoes

Main article: Tornado

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
1,300
The Daulatpur-Salturia Tornado
Manikganj, Bangladesh
April 26, 1989

2.
923
1969 East Pakistan Tornado
East Pakistan, Pakistan (nowBangladesh)
1969

3.
695
The Tri-State Tornado
United States (MissouriIllinoisIndiana)
March 18, 1925

4.
681
1973 Dhaka Tornado
Bangladesh
1973

5.
600
The Valetta, Malta Tornado
Malta
1551

6.
500
The Sicily Tornado
Sicily, Two Sicilies (now Italy)
1851

6.
500
The Narail-Magura Tornadoes
Jessore, East Pakistan, Pakistan (nowBangladesh)
1964

6.
500
The Comoro Tornado
Comoro
1951

9.
440
The Tangail Tornado
Bangladesh
1988 B.C

10.
400
The 1984 Yaroslavl tornado
Soviet Union (now Russia)
1984

Tsunami

See also: Historic tsunami

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
229,866
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Indonesia
2004

2.
100,000
1755 Lisbon earthquake/tsunami/fire
Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Ireland, and the United Kingdom (Cornwall)
1755

3.
100,000
1908 Messina earthquake/tsunami
Messina, Italy
1908

4.
36,000
Caused by 1883 eruption of Krakatoa
Indonesia
1883

5.
30,000
1707 Hōei earthquake
Tōkaidō/Nankaido, Japan
1707

6.
27,000
Japan
1826

7.
25,674
1868 Arica earthquake/tsunami
Arica, Chile
1868

8.
22,070
1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake
Sanriku, Japan
1896

9.
15,030
1792 Mount Unzen eruption in southwestKyūshū
Kyūshū, Japan
1792

Volcanic eruptions

Main article: Volcano

See also: World’s largest eruptions

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
92,000
Mount Tambora (see also Year Without a Summer)
Indonesia
April 10, 1815

2.
36,000
Krakatoa
Indonesia
August 26–27, 1883

3.
29,000
Mount Pelée
Martinique
May 7 or May 8, 1902

4.
33,000
Mount Vesuvius
Pompeii and Herculaneum, Italy
August 24, 79 AD

5.
23,000
Nevado del Ruiz
Colombia
November 13, 1985

6.
15,000
Mount Unzen
Japan
1792

7.
10,000
Mount Kelut
Indonesia
1586

8.
9,350
Laki. Killed about 25% of the population (33% were killed about 70 years before by smallpox)
Iceland
June 8, 1783

9.
6,000
Santa Maria
Guatemala
1902

10.
5,115
Mount Kelut
Indonesia
May 19, 1919

A supervolcanic eruption at Lake Toba around 74,000 years ago could have wiped out as much as 99% of the global human population, reducing the population from a possible 60 million to less than 10 thousand; see Toba catastrophe theory. However, this theory is not widely accepted because the evidence is disputed, and there have been, for instance, no remains found. The eruption is not listed here as it was pre-historic and outside the scope of this article. Also, the Thera eruption in the Aegean Sea between 1550 and 1650 BC may have caused a large number of deaths throughout the region, from Crete to Egypt. See also La Garita Caldera,Yellowstone Caldera, and Supervolcanoes.

Wildfires and bushfires

Main articles: Wildfire and Bushfire

Rank↓
Death toll↓
Event↓
Location↓
Date↓

1.
1,200–2,500
Peshtigo Fire, Wisconsin
United States
October 8, 1871

2.
1,200
Kursha-2 Fire
Soviet Union
August 3, 1936

3.
453
Cloquet Fire, Minnesota
United States
October 12, 1918

4.
418
Great Hinckley Fire, Minnesota
United States
September 1, 1894

5.
282
Thumb Fire, Michigan
United States
September 5, 1881

6.
273
Matheson Fire, Ontario
Canada
July 29, 1916

7.
240
Sumatra and Kalimantan Fires
Indonesia
1997

8.
230
Landes region
France
1949

9.
213
Black Dragon Fire
China
May 1987

10.
173
Black Saturday bushfires
Australia
February 7 – March 14, 2009

See also

Other lists organized by death toll

References

  1. ^ a b c d The world’s worst natural disasters Calamities of the 20th and 21st centuries CBC News’.’ Retrieved 2010-2-10.
  2. ^ "NOVA Online | Flood! | Dealing with the Deluge". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  3. ^ "Top 10 Deadliest Earthquakes". Time. January 13, 2010. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  4. ^ "Magnitude 7.0 – HAITI REGION". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  5. ^ Understanding Global Security, Peter Hough, 2008, chapter 8, page 192, table 8.1 ‘The ten worst natural disasters in history’
  6. ^ "UC Davis Magazine, Summer 2006: Epidemics on the Horizon". Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  7. ^ Smallpox and bioterrorism, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 81 no. 10 Genebra October 2003 ISSN 0042-9686
  8. ^ a b "Torrey EF and Yolken RH. 2005. Their bugs are worse than their bite. Washington Post, April 3, p. B01". Birdflubook.com. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  9. ^ Influenza (Seasonal), World Health Organization, April 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  10. ^ "10 ‘Worst’ Natural Disasters". Eas.slu.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  11. ^ ThinkQuest Team #C003603. "Hurricanes: case studies". Library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  12. ^ a b "Listado de Terremotos Históricos". Inpres.gov.ar. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  13. ^ "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  14. ^ Eric Klinenberg (July 30, 2002). "Dead Heat: Why don’t Americans sweat over heat-wave deaths?". Slate. Retrieved 30 July 2010.

External links

Categories: Disaster lists | Lists by death toll | Death-related lists | Natural disasters

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters

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