TiHKAL

 

TiHKAL: The Continuation

Tihkal.jpg
Cover of TiHKAL, 1st ed.

Author
Alexander and Ann Shulgin

Country
United States

Subject(s)
Pharmacology,Autobiography,Psychedelic drugs

Publisher
Transform Press

Publication date
1997

Media type
Paperback

Pages
xxviii, 804 p.

ISBN
0-9630096-9-9

OCLC Number
38503252

Preceded by
PiHKAL

Not to be confused with Tical (disambiguation).

TiHKAL is a 1997 book written by Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about a family of psychoactive drugs known as tryptamines. A sequel to PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the full title of the book is Tryptamines i Have Known And Loved: The Continuation.

Content

TiHKAL, much like its predecessor PiHKAL, is divided into two parts. The first part, which all rights are reserved for, is a fictionalized autobiography, continuing where PiHKAL left off, but it then continues into a collection of essays. These essays range from psychotherapy and the Jungian mind to the prevalence of DMT in nature, ayahuasca and the War on Drugs. The second part of TiHKAL, which may be distributed for non-commercial reproduction with several conditions (see external links below), is a detailed synthesis manual for 55 psychedelic compounds (many discovered by Alexander Shulgin), with dosages, chemical structure and qualitative comments.

Like PiHKAL, the Shulgins were motivated to release the synthesis information as a way to protect the public’s access to information about psychedelic compounds, a goal Alexander Shulgin has noted many times.[1] Following a raid of his laboratory in 1994 by the United States DEA,[2] Richard Meyer, spokesman for DEA’s San Francisco Field Division, stated that "It is our opinion that those books [referring to the previous work, PiHKAL] are pretty much cookbooks on how to make illegal drugs. Agents tell me that in clandestine labs that they have raided, they have found copies of those books." This attitude emphasized Shulgin’s need to release the information to ensure its preservation, and led to the release of TiHKAL and his other publications.

Tryptamines Listed

Substance
Chemical name

1
AL-LAD
6-Allyl-N,N-diethyl-NL

2
DBT
N,N-Dibutyl-T

3
DET
N,N-Diethyl-T

4
DIPT
N,N-Diisopropyl-T

5
alpha,O-DMS
5-Methyoxy-alpha-methyl-T

6
DMT
N,N-Dimethyl-T

7
2,alpha-DMT
2,alpha-Dimethyl-T

8
alpha,N-DMT
alpha,N-Dimethyl-T

9
DPT
N,N-Dipropyl-T

10
EIPT
N-Ethyl-N-isopropyl-T

11
alpha-ET
alpha-Ethyl-T

12
ETH-LAD
6,N,N-Triethyl-NL

13
Harmaline
3,4-Dihydro-7-methoxy-1-methyl-C

14
Harmine
7-Methyoxy-1-methyl-C

15
4-HO-DBT
N,N-Dibutyl-4-hydroxy-T

16
4-HO-DET
N,N-Diethyl-4-hydroxy-T

17
4-HO-DIPT
N,N-Diisopropyl-4-hydroxy-T

18
4-HO-DMT
N,N-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-T

19
5-HO-DMT
N,N-Dimethyl-5-hydroxy-T

20
4-HO-DPT
N,N-Dipropyl-4-hydroxy-T

21
4-HO-MET
N-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-N-methyl-T

22
4-HO-MIPT
4-Hydroxy-N-isopropyl-N-methyl-T

23
4-HO-MPT
4-Hydroxy-N-methyl-N-propyl-T

24
4-HO-pyr-T
4-Hydroxy-N,N-tetramethylene-T

25
Ibogaine
A complexly substituted-T

26
LSD
N,N-Diethyl-L

27
MBT
N-Butyl-N-methyl-T

28
4,5-MDO-DIPT
N,N-Diisopropyl-4,5-methylenedioxy-T

29
5,6-MDO-DIPT
N,N-Diisopropyl-5,6-methylenedioxy-T

30
4,5-MDO-DMT
N,N-Dimethyl-4,5-methylenedioxy-T

31
5,6-MDO-DMT
N,N-Dimethyl-5,6-methylenedioxy-T

32
5,6-MDO-MIPT
N-Isopropyl-N-methyl-5,6-methylenedioxy-T

33
2-Me-DET
N,N-Diethyl-2-methyl-T

34
2-Me-DMT
2,N,N-Trimethyl-T

35
Melatonin
N-Acetyl-5-methoxy-T

36
5-MeO-DET
N,N-Diethyl-5-methoxy-T

37
5-MeO-DIPT
N,N-Diisopropyl-5-methoxy-T

38
5-MeO-DMT
5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyl-T

39
4-MeO-MIPT
N-Isopropyl-4-methoxy-N-methyl-T

40
5-MeO-MIPT
N-Isopropyl-5-methoxy-N-methyl-T

41
5,6-MeO-MIPT
5,6-Dimethoxy-N-isopropyl-N-methyl-T

42
5-MeO-NMT
5-Methoxy-N-methyl-T

43
5-MeO-pyr-T
5-Methoxy-N,N-tetramethylene-T

44
6-MeO-THH
6-Methoxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-C

45
5-MeO-TMT
5-Methoxy-2,N,N-trimethyl-T

46
5-MeS-DMT
N,N-Dimethyl-5-methylthio-T

47
MIPT
N-Isopropyl-N-methyl-T

48
alpha-MT
alpha-Methyl-T

49
NET
N-Ethyl-T

50
NMT
N-Methyl-T

51
PRO-LAD
6-Propyl-NL

52
pyr-T
N,N-Tetramethylene-T

53
T
Tryptamine

54
Tetrahydroharmine
7-Methoxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-C

55
alpha,N,O-TMS
alpha,N-Dimethyl-5-methoxy-T

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Bennett, Drake (2005-01-30). "Dr. Ecstasy". New York Times Magazine (New York Times). Retrieved 2006-07-08.
  2. ^ "DEA Raid of Shulgin’s Laboratory". Erowid. 2004-01-08. Retrieved 2006-07-08.

External links

  • TiHKAL HTML Version
  • TiHKAL • info A visual index and map of TiHKAL, including the formatted text of Book II. Includes over 300 corrections to the original HTML version.

Drugs from TiHKAL

AL-LADDBTDETDiPT5-MeO-α-MTDMT2,α-DMTα,N-DMTDPTEiPTα-ETETH-LADHarmalineHarmine4-HO-DBT4-HO-DET4-HO-DiPT4-HO-DMT5-HO-DMT4-HO-DPT4-HO-MET4-HO-MiPT4-HO-MPT4-HO-pyr-TIbogaineLSDMBT4,5-MDO-DiPT5,6-MDO-DiPT4,5-MDO-DMT5,6-MDO-DMT5,6-MDO-MiPT2-Me-DET2-Me-DMTMelatonin5-MeO-DET5-MeO-DiPT5-MeO-DMT4-MeO-MiPT5-MeO-MiPT5,6-MeO-MiPT5-MeO-NMT5-MeO-pyr-T6-MeO-THH5-MeO-TMT5-MeS-DMTMiPTα-MTNETNMTPRO-LADpyr-TTryptamineTetrahydroharmineα,N,O-TMS

PiHKAL

PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story

Pihkal.jpg
Cover of PiHKAL, 1st ed.

Author
Alexander and Ann Shulgin

Country
United States

Subject(s)
Pharmacology,Autobiography,Psychoactive drugs

Publisher
Transform Press

Publication date
1991

Media type
Paperback

ISBN
0-9630096-0-5

OCLC Number
269100404

Followed by
TiHKAL

PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story is a book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin which was published in 1991. The subject of the work is psychoactive phenethylamine chemical derivatives, notably those that act as psychedelics and/or empathogen-entactogens. The main title is an acronym that stands for "phenethylamines I have known and loved".

The book is arranged into two parts:

  1. A fictionalized autobiography of the couple.
  2. Detailed synthesis instructions for over 200 psychedelic compounds (most of which Shulgin discovered himself), including bioassays, dosages, and other commentary.

Shulgin’s choices of synthesis procedures in the second half of the book are themselves perhaps a small act of subversion: while the reactions are beyond the ability of people with no chemistry education,[citation needed] they tend to emphasize techniques that do not require difficult to obtain chemicals. Notable among these are the use of mercury-aluminum amalgam (an unusual but easy to obtain reagent) as a reducing agent and detailed suggestions on legal plant sources of important drug precursors such as safrole.

Contents

Impact & Popularity

Through PiHKAL (and later TiHKAL), Shulgin sought to ensure that his discoveries would escape the limits of professional research labs and find their way to the public; a goal consistent with his stated beliefs thatpsychedelic drugs can be valuable tools for self-exploration. The MDMA ("Ecstasy") synthesis published in PiHKAL remains one of the most common clandestine methods to this day. Many countries banned the major ones such as 2C-B, 2C-T-2, and 2C-T-7. In the United Kingdom, most of the drugs in PiHKAL are illegal.

DEA Raid of Shulgin’s Lab

In 1994, almost three years after the publication of PiHKAL, the United States (US) Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) raided Shulgin’s chemical lab. They requested that Shulgin turn over his DEA license (which allowed him to work with and possess otherwise illicit substances), claiming to have found problems with his record keeping, and he was fined US$25,000 for the possession of anonymous samples which had been sent to him for quality testing. Shulgin passed commentary of some of these events at the beginning of his second big book, TiHKAL.

Prior to the publication of PiHKAL, during the 15 years in which Shulgin held his license, there were two unannounced reviews of the lab; both failed to find any irregularities. Richard Meyer, spokesman for DEA’s San Francisco Field Division, has stated that "It is our opinion that those books are pretty much cookbooks on how to make illegal drugs. Agents tell me that in clandestine labs that they have raided, they have found copies of those books," suggesting to many that the publication of PiHKAL and the termination of Shulgin’s license were related.[1]

Notable Excerpts

Essential Amphetamines

The "Essential Amphetamines" are what Shulgin describes as ten amphetamines that differ from natural products such as safrole or myristicin by only a molecule of ammonia.(PiHKAL Entry #157 TMA). The list consists of:

  • PMA (paramethoxy-amphetamine)
  • 2,4-DMA (2,4-dimethoxy-amphetamine)
  • 3,4-DMA (3,4-dimethoxy-amphetamine)
  • MDA (3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine)
  • MMDA (3-methoxy-4,5-methylendioxy-amphetamine)
  • MMDA-3a (2-methoxy-3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine)
  • MMDA-2 (2-methoxy-4,5-methylendioxyamphetamine)
  • TMA (3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine)
  • TMA-2 (2,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine)
  • DMMDA (2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine)
  • DMMDA-2 (2,3-dimethoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine)
  • TeMA (2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyamphetamine)

It should be noted that not all of these are chemicals bioassayed in PiHKAL, some are merely mentioned.

Magical Half-Dozen

The so-called "magical half-dozen" refers to Shulgin’s self-rated most important phenethylamine compounds, all of which except mescaline were developed and synthesized by himself. They are found within the first book of PiHKAL, and are as follows:

  • Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine)
  • DOM (2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine)
  • 2C-B (2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine)
  • 2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine)
  • 2C-T-2 (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine)
  • 2C-T-7 (2,5-dimethoxy-4-(N)-propylthiophenethylamine)

See also

References

  1. ^ Drake Bennett (January 30, 2005). "Dr. Ecstasy". New York Times Magazine (New York Times).

External links

Drugs from PiHKAL

AEM · AL · Aleph · Aleph-2 · Aleph-4 · Aleph-6 · Aleph-7 · Ariadne · Asymbescaline · Buscaline · Beatrice · Bis-TOM · BOB · BOD · BOH · BOHD · BOM · 4-Bromo-3,5-dimethoxyamphetamine · 2-Bromo-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine · 2C-B · 3C-BZ · 2C-C · 2C-D · 2C-E · 3C-E · 2C-F · 2C-G ·2C-G-3 · 2C-G-4 · 2C-G-5 · 2C-G-N · 2C-H · 2C-I · 2C-N · 2C-O · 2C-O-4 · 2C-P · CPM · 2C-SE · 2C-T · 2C-T-2 · 2C-T-4 · psi-2C-T-4 · 2C-T-7 · 2C-T-8 · 2C-T-9 · 2C-T-13 · 2C-T-15 · 2C-T-17 · 2C-T-21 · 4-D · beta-D · DESOXY · 2,4-DMA · 2,5-DMA · 3,4-DMA · DMCPA · DME · DMMDA · DMMDA-2 ·DMPEA · DOAM · DOB · DOBU · DOC · DOEF · DOET · DOI · DOM · psi-DOM · DON · DOPR · Escaline · EEE · EEM · EME · EMM · Ethyl-J (EBDB) · Ethyl-K · F-2 · F-22 · Flea · G-3 · G-4 · G-5 · G-N · Ganesha · HOT-2 · HOT-7 · HOT-17 · IDNNA · Isomescaline · Isoproscaline · Iris · J (BDB) · Lophophine ·PMA · Mescaline · Madam-6 · Methallylescaline · MDA · MDAL · MDBU · MDBZ · MDCPM · MDDM · MDE · MDHOET · MDIP · MDMA · MDMC (EDMA) · MDMEO · MDMEOET · MDMP · MDOH · MDPEA · MDPH · MDPL · MDPR · Metaescaline · MEDA · MEE · MEM · MEPEA · Meta-DOB · Meta-DOT ·Methyl-DMA · Methyl-DOB · Methyl-J (MBDB) · Methyl-K · Methyl-MA (PMMA) · Methyl-MMDA-2 · MMDA · MMDA-2 · MMDA-3a · MMDA-3b · MME · Metaproscaline · MPM · Ortho-DOT · Proscaline · Phenescaline · Phenethylamine · Propynyl · Symbescaline · 2,3,4,5-Tetramethoxyamphetamine ·3-TASB · 4-TASB · 5-TASB · Thiobuscaline · 3-TE · 4-TE · 3-TIM · 4-TIM · 5-TIM · 3-TM · 4-TM · TMA · TMA-2 · TMA-3 · TMA-4 · TMA-5 · TMA-6 · 3-TME · 4-TME · 5-TME · 2T-MMDA-3a · 4T-MMDA-2 · 2-TOET · 5-TOET · 2-TOM · 5-TOM · TOMSO · Thioproscaline · Trisescaline · 3-TSB · 4-TSB ·3-T-Trisescaline · 4-T-Trisescaline

Psychedelic drug

 

A fractal pattern, similar in some respects to what may be seen during a psychedelic experience

A psychedelic substance is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter the cognition and perception of the mind. Psychedelics are part of a wider class of psychoactive drugs known as hallucinogens, which also includes related substances such as dissociatives and deliriants. Unlike other drugs such as stimulants and opioids which induce familiar states of consciousness, psychedelics tend to bend and twist the mind in ways that result in the experience being qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. The psychedelic experience is often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such astrance, meditation, yoga, and dreaming.

The term psychedelic is derived from the Greek words ψυχή (psyche, "mind") and δηλείν (delein, "to manifest"), translating to "mind-manifesting". The implication is that the psychedelics can access and develop unused potentials of the human mind.[1] The mongrel form of the word was coined by Humphrey Osmond, loathed by Richard Schultes, but championed by Timothy Leary, who thought it sounded better.[2]

Psychedelics are thought to disable the brain’s filtering ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions, memories and thoughts from ever reaching the conscious mind, an idea first introduced by Aldous Huxley in his essays The Doors of Perception (1954) and Heaven and Hell (1956), later published both in one volume. These signals are presumed to originate in several other functions of the brain, including but not limited to the senses, emotions, memories, and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind.[3]

A definition that more clearly sets apart a classic or true psychedelic is offered by Lester Grinspoon: “a psychedelic drug is one which has small likelihood of causing physical addiction, craving, major physiological disturbances, delirium, disorientation, or amnesia, produces thought, mood, and perceptual changes otherwise rarely experienced except perhaps in dreams, contemplative and religious exaltation, flashes of vivid involuntary memory and acute psychoses”.[4]

Over time, the term psychedelic has been expanded to include many more kinds of substances than originally intended. Many pharmacologists define psychedelic drugs solely as chemicals that have an LSD– or mescaline-like action, working on theserotonin 5-HT2A receptor in the brain. Some people have applied the term psychedelic to other hallucinogens including dissociative NMDA receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine, dextromethorphan, and ketamine, tropane deliriants such as atropine, and other psychoactives such as Amanita muscaria, cannabis (to some extent), and Salvia divinorum.

Traditional use

A couple of doses of Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

Psychedelics have a long history of traditional use in medicine and religion, where they are prized for their perceived ability to promote physical and mental healing. In this context, they are often known asentheogens. Native American practitioners using mescaline-containing cacti (most notably peyote, San Pedro, and Peruvian Torch) have reported success against alcoholism, and Mazatec practitioners routinely use psilocybin mushrooms for divination and healing. Ayahuasca, a psychotropic drug, is still used in Peru for religious festivals.[citation needed]

Examples

Main article: List of psychedelic drugs

Classic psychedelics include LSD ("Acid", "Lucy"), a semi-synthetic psychedelic derived from ergot and discovered by the late Albert Hoffman in 1938 (the psychoactive properties were not, however, established until 1943- see Bicycle Day), psilocybin and psilocin (active constituents of Psilocybe mushrooms, also known as "Magic Mushrooms" or "Shrooms"), mescaline (active constituent of Peyote, San Pedro, andPeruvian Torch cacti), ergolines (active constituents of Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, Morning glory, Rivea Corymbosa, and Ergot) (LSD is also considered to be an ergoline) and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) (anendogenous tryptamine and primary active constituent of Ayahuasca, a traditional shamanic tea brewed from plants containing DMT and harmala alkaloids). A few newer synthetics such as MDMA ("Ecstasy"),2C-B ("Nexus"), DOM ("STP"), and 5-MeO-DIPT ("Foxy Methoxy") have also enjoyed some popularity. Cannabis, one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in the world, produces effects similar to low doses of classic psychedelics, though at higher doses or in susceptible individuals it can be quite psychedelic, depending on the strain.

Pharmacological classes and effects

Serotonergic psychedelics (serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists)

This class of psychedelics includes the major hallucinogens, including the ergolines like LSD and LSA, tryptamine-based compounds like psilocybin and DMT, and phenethylamine-based compounds like mescaline and 2C-B. Many of the tryptamines andphenethylamines cause remarkably similar effects, despite their different chemical structure. However, most users report that the two families have subjectively different qualities in the "feel" of the experience, which are difficult to describe. At lower doses, these include sensory alterations, such as the warping of surfaces, shape suggestibility, and color variations. Users often report intense colors that they have not previously experienced, and repetitive geometric shapes are common. Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental alterations of sensory perception, such as synesthesia or the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions. Some compounds, such as 2C-B, have extremely tight "dose curves", meaning the difference between a non-event and an overwhelming disconnection from reality can be very slight. There can be very substantial differences between the drugs, however. For instance, 5-MeO-DMT rarely produces the visual effects typical of other psychedelics. Some drugs, such as the β-carbolines, produce very different effects from the more standard types of psychedelics.

Empathogen-entactogens (serotonin releasers)

The empathogen-entactogens are phenethylamines such as MDMA (Ecstasy), MDA, and MDEA, among others. Their effects are characterized by feelings of openness, euphoria, empathy, love, heightened self-awareness, and by mild visual distortions. Their adoption by the rave subculture is probably due to the enhancement of the overall social and musical experience. MDA is atypical to this experience, often causing hallucinations and psychedelic effects in equal profundity, but with substantially less mental involvement, and is possibly both a serotonin releaser and 5-HT2A receptor agonist. This gives the user, subjectively, the "best of both worlds".

Cannabinoids (CB-1 cannabinoid receptor agonists)

The cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and related compounds are capable of activating the brain’s endocannabinoid system. Some effects may include a general change in consciousness, mild euphoria, feelings of general well-being, relaxation or stress reduction, enhanced recollection of episodic memory, increased sensuality, increased awareness of sensation, creative or philosophical thinking, disruption of linear memory, paranoia, agitation, and anxiety, potentiation of other psychedelics, and increased awareness of patterns and color. They are more similar to the above categories as dose increases.

Other

Salvia divinorum is an atypical psychedelic. The active molecule in the plant, Salvinorin A, is a kappa opioid receptor agonist, working on a part of the brain that deals with pain. Activation of this receptor is also linked to the dysphoria sometimes experienced by users of opiates either therapeutically or recreationally. This explains, to an extent, the majority of S. divinorum experiences which are reported as negative. An unusual feature of S. divinorum is its high potency (dosage is in the microgram range) and extremely disorienting effects, which often include "entity contact", complete loss of reality-perception and user’s experiencing their consciousness as being housed in different objects i.e. a pane of glass or a pencil. It is also unusual as it is aditerpenoid as opposed to the general alkaloid standard for psychedelics.

See also

References

  1. ^ A. Weil, W. Rosen. (1993), From Chocolate To Morphine:Everything You Need To Know About Mind-Altering Drugs.New York, Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 93
  2. ^ W. Davis (1996), "One River: Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest". New York, Simon and Schuster, Inc. p. 120
  3. ^ Aldous Huxley, The Doors of Perception and Heaven and Hell. ISBN 0-0605951-8-3
  4. ^ L. Grinspoon, J. Bakalar (1979), Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered. p. 9. ISBN 0-9641568-5-7
  • Roberts, Thomas B. (2006). Psychedelic Horizons: Snow White, Immune System, Multistate Mind, New Learning Exeter, UK: Imprint Academic.
  • Stafford, Peter. (2003). Psychedlics. Ronin Publishing, Oakland, California. ISBN 0-914171-18-6.
  • Winkelman, Michael, and Roberts, Thomas B. (editors) (2007) Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments 2 Vols. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.

External links

Pharmacology: Major drug groups

Gastrointestinal tract/metabolism (A)

stomach acid (Antacids, H2 antagonists, Proton pump inhibitors) • AntiemeticsLaxativesAntidiarrhoeals/AntipropulsivesAnti-obesity drugsAnti-diabeticsVitaminsDietary minerals

Blood and blood forming organs (B)

Antithrombotics (Antiplatelets, Anticoagulants, Thrombolytics/fibrinolytics) • Antihemorrhagics (Platelets, Coagulants, Antifibrinolytics)

Cardiovascular system (C)

cardiac therapy/antianginals (Cardiac glycosides, Antiarrhythmics, Cardiac stimulants)

AntihypertensivesDiureticsVasodilatorsBeta blockersCalcium channel blockersrenin-angiotensin system (ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, Renin inhibitors)

Antihyperlipidemics (Statins, Fibrates, Bile acid sequestrants)

Skin (D)

EmollientsCicatrizantsAntipruriticsAntipsoriaticsMedicated dressings

Genitourinary system (G)

Hormonal contraceptionFertility agentsSERMsSex hormones

Endocrine system (H)

Hypothalamic-pituitary hormonesCorticosteroids (Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids) • Sex hormonesThyroid hormones/Antithyroid agents

Infections and infestations (J, P, QI)

Antibiotics (Antimycobacterials) • AntifungalsAntiviralsAntiparasitics (Antiprotozoals, Anthelmintics) • EctoparasiticidesIntravenous immunoglobulinVaccines

Malignant disease (L01-L02)

Anticancer agents (Antimetabolites, Alkylating, Spindle poisons, Antineoplastic, Topoisomerase inhibitors)

Immune disease (L03-L04)

Immunomodulators (Immunostimulants, Immunosuppressants)

Muscles, bones, and joints (M)

Anabolic steroidsAnti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) • AntirheumaticsCorticosteroidsMuscle relaxantsBisphosphonates

Brain and nervous system (N)

AnalgesicsAnesthetics (General, Local) • AnorecticsAnti-ADHD AgentsAntiaddictivesAnticonvulsantsAntidementia AgentsAntidepressantsAntimigraine AgentsAntiparkinson’s AgentsAntipsychoticsAnxiolyticsDepressantsEntactogensEntheogensEuphoriantsHallucinogens (Psychedelics, Dissociatives, Deliriants) • Hypnotics/SedativesMood StabilizersNeuroprotectivesNootropicsNeurotoxinsOrexigenicsSerenicsStimulantsWakefulness-Promoting Agents

Respiratory system (R)

DecongestantsBronchodilatorsCough medicinesH1 antagonists

Sensory organs (S)

OphthalmologicalsOtologicals

Other ATC (V)

AntidotesContrast mediaRadiopharmaceuticalsDressings

[hide]

vde

Recreational drug use

Major Recreational Drugs

Opioids

Diacetylmorphine (heroin) · Oxycodone · Hydrocodone · Codeine · Morphine (Opium)  · Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) · Methadone · Buprenorphine (Subutex, Suboxone) · Propoxyphene (Darvon, Darvocet) ·Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom)

Depressants

Barbiturates · Benzodiazepines · Ethanol (Alcoholic beverages) · GHB · Nonbenzodiazepines · Kava

Stimulants

Amphetamine · Arecoline (Areca) · Betel · Caffeine (CoffeeTea) · Cathinone (Khat) · Cocaine (Coca) · Ephedrine (Ephedra) · Mephedrone · Methamphetamine · Methylphenidate · Nicotine (Tobacco) · Theobromine (Cocoa)

Entactogens

MDA · MDMA (Ecstasy)

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics

Bufotenin (Yopo · Vilca · Psychoactive toads) · DMT (Ayahuasca) · LSD-25 · Mescaline (Peyote · San Pedro · Peruvian Torch) · Psilocybin & Psilocin (Psilocybin mushrooms)

Dissociatives

DXM · Inhalants (Nitrous oxide) · Ketamine · PCP · Salvinorin A (Salvia divinorum)

Deliriants

Datura · Deadly Nightshade · Henbane · Mandrake

Cannabinoids

THC (Cannabis · Hashish · Hash oil)

Pyschoactive Drugs.jpg

Culture and Related Topics

Cannabis

420 · Stoner Film · Spiritual Use of Cannabis · Medical Cannabis · Cannabis Cultivation · Cannabis smoking

Psychedelic

Art · Drug · Experience · Literature · Music

Other

Counterculture of the 1960s · Club Drug · Dance Party · Drug Tourism · Drug Paraphernalia · Hippie · Party and Play · Poly Drug Use · Rave · Sex and Drugs · Spiritual use of drugs

Problems with Drug Use

Abuse · Addiction (Prevention · Opioid Replacement Therapy · Rehabilitation · Responsible Use) · Illegal Trade · Overdose

Legality of Drug Use

International

1961 Narcotic Drugs · 1971 Psychotropic Substances · 1988 Drug Trafficking

State Level

Drug Policy (Prohibition · Supply reduction · Decriminalization) · Policy Reform (Liberalization · Harm Reduction · Demand Reduction)

Other

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Hallucinogens

Psychedelics
5-HT2AR Agonists

Lysergamides: AL-LADALD-52BU-LADCYP-LADDAM-57DiallyllysergamideErgometrine (Ergonovine, Ergobasine) • ETH-LADLAE-32LSA (Ergine, Lysergamide) • LSDLSHLPD-824LSM-775Lysergic Acid 2-Butyl AmideLysergic Acid 2,4-DimethylazetidideMethylergometrineMethylisopropyllysergamideMethysergideMLD-41PARGY-LADPRO-LAD;
Phenethylamines: Aleph2C-B2C-B-FLY2CBFly-NBOMe2C-C2C-D2CD-5EtO2C-E2C-F2C-G2C-I2C-N2C-O2C-O-42C-P2C-T2C-T-22C-T-42C-T-72C-T-82C-T-92C-T-132C-T-152C-T-172C-T-212C-TFM2C-YN2CBCB-NBOMe25B-NBOMe25I-NBMD25I-NBOH25I-NBOMe3C-E3C-PBr-DFLYDESOXYDMMDADMMDA-2DOBDOCDOEFDOETDOFDOIDOMDONDOPRDOTFMEscalineGaneshaHOT-2HOT-7HOT-17IAPIsoproscalineJimscalineLophophineMDAMDEAMDMAMMAMMDAMMDA-2MMDA-3aMMDMAMacromerineMescalineMethallylescalineProscalineTCB-2TFMFlyTMA;
Piperazines: pFPPTMFPP;
Tryptamines: 1-Methyl-5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine2,N,N-TMT4,N,N-TMT4-HO-5-MeO-DMT4-Acetoxy-DET4-Acetoxy-DIPT4-Acetoxy-DMT4-Acetoxy-DPT4-Acetoxy-MiPT4-HO-DPT4-HO-MET4-Propionyloxy-DMT4-Hydroxy-N-Methyl-(α,N-trimethylene)tryptamine5-Me-MIPT5-N,N-TMT5-AcO-DMT5-MeO-2,N,N-TMT5-MeO-4,N,N-TMT5-MeO-α,N,N-TMT5-MeO-α-ET5-MeO-α-MT5-MeO-DALT5-MeO-DET5-MeO-DIPT5-MeO-DMT5-MeO-DPT5-MeO-EiPT5-MeO-MET5-MeO-MIPT5-Methoxy-N-methyl-(α,N-trimethylene)tryptamine7,N,N-TMTα,N,N-TMTα-ETα-MTAL-37350ABaeocystinBufoteninDALTDBTDETDIPTDMTDPTEiPTEthocinEthocybinIprocinMETMiprocinMIPTNorbaeocystinPiPTPsilocinPsilocybin;
Others: AL-38022AIbogaineNoribogaineVoacangine

Dissociatives
NMDAR Antagonists

Adamantanes: AmantadineMemantineRimantadine;
Arylcyclohexylamines: 3-MeO-PCPDieticyclidineEsketamineEticyclidineGacyclidineKetamineNeramexanePhencyclidinePCPrRolicyclidineTenocyclidineTiletamine;
Morphinans: DextrallorphanDextromethorphanDextrorphanMethorphan (Racemethorphan) • Morphan (Racemorphan);
Others: 2-MDP8A-PDHQAptiganelDexoxadrolDizocilpine (MK-801) • EtoxadrolIbogaineMidafotelNEFANitrous OxideNoribogainePerzinfotelRemacemideSelfotelXenon

Deliriants
mAChR Antagonists

3-Quinuclidinyl benzilateAtropineBenactyzineBenzatropineBenzydamineBiperidenBrompheniramineCAR-226,086CAR-301,060CAR-302,196CAR-302,282CAR-302,368CAR-302,537CAR-302,668ChlorpheniramineChloropyramineClemastineCS-27349CyclizineCyproheptadineDicyclomine (Dicycloverine) • DimenhydrinateDiphenhydramineDitranDoxylamineEA-3167EA-3443EA-3580EA-3834ElemicinFlavoxateHydroxyzineHyoscyamineMeclizineMyristicinN-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilateN-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilatePyrilamineOrphenadrineOxybutyninPheniraminePhenyltoloxamineProcyclidinePromethazineScopolamine (Hyoscine) • TolterodineTrihexyphenidylTripelennamineTriprolidineWIN-2299

Miscellaneous

Cannabinoids
CB1R Agonists

CannabinolCP-47,497CP-55,244CP-55,940DMHPHU-210JWH-018JWH-030JWH-073JWH-081JWH-200JWH-250NabiloneNabitanNantradolParahexylTHC (Dronabinol) • WIN-55,212-2

D2R Agonists

ApomorphineBromocriptineCabergolineLisurideMemantinePergolidePiribedilPramipexoleRopiniroleRotigotine
* Also indirect D2 agonists such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, methamphetamine), and precursors (levodopa).

GABAAR Agonists

EszopicloneGaboxadolIbotenic AcidMuscimolZaleplonZolpidemZopiclone

Inhalants
Mixed MOA

AcetoneButaneChloroformDiethyl Ether (Ether) • EnfluraneFreonGasoline (Petrol) • Kerosene (Paraffin) • Propane

κOR Agonists

2-EMSB2-MMSBAlazocineBremazocineButorphanolCyclazocineCyprenorphineDextrallorphanDezocineEnadolineHerkinorinHZ-2IbogaineKetazocineMetazocineNalbuphineNalorphineNoribogainePentazocinePhenazocineSalvinorin ASpiradolineTifluadomU-50,488U-69,593

σR Agonists

DextrallorphanDextromethorphanDextrorphanNoscapine (Narcotine)

Others

EfavirenzGlaucineIsoaminile

Psychedelic experience

For the book authored by Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner and Richard Alpert, see The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead.

Dramatized Experience

The psychedelic experience is characterized by the perception of aspects of one’s mind previously unknown, or by the creative exuberance of the mind liberated from its ordinary restraints. Psychedelic states are one of the stations on the spectrum of experiences elicited by sensory deprivation as well as by psychedelic substances. On that same spectrum will be found illusions, changes of perception, altered states of awareness, but there are many common themes, and ranges from a sense of connectedness to everything in the immediate vicinity, to a sense of oneness with everything in the universe. Potentially, the range of the drug-induced psychedelic experience goes far beyond drugs.

Some who undertake such experiences come to see them as an ordeal, and mentally overbearing. For many, such experiences come to be seen as personal re-enactments of a hero’s journey. Spiritual practices and psychedelic drugs can be used as a means to achieve states of mind in which novel perceptions can arise, unhindered by everyday mental filters and processes. The mental and emotional impact of the experience is positive and enduring for many.

Research that was done during the 1960s suggested that psychedelic drugs might have medical uses. More recently, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), the Heffter Research Institute, and the Beckley Foundation have continued studying the effects of the psychedelic experience.

Levels of psychedelic experience

The Erowid Psychoactive Vaults discuss Psychedelic Experience in an FAQ that partially overviews ideas expressed in Timothy Leary‘s book The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. They classified five levels of psychedelic experience.

Level 1

This level produces a mild ‘stoning’ effect, with some visual enhancement (e.g. brighter colors) Some short term memory anomalies. Left and right brain communication changes causing music to sound ‘wider’. Can be achieved with moderate to high doses of cannabis or low doses of psilocybin.[1]

Level 2

Bright colors, and visuals (ie. things start to move and breathe) some 2 dimensional patterns become apparent upon shutting eyes. Confused or reminiscent thoughts. Change of short term memory leads to continual distractive thought patterns. Vast increase in abstract thought becomes apparent as the natural brain filter is bypassed. Can be achieved with very high doses of cannabis, small doses of psilocybin, mescaline, or LSD as well as regular doses of MDMA.

Level 3

Very obvious visuals, everything looking curved and/or warped patterns and kaleidoscopes seen on walls, faces etc. Some mild hallucinations such as rivers flowing in wood grained or ‘mother of pearl’ surfaces. Closed eye hallucinations become 3 dimensional. There is some confusing of the senses (ie. seeing sounds as colors etc.) Time distortions and `moments of eternity`. Movement at times becomes extremely difficult (too much effort required) Can be achieved with normal doses of psilocybin,mescaline, or LSD.[1]

Level 4

Strong hallucinations, that is, objects morphing into other objects. Destruction or multiple splitting of the ego. (Things start talking to you, or you find that you are feeling contradictory things simultaneously) Some loss of reality. Time becomes meaningless. Out of body experiences and extra-sensory perception type phenomena. Blending of the senses.[1]

Level 5

Total loss of visual connection with reality. The senses cease to function in the normal way. One may feel like they are merging with space, other objects, or the universe, or feel oneness with the world. There are powerful, and sometimes brutal, psycho-physical reactions interpreted by some users as reliving their own birth. Feelings of reaching to the beginning or the end of space and time. The loss of reality becomes so extreme that it becomes ineffable. Dream or movie-like states, people have been reported seeing themselves in entirely different settings than their original setting. Many people experience religious phenomenon at this level. Often mentioned are an "all-powerful presence" or a "universal knowledge" which many equate to their idea of God or enlightenment. During experiences caused by substances such as DMT (which is an active ingredient in Ayahuasca), many people encounter seemingly conscious beings or entities that seem to be alien or something stranger and manufacture visual patterns of objects that are self-aware themselves inside an incredibly strange and alien reality. These experiences cause people to experience an extra-dimensional reality of geometric patterns. Earlier levels are relatively easy to describe in terms of measurable changes in perception and thought patterns. "Ego loss", or complete dissolution of one’s awareness of the existence of self, is an essential trait of level 5 experiences; the boundaries between "self" and encompassing reality cease to exist, and all that one is conscious of is the abstract manifestations of the hallucination. Thoughts are not processed or realized in words or an "inner voice", as in everyday life; in the midst of a level 5 hallucination, it is essentially impossible to distinguish conscious thought from the hallucination itself. This feeling has been described, with tryptamine-based hallucinogens like LSD or high doses of psilocybin, as a sense of "oneness" with the universe; with extremely powerful entheogens such as DMT orsalvia divinorum, the resultant hallucination is difficult to describe, but has been likened by some to being "transformed into a Picasso painting". Many people claim to have spoken to intelligent entities during their trips, to have experienced alternate dimensions, or to have existed for thousands of years – often not as a human but as an abstract entity such as a shadow or paint – though the trip itself, in the case of salvia and DMT, lasted only five to ten minutes. This effect can be produced in high doses of LSD, mescaline and psilocybin. It can actually be a common occurrence in average doses of DMT and salvia divinorum.

Huxley’s "Mind at Large"

Main article: Mind at Large

Literary man Aldous Huxley talks in his book The Doors of Perception about the Mind at Large. This is Huxley’s theoretical state of mind which humans are normally obliged to, due to learned social norms and partially due to their biology.[2] Huxley believed that the central nervous system‘s main function was to filter through irrelevancies and useless knowledge, by shutting out the majority of what we should actually perceive at any given point in time.[3]

Through the pages of his book, Huxley talks about the business of survival, and the information that is the most useful for survival. He believed that this was one element which was forcing the brain to filter out these perceptions. Huxley also believed that man was partially responsible for it, by asserting that society has made a symbolic system which structures our reality, in order to achieve a "reduced awareness."[4]

Aldous Huxley discusses thousands of other worlds that were in some sense interconnected with our own. He said that humans dynamically make contact with these other worlds, all of which are with the Mind at Large. He believed that there were multiple ways of contacting these other worlds such as genetics, hypnosis, and the use of psychedelic drugs.[5]

He then summarizes the psychedelic experience for himself, using the four statements below:[6]

  • The ability to remember and to "think straight" is little if at all reduced. (Listening to the recordings of my conversation under the influence of the drug, I cannot discover that I was then any stupider than I am at ordinary times.)
  • Visual impressions are greatly intensified and the eye recovers some of the perceptual innocence of childhood, when the sensum was not immediately and automatically subordinated to the concept. Interest in space is diminished and interest in time falls almost to zero.
  • Though the intellect remains unimpaired and though perception is enormously improved, the will suffers a profound change for the worse. The mescalin taker sees no reason for doing anything in particular and finds most of the causes for which, at ordinary times, he was prepared to act and suffer, profoundly uninteresting. He can’t be bothered with them, for the good reason that he has better things to think about.
  • These better things may be experience (as I experienced them) "out there," or "in here," or in both worlds, the inner and the outer, simultaneously or successively. That they are better seems to be self-evident to all mescalin takers who come to the drug with a sound liver and an untroubled mind.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Erowid 4f. Psychedelic Level
  2. ^ Huxley 1954, p. 23
  3. ^ Huxley 1954, p. 22
  4. ^ Huxley 1954, p. 23
  5. ^ Huxley 1954, p. 24
  6. ^ Huxley 1954, pp. 25-6

References

External links

Shulgin Rating Scale

PLUS / MINUS (+/-)
The level of effectiveness of a drug that indicates a threshold action. If a higher dosage produces a greater response, then the plus/minus (+/-) was valid. If a higher dosage produces nothing, then this was a false positive.
PLUS ONE (+)
The drug is quite certainly active. The chronology can be determined with some accuracy, but the nature of the drug’s effects are not yet apparent.
PLUS TWO (++)
Both the chronology and the nature of the action of a drug are unmistakably apparent. But you still have some choice as to whether you will accept the adventure, or rather just continue with your ordinary day’s plans (if you are an experienced researcher, that is). The effects can be allowed a predominant role, or they may be repressed and made secondary to other chosen activities.
PLUS THREE (+++)
Not only are the chronology and the nature of a drug’s action quite clear, but ignoring its action is no longer an option. The subject is totally engaged in the experience, for better or worse.
PLUS FOUR (++++)
A rare and precious transcendental state, which has been called a ‘peak experience’, a ‘religious experience,’ ‘divine transformation,’ a ‘state of Samadhi’ and many other names in other cultures. It is not connected to the +1, +2, and +3 of the measuring of a drug’s intensity. It is a state of bliss, a participation mystique, a connectedness with both the interior and exterior universes, which has come about after the ingestion of a psychedelic drug, but which is not necessarily repeatable with a subsequent ingestion of that same drug. If a drug (or technique or process) were ever to be discovered which would consistently produce a plus four experience in all human beings, it is conceivable that it would signal the ultimate evolution, and perhaps the end of, the human experiment.
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