Category: NEW WORLD ORDER



Large-Scale Methamphetamine Manufacture

Reductive Amination of P2P through Catalytic Hydrogenation Using Adams Catalyst

Text and Photos by Louis Freeh, HTML by Rhodium

Table of Contents

1.0 Purpose:

To describe the manufacture and application of platinum dioxide, commonly known as Adams catalyst or platinum black, with the goal of opening alternative synthesis procedures for the manufacture of illicit recreational drugs. It is this writer’s hope that these procedures will result in the undermining of the Drug Inquisition, which has caused the loss of freedom for many good people. A further goal is to demonstrate to those in law enforcement that knowledge is, in fact, the ultimate power and that no number of self-righteous goons with guns can defeat a resourceful and knowledgeable mind. There is no new chemistry here; in fact, most of it is almost 100 years old. The contribution this writer hopes he is making is in simplifying the equipment and procedures to the point where those without extensive chemistry backgrounds will be able to manufacture high-quality phenethanamines in high volume to compete with the poisonous stuff one finds on the street. The text is aimed at those who have completed a college level organic chemistry course and have some experience and an interest in laboratory equipment and procedures.

1.1 Scope

The following procedures will be described.

  • Dissolution of platinum metal in aqua regia to produce chloroplatinic acid, then ammonium chloroplatinate.
  • Oxidation of ammonium chloroplatinate to platinum dioxide.
  • Reductive amination of P2P using platinum dioxide catalyst.
  • Manufacture of methylamine using formaldehyde and ammonium chloride.
  • Manufacture of 1-Phenyl-2-Propanone using benzaldehyde and nitroethane.
  • Practical manufacture of 70% nitric acid

1.2 Acknowledgements

This writer thanks Uncle Fester, whose widely read books on methamphetamine manufacture have provided an invaluable source of research information collected in one volume. In addition, this writer thanks Dr. Alexander Shulgin, whose practice of the purest sort of science-that motivated by curiosity and a deep thirst for knowledge-in the face of government oppression has earned him my deepest admiration and respect. This document is dedicated to Senators Orrin Hatch and Diane Feinstein, whose tireless efforts to eliminate the vestigial remains of our civil liberties in the cause of state expediency has pissed me off enough to take the time and effort to produce this text. In fact, I have named the reductive amination step the Hatch-Feinstein Reduction.

2.0 Manufacture of Platinum Dioxide

2.1 Discussion

As those familiar with clandestine drug manufacture are aware, the traditional catalysts used in reductive amination procedures, Raney nickel and palladium-on-carbon, are no longer available due to essential-chemical prohibition by the anti-drug thugs. Thus the need for an alternative catalyst which can be manufactured utilizing common materials and equipment. Platinum dioxide has many advantages in it’s application to reductive aminations:

It can be made using common materials and easily obtainable equipment.

Reactions are performed at room temperature and at low pressure (<30 psi), thus eliminating the requirement for simultaneous heating and agitation and opening the door to simple high-volume manufacturing. One can easily perform 25-30 mole reactions using a 5 gallon paint shaker for agitation.

  • The catalyst is reusable up to six times.
  • Requires a catalyst density of only 1g/mole of precursor.
  • Provides a product yield of approximately 1kg/g of catalyst, and a 75% mole-to-mole yield from precursor-to-product (the reaction yield is 90%, the balance being lost during processing and crystallization) when manufacturing methamphetamine.
  • Is used with common ethanol solvent, eliminating odd smells and fire hazards.
  • Platinum dioxide catalyst also performs well in the manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but under slightly different conditions.

2.2 Review of alternative procedures

We will focus upon the manufacture of methamphetamine due to the current high volume requirement and the increasing attention it is drawing from the government antidrug machine.

  • The best route for manufacturing methamphetamine is the direct reduction of the hydroxyl on the L-ephedrine sulfate sidechain in glacial acetic acid using 70% perchloric acid as a promoter and 5% palladium-on-carbon as the catalyst. Vigorous agitation, pressurization with hydrogen to 30 psi, and heating to 90°C results in an 85-90% yield of non-racemic methamphetamine, with a 70% yield-to-product. Due to it’s non-racemic chirality, this meth is stronger than that produced by any other non-stereospecific reduction technique. Typically, this reaction is performed in a 4000ml filter flask placed into a 6 gal aluminum pot containing water. The pot is heated on a stirring hotplate and agitation is provided by a stirring bar magnetically coupled through the non-ferrous aluminum. A solution of 1.25 liters of glacial acetic acid, 120ml of 68-72% perchloric acid, 166g (one mole) of L-ephedrine sulfate, and 16g of 5% palladium-on-carbon is pressurized to 20-30psi with hydrogen gas and reduced for 2-3 hours. The catalyst is filtered out, the filtrate made basic with 50% lye solution then extracted with toluene and stripped of solvent, the base is purified by distillation and crystallized in acetone for the hydrochloride salt. Despite what has been written by others, this reaction does not work with ephedrine hydrochloride because the hydrochloride ion poisons the catalyst, whereas the sulfate ion may actually act as a promoter (I have not tried it, but in theory sulfuric acid may be substituted for perchloric acid as a promoter). This reaction will, however, perform well using any ephedrine base. Due to the requirement for simultaneous heating, stirring, and pressurization, this reaction is limited to 1-3 mole batches. In addition, the palladium-on-carbon catalyst is not reusable without processing.
  • The most common current method of meth production is the direct reduction of the ephedrine hydrochloride hydroxyl using 57% hydriodic acid and red phosphorous in a 4-1-1 formula (4 lb ephedrine, 1 gal 57% hydriodic acid, 1 lb red phosphorous). This is an inefficient method, yielding 55% d-methamphetamine at the very best, which has been exploited as far as it can go due to the attention paid to the precursor and essential chemicals used in this reaction and the increasing diversion of Chinese ephedrine supplies to our industrious neighbors in Mexico. In it’s favor, however, is the fact that one person can manufacture 4 lb of very poisonous meth per day if they skip the purification step. This is a perfect example of Gresham’s Law at work (the cheap bad stuff drives out the expensive good stuff).
  • The P2P reaction, for many years the preferred method for making methamphetamine, requires 1-Phenyl-2-Propanone (impossible to buy, easy to make), 40% methylamine solution (impossible to buy, easy to make), large amounts of Raney nickel (hard to buy, difficult to make) and approximately 2000 psi of hydrogen along with simultaneous agitation and heating. There are many limitations in this process, not least of which is equipment construction. [This is a very limited truth, as there are many other ways of reductively aminate P2P with methylamine which uses much more readily available materials than Raney-Nickel/hydrogen gas /Rhodium]
  • The lithium-in-ammonia reduction. This is an elegant, high-yield reduction, but it is gawdawful stinky and must be done a long way from civilization. The volume of anhydrous ammonia required per mole of ephedrine relegates this procedure to the low-volume category.

2.3 Equipment

The following equipment is required:

  • A stirring hotplate.
  • A 2″ Teflon-coated magnetic stirring bar with a center lifting ridge. This is simply a ridge around the center of the stirring bar that raises it above the bottom surface, thus decreasing friction and providing for easier stirring of thick solutions/suspensions. A 2.5-3.0″ stirring bar will also be used and one should also have a Teflon-coated stirring bar chaser which allows one to retrieve stirring bars from solutions. This is an invaluable item for general lab work.
  • 1000ml and 5000ml Pyrex graduated beakers. The 1000ml beaker should be thick-walled Pyrex as it needs to be slightly more heavy-duty. Do not use ordinary glass or Mason jars as we will be heating it directly on the hotplate.
  • A jewelers oven. These ovens are available from jeweler’s supply companies. Look in the yellow pages. They typically have a meter which monitors the temperature from 0-1200°C and a rotary adjustment knob which controls the temperature. The inside is lined with firebrick, as is the door, and there is a small vent hole at the top. Buy one with an interior width and depth of at least 9″. They cost about $400 and can be purchased by anyone. An extra firebrick may be required to center the oxidation vessel. Firebricks can be found at most fireplace/woodstove stores.
  • One 1000ml round-bottom flask.
  • An 8″x8″x2″ Corningware casserole dish with Pyrex top. This item is important because it is the vessel we will use to perform the oxidation procedure, which takes place at 520°C. Ordinary glass will shatter at these temperatures, and Pyrex does not hold up much better. Corningware will stand up to these temperatures and heating cycles, but just barely. The Pyrex tops that come with the casserole dish often crack or break after only one or two reactions, so extra tops should be purchased. A ceramic or clay vessel would be better, but are difficult to find in the correct size. The Corningware dishes are cheap, disposable, and can be purchased anywhere.
  • A 4″ diameter Buchner.
  • A 1000ml filter flask.
  • Whatman Qualitative 5 filter papers. Purchase the size that fits your largest Buchner and cut to fit for the smaller Buchners. These filters will catch the finest particles of catalyst. Equivalent filter paper is made by other manufacturers.
  • A mortar-and-pestle set, medium sized. These can be found at many organic food and food-supplement stores, as well as in children’s science shops.

2.4 Chemicals

The following chemicals will be used:

Laboratory grade 37% hydrochloric acid. One can try hardware store muriatic acid if it is 30% or better. It is unknown what the impurities in the cheap hardware-store stuff may do to the catalyst, but many times the only difference between laboratory grade chemicals and commercial grade stuff is the fact that the laboratory grade chemicals have been tested to make sure there’s nothing strange in it. It may have come out of the same tanker car, but it was tested.

One will need 200ml of 70% nitric acid in order to make aqua regia. Jewelers can buy this in very small quantities for making aqua regia, which is required to dissolve metals like platinum and rhodium for alloying or plating. Otherwise, one can whip up a batch fairly easily. SeeSection 6.0 for instructions.

About 3 kg of sodium or potassium nitrate. This is our oxidizer, and it is used at a 10:1 weight ratio with ammonium chloroplatinate (which we will make). It is also used to manufacture 70% nitric acid. Sodium nitrate is preferred, but only because this writer has used it extensively. Use the powdered form as it requires less grinding and seems to work better than the beaded form often found in university labs.

About 3 kg of ammonium chloride will be used. This common salt is used for metal preparation and making chilling solutions. It should not be difficult to find. Try the drugstore or pharmacy.

2.5 Dissolution of Platinum in Aqua Regia

The first step is to dissolve the platinum, either in coin form or as spent catalyst, in aqua regia to make chloroplatinic acid. This is not as easy as may first appear. Platinum coins are especially difficult to dissolve. Left on it’s own, it could take months for the platinum to completely dissolve. Heating to just below the boiling point of the acid will increase the activity of the acid many times and will let the chemist dissolve his platinum coins in 3-4 days. Spent catalyst may also be recycled, and will dissolve much more quickly than coins. This procedure must be performed inside a properly functioning fume cabinet or the fumes will kill you. See the appendix for construction details.

Place a 1000ml Pyrex beaker on the stirring hotplate. Place a 2″ Teflon-coated stirbar with a center ridge inside the beaker. If one is using fresh 1oz platinum coins, gently place two of them (64g) in the beaker. There should be room for the stirbar to turn without touching the coins. Two coins is the very most one should attempt to dissolve in 800ml of aqua regia as additional platinum will not dissolve and react but will remain as unreacted particles in suspension, screwing up subsequent procedures. (If one is recycling spent platinum dioxide catalyst, wait until after the aqua regia is made and stirring, but not heating, is begun before adding the spent catalyst in small portions.) Add 200ml of 70% nitric acid. Add 600ml of laboratory grade 37% hydrochloric acid. Once the platinum and aqua regia are inside the beaker, fill a 1000ml round-bottom flask half full of cold tap water, dry the outside with a paper towel, and carefully place it on top of the beaker. Make sure there is an air-gap at the pouring lip of the beaker so no pressure builds up. This is our makeshift condenser, designed to condense and recycle the aqua regia while the platinum dissolves. Without the condenser, the aqua regia will quickly boil off without dissolving much platinum. Do not fill the 1000ml flask to more than 1/3 or ½ full or it will become top-heavy and tip over from the vibration. Begin heating while stirring, slowly raising the temperature over several hours until the first signs of boiling begin. On my stirring hotplate, an 800watt unit, the heat setting is 3.5-3.75. The solution will turn orange, and then a very deep ruby red. Do not leave the reaction unattended for more than a few minutes, and turn it off at night. When recycling spent catalyst, a small amount of contaminant may appear on the surface. Let the beaker cool until it can be handled and then filter the liquid through your 4″ Buchner using filter paper, holding the coins in place with the Teflon-coated stirbar chaser. Do not use any metal, as it can contaminate the batch. A more porous grade of filter paper may be used. Pour the filtrate back into the beaker with the coins and continue the heating and stirring. It should take 3-4 days to dissolve two coins. The variables affecting dissolution speed are surface area, acid temperature, and stirring effectiveness.

One needs to mix up a saturated solution of ammonium chloride in distilled water. Pour 3000ml of distilled water into a 5000ml beaker (or a 1gal pickle jar) along with a 3″ stirring bar. Place on a stirplate if available, otherwise stir using a clean spatula from the kitchen. With stirring, slowly add ammonium chloride to the water until it will not dissolve any more. Continue stirring occasionally until the solution comes up to room temperature once again, then add more ammonium chloride until no more will dissolve. Repeat one more time. When finished, the chemist should have a room temperature solution with a little undissolved ammonium chloride at the bottom.

Once the platinum is completely dissolved, remove the condenser flask and allow the remaining acid to boil off until it is all gone and there remains in the bottom of the beaker a grayish-red-black layer of ugly metallic stuff. This is chloroplatinic acid. Be aware that the fumes created when boiling off the acid will create large, very visible clouds of acid-laced fog if exhausted into cool, still air. In addition, all nearby plant life will turn brown and quickly die. If performed while a stiff breeze is blowing, this hazard is eliminated. Let the beaker cool down, add 500ml of 37% hydrochloric acid, let it react with the chloroplatinic acid, then boil off the acid almost to dryness. Do this three times to remove any trace of nitric acid, boiling off the acid to dryness on the third boil. Once cool, add small portions of ammonium chloride solution and work it with the end of a stirbar chaser. Continue adding ammonium chloride solution until all of the chloroplatinic acid has reacted and there are no solid chunks left. Decant into another clean beaker or jar as the beaker fills. A bright yellow suspension will form as the chloroplatinic acid reacts with the ammonium ion to make ammonium chloroplatinate. Do not get in a hurry. It can take over an hour for the chloroplatinic acid to completely react. Black particles or other discoloration is a sign of incomplete dissolution of the platinum. Remove the water by vacuum filtering through the 4″ Buchner with Qualitative 5 filter paper using a water aspirator or vacuum pump. This also may take several hours. Remove the pasty ammonium chloroplatinate cake and break it up as finely as possible using a clean razor knife in a glass bowl or plate. It will be difficult to handle and a little sticky. At this point one must improvise a little. I use a vacuum oven purchased at a mining equipment sale (mines do a lot of inorganic chemistry) to gently vacuum dry the ammonium chloroplatinate overnight at low heat. Those without vacuum ovens should use an infrared lamp placed near the plate and be patient. Do not overheat, as ammonium chloroplatinate will decompose. Look for any brown or black discoloration as a sign of excess heat. Break up into smaller chunks as the paste dries. Dried ammonium chloroplatinate is hard, granular, and dark yellow in color.

Ammonium chloroplatinate is a convenient form in which to store catalyst, as platinum dioxide catalyst can be extremely pyrophorric (this stuff explodes!). Store in a cool, dry place and oxidize it as the need for fresh catalyst arises. If one started with 64g of platinum coins (Pt, 195g/mole, 0.328mole), one should end up with slightly less than 0.328 mole of ammonium chloroplatinate ((NH4)2PtCl6, 443.9g/mole), or about 140g. This is enough to make about 50g of useful catalyst, which translates to 150-300 moles worth of reactions, or about 40-80lb of very pure methamphetamine, depending upon how many times one is able to reuse the catalyst.

2.6 Oxidation of Ammonium Chloroplatinate to Platinum Dioxide

This is where the rubber meets the road in this procedure. We must mix our ammonium chloroplatinate with sodium nitrate, our oxidizer, and burn it. In the old days, when Adams invented this catalyst, they used a copper-alloy block with a crucible and a hole drilled for the insertion of a thermometer to measure the temperature. Our procedure isn’t much better, but if Adams could do it with crude equipment, perhaps we can optimistically expect to do as well. At this point, your humble writer must point out that he has never made a batch of catalyst that did not work, even though experiments were performed over the temperature range of 480-530°C. This is not due to some extraordinary intelligence or experience. It is because this is easy to do. The accompanying poor quality picture shows new brown catalyst on the left and spent black catalyst on the right.

The ammonium chloroplatinate must come into “intimate contact” with the oxidizer, according to Adams. To accomplish this, place 50g of sodium nitrate in a layer at the bottom of your mortar-and-pestle set. Add 5g of ammonium chloroplatinate chunks to the bed and grind until all chunks are thoroughly blended into a homogenous yellow powder. Be thorough here, as it will pay off in catalyst yield. Shake the mixture into the 8″x8″ Corningware casserole dish. Do this five times for a total of 25g of ammonium chloroplatinate and 250g of sodium nitrate. Do not attempt to do more than this-it makes a terrible mess inside the oven. A safer amount is 20g, but 25g batches will work reliably if the oven is controlled properly.

Spread the yellow powder evenly across the bottom of the casserole dish, replace the Pyrex cover, and place the dish into the jeweler’s oven. The idea here is to place the dish so the temperature on the front meter accurately reflects the temperature inside the vessel. If one has a large oven with the temperature sensor in the center, adjust the position of the dish with varying thicknesses of firebrick. If the heating element runs directly beneath the dish, spot heating should be avoided by placing a thin firebrick across the bottom. We are operating close to the temperature limits of the vessel material, so a little diligence is required. The oven should be placed inside the fume cabinet where the noxious fumes produced can be exhausted, preferably into a stiff wind at night. Secure the latch on the oven. On my oven, the temperature control is graduated from 1 to 10. I set the control on 3.75, having learned the hard way that too-rapid heating will shatter the casserole dish. The temperature will slowly climb over a period of 2.5-3.0 hours to 520°C, at which point the heating element is turned off and the chemist leaves the oven to cool down overnight. He does not open the door of the oven, even a crack, until the temperature is all the way down. Failure to exercise patience will be swiftly punished with a shattered dish and a nasty mess. One should watch the oven carefully, noting that the heating element cycles on and off and correlating that with changes on the temperature indicator. This will improve one’s precision in controlling the oven temperature in the event one should desire to experiment, which this writer encourages. A plume of brown fumes should begin to rise from the exhaust hole at the top as the oxidation begins. This usually occurs starting at 380-400°C and can continue all the way up to about 500°C, but not always, and not predictably. This writer has discovered empirically that the temperature range over which catalyst can be successfully produced is 490-520°C, with the best catalyst being made at 510°C. As the meters used on these ovens are the inexpensive current-shunt type, they are accurate to about ±2%, which is about 10°C either way, so there can be as much as 20°C variance in the temperature indicator from unit to unit. In addition, the temperature sensors used have tolerances that can stack up in the wrong direction. The point here is that your oven may read differently than mine, so one should be observant and adjust the setting based upon the results of the previous oxidation. If the stuff turned out burnt, lower the temperature.

Open the door-latch of the cold oven and remove the casserole dish. Pry the top off gently with a screwdriver, as it will be fused with white sodium nitrate residue. Inside will be a layer of hardened sodium nitrate mixed with and covering a layer of brown-black powder which will have spattered and coated the inside surface. Pour some distilled water into the top and gently work it with a plastic spoon to dissolve the sodium nitrate and free up the platinum dioxide particles. Carefully pour the resulting liquid into the clean 5000ml beaker. Repeat to recover the last traces of catalyst stuck to the cover. Pour distilled water into the casserole dish until the bottom layer is covered and break up the hard layer as gently as possible with a clean screwdriver. Work the chunks until they are broken up into pieces small enough to handle. Using surgical gloves, very carefully place the larger pieces into the 5000ml beaker, rinsing one’s fingers with distilled water into the beaker. Once the large pieces have been removed, add water and work the dish until one is satisfied as much catalyst as possible has been recovered. Add distilled water to the large beaker until it is almost full and stir until all of the sodium nitrate has dissolved and one is left with a dark brown suspension that gradually settles to the bottom of the beaker. Let it settle overnight then carefully decant the water without disturbing the catalyst layer at the bottom. Decant as much water as possible without losing catalyst, then refill with more distilled water, stir thoroughly for 15 minutes, then let it settle overnight once again. Do this four times to insure all the nitrate is dissolved and removed. Successive washings will result in the catalyst taking longer and longer to settle out, until, on the fourth one, the catalyst may become colloidal and not settle out completely. Using the Whatman Qualitative 5 filter paper and a clean Buchner, filter the catalyst suspension, washing the beaker with distilled water to catch the last grains. One should now have a layer of wet, medium-to-dark brown catalyst in the Buchner. Gently work the small cake loose onto a small glass or porcelain plate and spread it out using a fine-tipped razor-knife. Let it dry in a warm, but not hot, place. Once dry, carefully scrape the loose powder into a clean spice bottle, which makes an ideal container. Do not let it fall freely through the air more than a few inches as this can, and will, result in a display of pyrotechnics as your catalyst explodes while you watch. This is especially true when the temperature drops below freezing or one is in a very dry area. One should now have about 11g of platinum dioxide (PtO2, 227.09g/mole, 0.048mole) for a yield of about 85%.

Repeat the above three steps until all the ammonium chloroplatinate is used. One should have 50-60g of catalyst in the form of a very finely divided dry brown powder. Store in a cool, dry place and avoid static discharges. There is some debate about whether or not this catalyst decreases in activity level over periods of time exceeding 6-12 months. It has been this writer’s experience that the catalyst itself maintains it’s activity level as long as it has not been pre- reduced or otherwise exposed to concentrated hydrogen. There are many other factors that can easily cause a decrease in yield or an increase in reduction time that can be misinterpreted as a change in catalyst activity. This catalyst is very sensitive to the level of self-oxidation or residual acids in the P2P. In addition, slight variations in agitation effectiveness can appear to be catalyst-related.

3.0 The Hatch-Feinstein Reduction

Application of Platinum Dioxide Catalyst to the Reductive Amination of 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P). In this section the chemist pre-reduces the catalyst and reductively aminates both test and production quantities of P2P.

3.1 Discussion

The prudent chemist always runs a small test batch before using fresh chemical components, in this case either P2P, methylamine, or catalyst. In addition, there is a requirement for a pre-reduction vessel for the catalyst. This writer will tell you flat-out that the literature on the subject of pre-reduction is wrong. First of all, this catalyst must be pre-reduced in distilled water, not ethanol. Dropping this catalyst into alcohol is an excellent way to start a fire. Although this catalyst is gradually reduced down to platinum during it’s exposure to hydrogen, only in the very poorest of catalyst does this occur in less than three uses. In every case, however, the catalyst required pre-reduction. The amount of pre-reduction required varies from batch to batch and the chemist must learn to tell from observation when the catalyst is ready for use.

3.2 Test-vessel construction

One must construct some simple equipment in order to run test-batches and pre-reduce catalyst in appropriate amounts.

Fortunately, the equipment can be fairly simple because we are only required to provide agitation and low pressurization. Eliminating the requirement for heating simplifies things immensely. As one can observe in the accompanying picture, this writer constructed a vessel out of an old 3000ml reagent flask. It has the advantages of being narrow, thick-walled, and having a flat top. The bottom plate is 3/16″ aluminum plate , the connecting rods are 3/16″ all-thread found at the auto parts store. The top plate is ¼” aluminum plate recovered from the scrapyard. The gauge is a -30″Hg to +30″Hg, liquid-filled, combination vacuum/pressure unit. They cost about $30 at industrial equipment supply stores. The pipe is common ¼” NPT wrapped in Teflon tape. Everything is connected together with a brass 4-way fuel block with ¼” NPT thread available at the auto parts store. The valves on either end are common gas valves found at welding equipment suppliers. One can use oxyacetylene valves as they are ¼” NPT on one side and gas thread on the other. This allows one to make a direct connection between the hydrogen tank regulator and the vessel using the red hose of an oxyacetylene torch set. The same valve on the other end is fitted with a 3/8″ nipple for pulling a vacuum. The rubber gasket used to seal the aluminum top-plate and the bottle-top is cut from 1/8 ” rubber gasket material found in the plumbing department of the hardware store. One must adapt this design to the equipment available. A 2000ml filter-flask can be made into an excellent vessel by sealing off the side-nipple (hose, screw, and clamps) and using a modified rubber stopper on the top opening.

A smaller glass vessel is also required for pre-reducing 1g batches of catalyst. The vessel should be about 500ml or less in volume. This is necessary because of the physical limitations of attempting to pre-reduce tiny volumes of catalyst in a large vessel, especially considering the fact that one must determine visually the pre- reduction state of the catalyst. The bottom plate must be made of aluminum so a magnetic stirring bar can be used for agitation. The unit is placed on a stir-plate, the air evacuated, then charged with hydrogen and agitated until the catalyst is pre-reduced.

3.3 Pre-reduction of platinum dioxide

Much of the existing literature concerning Adam’s catalyst describes pre-reducing the catalyst in ethanol and/or allowing the catalyst to pre-reduce in situ. My experience indicates both techniques are wrong. Attempting to pre-reduce this catalyst in ethanol resulted in several small fires and explosions. Attempting to pre-reduce the catalyst in situ worked on only one batch of catalyst, which was the poorest catalyst made.

The procedure that works reliably, every time, is to pre-reduce in distilled water. The pre-reduction process involves exposing the catalyst to hydrogen gas under pressure, resulting in a change in both color and character of the platinum dioxide. Carefully weigh out 1g of catalyst on a triple-beam scale. Place the catalyst into a small (50ml) beaker and add 10ml of distilled water. Carefully pour the resulting slurry into the small pre-reduction vessel through a small funnel, chasing the slurry into the vessel with an additional 10ml of distilled water. Place a small Teflon-coated stirbar into the vessel and seal by carefully cinching down on the retaining nuts on the top plate. Make sure the hydrogen gas valve is closed and the vacuum valve with the nipple is open. Attach the 3/8″ hose from your vacuum aspirator and pull a vacuum in the vessel to about 25″Hg. Close the vacuum valve and watch the gauge for a minute. If it doesn’t move, your vessel is holding a vacuum. Now open the hydrogen tank valve and increase the pressure at the second stage of the regulator to 30psi maximum. Open the hydrogen inlet valve on the catalyst vessel, pressurizing to 30psi. Close the vessel hydrogen valve and watch the gauge for a drop in pressure. If there is a leak, one can find it rapidly using dishwashing soap mixed with water in a squirt bottle. Once the vessel is pressurized with no leaks, begin stirring as rapidly as possible. The catalyst will be thrown against the interior wall of the vessel as it is splashed around. Adjust the position of the vessel on the stir-plate to maximize the splash. The catalyst will begin to turn from brown to black in color. After an additional amount of time, small particles of catalyst will begin “sticking” to the vessel wall, soon forming a “ring” of tiny black flakes or particles. Once most of the catalyst is in the “flake” form and all of the catalyst has turned from brown to black, it is pre-reduced.

Over-reduction can easily take place, and as this drastically decreases the activity level of the catalyst and reduces it’s useful life, this is to be avoided. The catalyst will pre-reduce more quickly during warm weather, but the pre- reduction time varies more from batch-to-batch than with any other factor. One should use 20ml of distilled water for every gram of catalyst. Using less increases the chance of over-reduction while excessive water requires the addition of more ethanol to the reaction solution to maintain homogeneity, thus decreasing catalyst density and increasing reduction time. Typical pre-reduction times are 10-25 minutes.

Once the chemist is satisfied that his catalyst is pre-reduced, he makes sure all hydrogen valves are closed and then slowly opens the vacuum valve to release the excess hydrogen. One should keep in mind that hydrogen reacts with oxygen to make water, with an accompanying release of energy–one should be careful when opening hydrogen gas valves into an atmosphere containing oxygen. Once the pressurized hydrogen has been released, it is time to move the catalyst to the reaction vessel. The best way to do this is to partly fill the pre-reduction vessel with 95% ethanol, then pour the slurry into the reaction vessel using a funnel. Repeat until all the catalyst is picked up. The chemist is now ready to make his product.

3.4 Primary reaction vessel construction

The design of one’s primary reduction vessel should be tailored to the batch sizes and the quality of agitation one desires.

This writer constructed an adequate reaction vessel using a section of 8″ stainless-steel pipe found at the scrapyard along with some stainless plate and threaded fittings (see pix).

In addition, a rocker was constructed using common steel plate, a gearmotor, and some pulleys purchased at the hardware store. A cyclic rate of 100 RPM was chosen arbitrarily (I guessed) and provision made in the design to allow one to swap pulleys and change the cyclic rate. A throw(rock) of 3″ was determined to be the most one could expect given the motor torque (32 in-lb) and the weight of the vessel when fully charged (about 10lb). The motor used is a gearmotor from a scrapped copier which one can readily find at electronics surplus houses along with the required capacitor for less than $100. A new gearmotor of the proper size will cost 4-5 times that much. These are very useful, reliable motors that this writer uses for many purposes. Try to find ones with a machined face so they can be quickly mounted to brackets, etc. The resulting rocker provides a rocking rate of 110 rpm and completes a reaction in six hours.

Our stainless reaction vessel has an internal capacity of 7000ml, of which only 3500ml is used when fully charged with a 6.5-mole batch. This batch size was selected because of equipment and time restrictions-one can squeeze a 3500ml reaction into a 5000ml round-bottom flask for solvent stripping and the resulting 900g of methamphetamine base divides conveniently into two 450g portions for crystallization, which will take about 4 hours to perform. This is a full day’s work for one person, resulting in 2lb of product.

An improved reaction vessel can be constructed using a paint shaker for optimum surface-area creation. These units hold one-gallon paint cans, which, when full of paint, weigh much more than our reaction solution, eliminating concerns about exceeding any weight limitations on the machine. One may have a reaction vessel made which will fit into the machine clamps and have the following properties; 1) it will be constructed of thin-wall 316 stainless steel and stand up to 100psi when sealed and will not collapse when a 29″Hg vacuum is pulled (this means a round body and thick ends), 2) it will have a threaded opening about 1.5-2″ at one end to pour stuff into, and, 3) it will have an internal volume of at least 4000ml. The best way to do this is to have a machine shop roll a sheet of 0.065in 316 stainless sheet into a cylinder and then weld the seam. End pieces are cut from 0.375in 316 stainless and tig-welded to our thin-wall pipe. Prior to welding to the cylinder body, one end-piece is drilled out and a 1.5″ stainless coupling with NPT thread is welded on. The unit is then pressure tested to 100psi and vacuum tested to 29″Hg. The threaded coupling is fitted with a bushing that allows a gas fitting to be attached. Use Teflon tape to seal all threads, including the gas fittings. Leaks must be avoided. This one gallon (4liters) vessel can hold 3500ml of reactants with ease, resulting in the same product volumes as one obtains using the rocker. The improvement comes in the vigorous agitation provided by the paint shaker; by making sure that the hydrogen inlet hose rises straight up from the vessel to avoid losing reactants into the hose, the reaction will reach completion in 3 hours instead of 6 using the same catalyst density of 1g/mole. Using very little ingenuity, one can obtain a paint shaker that holds 5-gallon pails and construct a reaction vessel which will do 30-mole batches in a few hours, resulting in about 10lb of finished product after processing. The batch can be processed in 22- liter glassware by reducing the ethanol volume slightly, but will require a high-volume vacuum source to do the distillation. The main drawback to doing huge batches is that if one makes a mistake, he has just blown a whole lot of very valuable precursor material. The prudent chemist does not bite off more than he can chew up in one day.

3.5 Reductive amination of P2P using Adam’s catalyst

While the catalyst is pre-reducing, the chemist must prepare a Schiff’s base from his P2P and methylamine solution.

For a 1-mole test batch using 1g of catalyst, one pours 150ml of 37-40% methylamine solution into a 1000ml beaker along with a stirring bar. With stirring, 134g(1mole) of 1-phenyl-2-propanone is added. This should be done inside the fume cabinet to avoid the strong smell of decaying fish that accompanies methylamine solutions. Cover the beaker with a clean shop rag while stirring continues. In a separate container, measure out 250ml of 95% ethanol. 95% ethanol can be purchased as very strong vodka under various brand names (Everclear?), but my favorite source of ethanol is found in almost every supermarket and drugstore. It is called Rubbing Alcohol Compound. This is very different from Rubbing Alcohol, which is the trade name for isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing Alcohol Compound has replaced isopropyl alcohol on grocery shelves because the ethanol subsidies provided by the feds allow the use of cheap subsidized ethanol instead of the more expensive isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing Alcohol Compound is 93% ethanol along with 2% ethyl acetate or some other denaturant that makes you sick if you drink it. Fortunately, the denaturants do not affect our reaction and now one has an inexpensive source of reaction solvent upon which no liquor taxes are paid. This writer has tried every brand available in my area and they all worked just fine. In a serious pinch, the chemist can use methanol instead of ethanol, although the reaction will take three times as long to complete with a similar yield. When the catalyst is ready, slowly add, with stirring, enough ethanol to clarify the solution. This should take about 125ml for a 1-mole batch, leaving 125ml to use in retrieving the catalyst from the pre-reduction vessel. Add the clarified P2P/methylamine solution to the reaction vessel and rinse the beaker with a dash of ethanol, adding the rinse to the reaction. One should now have a reaction vessel containing 20ml of water, 250ml of ethanol, 150ml of methylamine solution, and 135ml of P2P for a total volume of about 550ml. Keep this number in mind when designing a larger reaction vessel. Seal the reaction vessel, pull a 25″ vacuum using a water aspirator, pressurize to 5psi with hydrogen, pull another 25″ vacuum, and then pressurize to 25-30psi with hydrogen. Do not pull a vacuum harder than 25″Hg or the methylamine will boil off. Check for leaks. If no leaks are found, begin the agitation by turning up the stirring to full blast.

Agitation is important because it creates surface area. For the reaction to take place, the catalyst, a molecule of our Schiff’s base, and an atom of hydrogen must come into contact simultaneously. Since we are dealing with solid, liquid, and gas phase materials, this can be difficult. The splash, or agitation, is the single most important physical variable affecting this reaction. The more surface area one can create, the better the chances are of our three reactants meeting and making meth.

At this point, one would like to know if the reaction is proceeding correctly and at what rate so one knows when the reaction is done. Our pressure/vacuum gauge along with our gas valve will provide this information. Once the reaction vessel is pressurized to 30psi, close the hydrogen valve and begin the agitation; the reading on the pressure gauge should drop over a short period of time. In my test vessel, a pressure drop of 10psi occurs in 11-16 minutes, depending upon how good the agitation is. Yours may be different. Once the pressure has dropped 10psi, open the hydrogen valve again and re-pressurize to 30psi. By precisely recording the amount of time it takes to cause a pressure drop of 10psi, the chemist can tell whether the reaction is proceeding or stopped for some reason, how well (quickly) the reaction is going, and when it is done. This can be vital information if something is going wrong. Typically, a 1-mole reaction in this writer’s test vessel will use a 10psi gulp of hydrogen every 13 minutes for 10 gulps, and then begin to slow down as the reaction begins to have difficulty finding unused reactants. A total of 18 10psi gulps of hydrogen are required to complete a 1-mole batch in my test vessel. The last hydrogen gulp takes well over an hour to finish, with a total elapsed time of about 4-6 hours to complete the reaction. Using a known volume and pressure, one can calculate how many pressure drops it will take to use up a mole of hydrogen.

With the reaction done, the chemist pours the reaction solution into a 1000ml beaker and rinses the vessel out with a little ethanol, adding the rinse to the beaker. One must now remove the catalyst before processing. This is accomplished by using a small(2″) Buchner along with Qualitative 5 filter paper and filtering into a 1000ml filter flask. Capture the remaining particles of catalyst in the beaker with ethanol. At this point, the chemist must be on his toes because the catalyst in the Buchner will catch the alcohol on fire if it is not quickly quenched. This is done by pouring a layer of distilled water over the catalyst and allowing the vacuum suction to pull it through, taking the alcohol with it.

One must always keep in mind that this catalyst is very pyrophoric, meaning it will burst into flames or explode at the slightest provocation. Things one should never do with this catalyst at any time, but especially once it has been pre- reduced, are; 1) allow it to fall freely through the air for more than a few inches, 2) allow it to come into intimate contact with flammable solvents such as ethanol, methanol, etc., and, 3) expose it to open flame. We have forced hydrogen atoms into the lattice structure of the platinum dioxide crystals, and that hydrogen reacts with oxygen both in the air and the platinum dioxide (reducing it over time to platinum), and this reaction creates heat which will catch things on fire. A static charge of sufficient intensity, such as that picked up when falling freely through dry air, will cause the catalyst to explode, although not with an intensity that will damage anything but one’s dignity.

Now that the catalyst is removed, pour the filtrate into a 1000ml round-bottom (RB) flask and distill the ethanol and methylamine off until the temperature reaches 90-92°C. Turn off the heat, attach an empty receiving vessel, then slowly apply a vacuum by gradually closing the bleeder valve on the water-aspirator system. When the temperature has dropped and the vacuum is down to 28-29″Hg, turn on the heat again and vacuum distill off the residual water until the condenser is clear, which will occur between 50-60°C. Remove the heat and allow the remaining meth base to cool a little. With fresh boiling stones and a clean receiver that has been weighed, reapply the vacuum and distill the meth base over a 10°C range. Adjust the vacuum using the bleeder valve so that the meth base distills over at 95-105°C. Meth base is a clear, colorless liquid. If it is anything but clear and colorless, it contains contaminants. The accompanying picture shows the result of a 6.5 mole batch, which produces about 900g of meth base.

A one-mole batch of P2P with 100% conversion would result in 149g (one mole) of methamphetamine base, but the typical yield is 90-93%, resulting in 134-140g of base. Meth base will quickly react with carbon dioxide in the air to form the carbonate, so it is advisable to crystallize the base as soon as possible. Crystallization is performed by adding 450g(3 moles) of meth base to a 1000ml Pyrex beaker and placing the beaker on a stirring hotplate. Carefully drop in a Teflon- coated stirring bar and begin stirring. One now adds 37% hydrochloric acid in 15ml portions. A graduated 15ml test-tube makes an ideal dispenser. A great deal of heat is generated as the acid reacts with the meth base and will result in boiling if added too quickly. Add 15ml of acid at intervals of 1 minute until 19 portions (285ml) have been added, then add acid in smaller portions and watch the color carefully. If the meth base was clean to begin with, it will turn light pink when the pH reaches 3-4. Test with pH strips(Colorphast 0-14 strips) or a meter. Stop adding acid when the pH reaches 3.

Now we must boil off the water contained in the acid, as water solvates meth very efficiently. Turn the heat on the hotplate to 4.5 while stirring continues and place a thermometer that reaches 150°C into the beaker on the bottom. Over the next 1.5 hours, the temperature will climb to 110°C where boiling begins, then gradually rise as the water is boiled off. When the temperature reaches 130°C, turn off the heat and remove the thermometer. Using a dishtowel, grip the beaker with both hands and quickly pour it into a 5000ml plastic bucket containing 4.5 liters of acetone which has been frozen for 2 weeks. Retrieve the stir-bar with a chaser, replace the lid and return to the deep freeze for 1 week to allow complete crystallization. Clean, freshly distilled acetone will retain about ¼ lb of product the first time it is used, which is why one should recycle one’s acetone. Alternatively, one can pour the hot methamphetamine hydrochloride into a 5-gal plastic bucket containing 4.5-gal of acetone that has been frozen for about a month (it takes a long time to pull the heat out of a large mass). The meth will crystallize the instant it hits the frozen acetone, although about 25% will remain in the acetone and must be frozen to crystallize.

Paradoxically, dirty meth crystallizes better than pure meth because the crystals quickly grow around a particle of impurity, forming nice large, hard crystals. The meth crystals are filtered out using a large Buchner, two 4000ml filter flasks, and a high-volume vacuum aspirator. An 18cm porcelain Buchner will hold a little over 1 lb of filtered product. Do not use Qualitative 5 filter paper for this filtration. This writer has found that the filters used in milk processing equipment are ideal for meth harvesting. A lot of money has been spent by the dairy industry over the years figuring out how to quickly filter solids out of mixed-phase solutions. These filters will allow liquids, both water and oils, to pass freely while trapping the finest solids, making them ideal for rapid filtering. The problem with the fine paper filters is that oil-water mixtures plug them up very quickly. Milk filters do not have this problem and they are easy to find, cheap, and suspicionless. One will need to cut-to-fit, but this is a small inconvenience. A suitable high-volume filtering setup can be easily made using 5 and 20-liter buckets, a round plastic plate, and some glue. This writer was fortunate enough to discover a large Buchner being used as a planter by a nice lady in my neighborhood. Happily paying the lady for a replacement, the retrieved treasure holds over 2lb of product and makes the chemist’s life much easier. The point is that one can find useful equipment almost anywhere. Pure meth is more difficult to crystallize, and results in a light, flaky white product with a mild scent of marzipan (actually benzaldehyde). Empty the product into a large cake tray and let the acetone evaporate in the fume cabinet for a day or two, separating it as it dries.

This product may be cut with powdered niacinamide (vitamin B3) at a 4:1 ratio (20% cut) to make a product that burns clean and is water-soluble. Do not use vitamin B-3 tablets which contain insoluble buffers that burn dirty.

4.0 Manufacture of 1-phenyl-2-propanone

The manufacture of P2P utilizing benzaldehyde and nitroethane is described. We will be using a two-stage procedure involving the Cope modification of the Knoevengel reaction and an iron-acid reduction procedure. The chemistry of this procedure has been described by Uncle Fester in his Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, 3rd ed., thus we will concentrate on scaling up the reaction to the point where it can be used for very high-volume manufacture.

4.1 Equipment

The following equipment will be required.

  • A rigid-base heating mantle with dual-element controls that holds a 22-liter round-bottom triple-neck.
  • A 22-liter, 3-neck, round-bottom reaction flask
  • A 45/50 to 24/40 glass fitting adapter
  • A Dean-Stark trap
  • Two 30cm West condensers
  • Several 5-liter and 20-liter plastic buckets
  • Fabricated equipment described below

4.2 Chemicals
Benzaldehyde
This is our basic starting material. One mole of benzaldehyde weighs close to 100g and has a density close to 1g/ml. Since we will be performing 25-mole reactions, we will use 2500ml of benzaldehyde per reaction. All other reactant quantities are derived from this figure. Purchase the chlorine-free type if available, but the standard product works fine. Store in a cool, dark place. Benzaldehyde will auto-oxidize somewhat over time, but is nothing to get excited about-this stuff will keep. The oxidation product is benzoic acid, which takes the form of well-defined white crystals at the bottom of the container. Try not to get any of the crystals into the reaction. They won’t kill it, but will reduce the yield. Benzaldehyde has a strong odor of marzipan. It can be vacuum-distilled in order to clean it up, but has a tendency to bump vigorously at vacuum levels that are high. Benzaldehyde has been relatively easy to obtain until recently.
Nitroethane (EtNO2)
This is the material we will react with the benzaldehyde molecule in order to produce 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. It supplies the carbon sidechain and nitro group that are required to produce the nitrostyrene. EtNO2 is a clear, pleasant- smelling liquid which boils at 114-115°C, has a molecular weight of 75.07g/mol, and a relative density of 1.05. It distills nicely without vacuum. Since we will be providing a 5% excess of nitroethane in order to ensure there are enough molecules available to combine with the benzaldehyde, we will require 26.25 moles of nitroethane((26.25mol x 75.07g/mol)/1.05), or 1,875ml for each batch. One can use the industrial grade nitroethane, but it must be washed and distilled before using. To clean it up, pour about 3000ml of nitroethane into a 4000ml separatory funnel, add 500ml of distilled water, shake thoroughly, allow the water to separate to the top over a 24-hour period, then drain the nitroethane and distill it, discarding anything that comes over below 110°C. It is important that the nitroethane be clean. One should be aware that nitroethane has become a high-suspicion product because it sounds much like nitromethane, which is the booster that was added to the Oklahoma City bomb. Do not confuse the two.
n-butylamine (n-BuNH2)
This is our catalyst. Do not use “sec-” or “tert-” butylamine, as they will not work(the “n-” means “straight- chain”). In addition, because n-butylamine is a very strong base which reacts with carbon-dioxide in the air and almost anything else it contacts, one must insure that the catalyst is clean. The best way to do this is to distill it. Do this inside a fume cabinet as this stuff is very ugly. Don’t breathe it and don’t touch it. One must wrap the stopper or cork on the distillation rig in Teflon tape to prevent it from being eaten. The amount of catalyst used in our 25-mole reaction is nominally 20ml/mole, but experience has shown that the actual amount is closer to 23ml/mole, so one should purchase an amount that will provide a volume of 25ml/mole of benzaldehyde. The actual amount must be determined by observation and adjusted accordingly. The use of catalyst that is not pure will result in a drastic reduction in yield.
Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)
This innocuous chemical is used in our reduction reaction in small quantities as a “steerer”, which modifies the reaction equilibrium in the direction we desire. A few kilos of this can do a lot of reactions.
Catalytic Iron Powder (Fe)
Used in the reduction procedure, the iron reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. Due to the requirement for good dispersion during the reduction, the use of a fine mesh powder is necessary, either 80 or 100 mesh. A coarser 60 mesh powder can be used, but may result in some problems if the stirring system is inadequate. The reaction requires 200g of iron powder for every mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene that is reduced. Since we will be performing 20- mole reductions, each reduction will require 4000g of iron.
Muriatic acid (HCl)
This is simply dilute hydrochloric acid, usually about 28-32% as compared with 37% HCl. It works just fine, however, and has the advantage of being available at almost any hardware store. A volume of 750ml of 37% HCl is required for every mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene that is reduced, resulting in 15 liters of acid required for every 20-mole reduction. It has been this writer’s experience that the more dilute muriatic acid performs just as well as the stronger stuff in the same volume.
Methanol (MeOH)
This is used as a solvent when processing the yellow nitropropene crystals. Purchase methanol which has not been diluted with water-some of it is only 60% methanol. Keep it in the deep freeze.
Toluene
This is our solvent for the Knoevengel reaction. It is available in every paint store, although many companies are relabeling their solvents with house names so the narcs don’t hassle them. Use the “UN” number, which must be on every container, to identify the product. Or just ask. Most paint store employees don’t know the difference between toluene and neoprene and will happily tell you anything you want. Our Knoevengel reaction requires 200ml of toluene for every mole of benzaldehyde, or 5000ml for every reaction.

4.3 Production of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene

Set up the 22-liter RB in the heating mantle. Add 10-20 PTFE(Teflon) boiling stones to the vessel. Through the wide center neck, add 5000ml of toluene, 2500ml of benzaldehyde, and 1875ml of nitroethane, in that order, with stirring. Have the fitting reducer, Dean-Stark trap, and a West condenser greased up and assembled nearby. We will need to assemble the pieces quickly once the n-butylamine is added. Using a wooden dowling rod as a stirrer, quickly add 550ml of n-butylamine with stirring. The reaction mixture will turn from clear to a milky consistency as a Schiff’s base and a molecule of water are formed(the water turns the solution milky). Assemble the fitting reducer, the Dean-Stark trap, and the West condenser on top of each other and plug the two side necks. Attach a fitting to the top of the condenser and run an exhaust line into your fume cabinet. Start the water running through the condenser. Wrap some aluminum foil around the top half of the reaction vessel and the Dean-Stark trap to avoid excessive cooling.

Turn on both heating elements and set the temperature controls at 20%. At this setting it will take a long time to heat up the solution. After one has some experience with this reaction, one can start out with the heating mantle at a higher setting(70% for 20min on my rig). One must be aware that we are using only a small West condenser for cooling and that it takes very little extra heat to blow material out the top. On my equipment, the proper setting is 18%–20% is too hot. Be very careful with the heat. The idea here is to boil the solution just hard enough to reach the bottom of the condenser where the water-toluene azeotrope can condense out into the Dean-Stark trap and be removed from the reaction solution. This occurs at 85°C.

Once the reaction reaches the condenser, the water will begin to accumulate rapidly. For a 25 mole reaction, 25 moles of water will be created and must be removed for the reaction to reach completion. This writer’s Dean-Stark trap holds 25ml of water, resulting in a total of 18 full water-traps to complete a 25-mole reaction. Use a piece of paper and make a mark every time the trap is emptied. The water will come over rapidly at first, taking only a few minutes to fill the trap, and then slows down as water molecules get harder to find. The reaction should take about five hours to complete, but one should not use time as a definitive indicator. One will do much better at judging the quality and state of one’s reaction by observing the color of the reaction mixture. As the water is removed, the solution will begin to turn a light orange color and deepen as the reaction nears completion. The use of too much catalyst, n-butylamine, will cause the reaction to polymerize to some degree, resulting in a dark brown solution color, poor quality nitropropene crystals, and a greatly reduced yield. Unfortunately, this reaction is very sensitive to the quantity and quality of the catalyst. Too little catalyst will reduce the yield significantly and too much will burn(polymerize) it. This writer advises that one do test batches of 1 and 5 moles in order to home in on the exact amount of n-butylamine required. If the reaction is allowed to continue once all the water is removed, it will begin to polymerize, so one should carefully watch the color of the reaction solution and keep careful track of the amount of water removed. Even if all of the theoretical amount of water has not been removed, if the solution color starts turning dark, pull it. Turn off the heat, allow the boiling to subside into the vessel, remove the condenser and Dean-Stark trap, then carefully lift the vessel out of the heating mantle and place it on a plastic bucket inside the fume cabinet. Leave it to cool down to room temperature overnight.

We will now strip the toluene solvent from the solution by performing a vacuum distillation. One needs a high-volume adjustable vacuum source in order to perform this distillation. Do not use a vacuum pump to strip solvents-it’s hard on the pump and poses a high fire hazard. Always use an aspirator when vacuum-distilling solvents. Your typical university aspirator that runs off 40psi of water pressure is not adequate to pull a decent vacuum in a large volume, let alone an adjustable vacuum. We will be working with a system volume of about 27 liters. Attach two West condensers in series and support them carefully with tri-grips or wooden blocks with grooves cut into the tops. Attach a 5000ml round-bottom flask that has been marked at the 5000ml level. We will use this mark to determine when we have finished. Once completely assembled, turn on the heating mantle and set the controls at 30%. Once again, the reader’s system/equipment will be slightly different from mine and he must make some minor adjustments. The idea here is to distill off the toluene at a temperature high enough to allow the condenser to liquefy the toluene so it doesn’t get sucked into the vacuum system where it can cause damage. About 26-27″Hg or thereabouts will produce a distillation temperature range of about 40-60°C, which is hot enough to be condensed out by water at 10°C. One should not attempt to distill off the toluene at a normal atmosphere because the added heat quickly polymerizes the product as the toluene is removed. One must also make sure one has removed ALL of the toluene; even a small amount will prevent the crystals from forming or will produce poor quality crystals that polymerize rapidly in the open air. Since we started with 5000ml of toluene, we need to strip off at least that much. Use a mark on the receiver.

Once the toluene has been stripped off, turn off the heat, disassemble the equipment, and then pour the hot, orange liquid remaining in the vessel into two 5-liter plastic buckets, filling each of them to about 1/3 full and then covering. Quickly rinse and wash the big reaction vessel with methanol before the residue adheres to the walls. Let the liquid nitropropene cool for a few hours, then cover and place at the bottom of the freezer overnight. In the morning, the crystals will be formed and we must remove any unreacted material and contaminants. To accomplish this, pour about one liter of methanol which has been frozen for a week or two into one of the buckets holding the solid mass of crystal and break up the mass with a big screwdriver. The yellow nitropropene crystals are only slightly soluble in cold methanol, but the undesireable reaction remnants are very soluble, so we will dissolve the gunk while leaving the crystals intact. Once converted into a slurry, filter through a Buchner. Do the same to the other bucket. Empty the bright yellow crystals into a large cake tray and let them dry. Once dry, place into a 5gal bucket, cover, and place in the deep freeze. Left in the open air, the nitropropene crystals will polymerize in about one month. Stored in the freezer, these crystals will keep nicely for at least two years.

The yield on this reaction is not 100%, as stated in other literature. The theoretical yield is 79%, but the best this writer has achieved is 74%, with 70% being the average. Since one mole of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene weighs 168g, one should end up with 25 moles x .7, or 17.5 moles of nitropropene crystals which weigh about 2940g. This writer advises that the chemist make and store all of his yellow nitropropene crystals before proceeding to the next step.

The chemist may wish to experiment with other strong bases in order to find an alternative to n-butylamine, which is rare enough to be a choke point.

4.4 Reduction of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene to 1-phenyl-2-propanone

4.4.1 Equipment construction

This procedure is the most difficult described. Not because the reaction is difficult to perform, but because of the equipment one must build in order to make it workable. The problem is one of scale; A two-mole reduction can be performed in 5000ml glassware using a heating mantle and standard stirring equipment. To reduce a 20-mole batch requires ten times the volume, 50 liters, a controllable heat source, and scaled-up stirring equipment. Additionally, we will perform a steam-distillation in order to extract and purify the final product, which will require a large condenser. We will want this condenser to also operate in the reflux mode during the reaction in order to keep the acid from boiling off and killing everything. To make matters worse, we will be working with 15 liters of muriatic acid, which means everything must be made of stainless-steel. Fortunately, this equipment is neither difficult nor expensive to construct. One needs to either own and be proficient with a TIG welder or find a shop that can do the work. If one must use shops, spread the work around. They will all ask what it’s for-simply tell them that you have a non-disclosure agreement and would lose your job or contract if you told them. Or make up your own story.

Our reaction vessel will be a 50-liter stainless stock-pot found at the kitchen/restaurant supply. It must be stainless, and not aluminum. High-quality stainless pots have aluminum-clad bottoms for better heat transfer-this is good. They will all be fabricated of thin-wall stainless, but look for the most heavy-duty pot you can find. This pot is the weak point in our equipment because the boiling hydrochloric acid will eat through the wall of the pot in 5-7 reactions, after which a new pot must be purchased.

In order to seal the pot, a flange must be welded onto the pot rim and provision made for attaching and sealing a top. This is done by carefully measuring the diameter of the pot rim and fabricating a flange to fit. We will be using a 3/16″ polypropylene “O” ring for a seal and a series of bolts on the outside to accomplish the sealing and attaching. The ring should be about 2″ wide, with the bolts(3/8″ stainless hardware) on the outside and a 1/16″ x 3/16″ groove machined into the flange face about ¾” from the inside rim. Polypropylene O-ring material can be found at most good hydraulics shops and machine shops. We will be using 1/8″ diameter or 3/16″ diameter O-ring material, whichever is available. Buy enough for several rings, as they wear out. Our flange must also be flat to within 1/16″ so the top isn’t warped. Do not weld the flange to the pot until the top-plate has been fabricated.

We also have a requirement for knowing the temperature of the reaction at all times. In order to do this, one must either weld a stainless bushing into the side of the pot that fits an industrial thermometer or create a fitting in the top through which one can insert a thermometer long enough to reach the reaction solution. Good luck finding a thermometer that long. This writer chose the bushing-in-the-side method with mixed results-the temperature indication worked great but the boiling acid eats the thermometers and the bushing weld creates a weak point which the acid attacks and eats through after only three reactions. Covering the weld completely with fast-drying J-B Weld after each use doubled the lifespan of the pot to six reactions. I’m sure someone out there can think of something better. A Teflon- coated pot would be nice.

Now that we have the beginnings of a reaction vessel, we will need a heat source. Fortunately, one can find propane- powered barbeques almost anywhere, including the heavy-duty one pictured, which is more than adequate. A 30lb propane tank is good for about three reactions.

Now we must design our top-plate, which is fairly complex. The first step is to have a matching circle of 3/16″ thick stainless-steel cut and drilled to fit the flange so they can be bolted together. Next, we must provide for a Teflon bearing in the middle. This writer designed a bearing machined from 3″ Teflon round stock. Since the gearmotor used to turn the stirrer has a ½” driveshaft, the bearing consisted of a ½” hole in the middle and a ¾” wide outside shoulder machined down to ½” depth. This results in a ½” thick bushing wall, which has held up without problem. Using these dimensions, a center-hole of 1.5″ diameter and four 10-32 threaded holes on the outside rim are required. It is advisable to have the Teflon bushing machined first and then fitted to the top. A shaft clearance of 0.003-5 works well. Unfortunately, one must know the diameter of the motor driveshaft in order to design the bearing. Many motors have 5/8″ driveshafts which will operate perfectly with the above bushing design by simply enlarging the center hole, leaving a 3/8″ bushing wall. The stirring shaft should be standard 316 stainless round stock with a flat machined at one end to make attaching the vanes easy.

The importance of vigorous stirring cannot be overemphasized. If too much iron remains on the bottom, it can cause a runaway reaction, which you will regret. To avoid this, keep the iron in suspension and the reactants moving. This writer has determined experimentally that about 150 rpm is a good speed for stirring, but this can vary depending upon the effectiveness of the stirring vanes. The vanes on the reaction vessel shown were a simple plate welded onto the bottom of the shaft, insuring that it did not contact the thermometer shaft inserted through the pot wall.

Now that we have a bearing and driveshaft, we must design a bracket that will hold our gearmotor firmly in line with the bearing and driveshaft. The picture above shows the gearmotor without the bracket, as the unit has been disassembled for storage. The reader will be left to his own devices in this bracket design since there is little chance that your gearmotor will be exactly like mine. Since there are two more attachments which must be placed on the top cover, one should locate an adequate gearmotor early on in the design and then wait until the end to fit the motor and bracket. The motor should have a shaft speed of about 150 rpm and a torque of 32 inch-pounds or better, keeping in mind that the more reaction mixture being turned, the more torque is required.

A 2″ stainless nipple must be welded to the top plate to accommodate the condenser and it’s fittings. In addition, a threaded ¼” hole must be placed in a location near the outside of the top plate. A ¼” NPT stainless nipple screws in here and is attached to 5/16 Tygon tubing leading to the acid reservoir. This is where the acid enters the reaction vessel.

The condenser and its fittings are fairly straightforward. Four 5′ sections of ½” thinwall stainless tubing are grouped within a 2″ diameter circle and welded into a flat flange with outside boltholes. Use ½” bolts for strength and a thick rubber gasket. The outside waterjacket is 4″ thinwall truck exhaust tubing which is light and cheap. It is fitted with ¼ ” NPT bushings at each end for water circulation. It is sealed at the end with another flange, leaving 6-9″ of tubing sticking out the end. The waterjacket should be 4′ long. Use dishwasher hoses found at the hardware store that have ¼” NPT thread on one end and hose thread on the other for circulating water through the system. The condenser will need to be supported with chains due to it’s weight when full of water. In order to use the condenser in both distillation and reflux modes, another flange must be fabricated which can be moved around in combination with standard pipe fittings. A combination of 2″ stainless “T” , a 2″ plug, and a 6″ long nipple with an angled flange of about 20°C on the end worked well for this writer. The adapter flange must mate well with the condenser flange to avoid leaks.

The following diagrams show how the condenser is configured for both distillation and reflux modes:

A container to hold and dispense the muriatic acid is required. This writer uses a small(5gal) plastic garbage can with a Tygon tubing siphon hole drilled just above the acid line. A 1/8″ stainless-steel flow valve is required to control the flow of acid into the reaction. These valves may be found at industrial supply houses like W.W. Grainger, etc. One should use only Tygon tubing as most other types will soon harden and crack.

4.4.2 Iron Reduction of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene to 1-phenyl-2-propanone

Pour 15 liters of clean tap water into the vessel. Follow this with 4000g of catalytic iron, 3400g (20mol) of 1-phenyl- 2-nitropropene and 40-50g of ferric chloride. Assemble the top with the condenser in the reflux mode, start the water running through the condenser, begin stirring, and fire up the propane burner. Watch the thermometer and turn off the heat when the temperature reaches 90°C. Slowly add muriatic acid in small doses over a 2-hour period. Watch the top of the condenser for signs things are getting out of hand. This reaction needs to be performed in a small shed or other outbuilding with good ventilation. Install a heavy-duty (500+cfm) exhaust fan in the shed. The reason for this is that the fumes from this reaction are very corrosive and if the reaction goes into runaway, one will want to abandon the shed for awhile as the fumes clear out. A total of 15 liters of muriatic acid is added. Once all of the acid has been added, allow the stirring to continue for another 2 hours before going on to the next step.

We now must extract our P2P from the nasty black mess inside the reaction vessel. We will do this through steam distillation. Disconnect the condenser, flange, and “Tee”, leaving the 2″ nipple open. The stirrer should remain turning. Next, quickly pour in about 4 liters of saturated lye solution that has cooled off overnight. Some heat and steam will be generated as the lye neutralizes the muriatic acid. Assemble the Tee, flange, and condenser in the distillation mode and start the water flowing through the condenser. Place a 20 liter bucket under the end and fire up the propane burner to high. Discontinue stirring. Distill over the water and P2P until the bucket is full, then turn off the heat.

The yield for this reduction is 75% no matter how badly one thinks he has blown it, so we should expect to obtain 15 moles, or a little over 2000g of P2P. Since P2P has a density close to that of water, this works out to about 2 liters of product.

We must now extract the P2P from the water, purify it, and store it for later use. This is accomplished by pouring 3000ml of water/P2P into each of two 4000ml separatory funnel. One then adds about 300ml of saturated lye solution to each and shakes vigorously for 3-5 minutes. This is done to insure there is no residual acid which can, and will, poison the catalyst when used. After a thorough shaking, 400ml of methylene chloride is added to each separatory funnel and shaken vigorously for 2-3 minutes. Methylene chloride is an easily obtainable solvent for most plastics. Check the plastics supply shops that sell buckets, sheet plastic, etc. Since methylene chloride is heavier than water, it will pick up the P2P and carry it to the bottom of the sep funnel. This takes some time, however, so one must not get in a hurry. This writer allows the separation to sit for 6 hours before draining the bottom layer into a one-gallon wine bottle, or even better, an amber glass bottle. Cut a square out of a plastic baggie and use it for a seal between the bottle-top and the cap. Add another 400ml of methylene chloride, shake vigorously, and let it settle out again for 6 hours before draining. This is good enough, go on to the next batch. When finished, one should have 3-4 gallons of methylene chloride/P2P solution.

We will now recover our methylene chloride solvent for reuse and distill the P2P. Use a 5000ml round-bottom vessel and distill over the methylene chloride from 39 to 60°C. Return the solvent to it’s container and continue until there is only about 2000ml of P2P left in the vessel. Add boiling stones and vacuum distill over the remnants of the methylene chloride and water until it is clear that only P2P is left. Using a clean receiver and fresh boiling stones, distill over the P2P at 105-115°C. Do not distill at a temperature lower than 105°C or the P2P will carry contaminants over with it, the contaminants being darker colored. P2P is a clear, pale-yellow liquid that smells like cat piss. P2P will auto- oxidize over a period of weeks if left at room temperature, so put it in the freezer until ready for use.

One can use toluene to extract the P2P from the water, but it must be vacuum-distilled and the separation will be to the top instead of the bottom like methylene chloride. It takes about the same amount of time to separate as when using methylene chloride.

4.4.3 Alternative reduction procedure

For those unable or unwilling to construct the admittedly large number of mechanical items described above, there is an alternative reduction procedure that the reader may or may not find more convenient. This reduction, gleaned from Dr. Alexander Shulgin’s wonderful book PIKHAL, uses glacial acetic acid instead of muriatic acid to create hydrogen by reacting with catalytic iron. It also cleans up with water and eliminates the steam distillation step used above. The downside is that, as described, it takes a much larger volume of acid to reduce an equivalent amount of nitropropene. It may be possible to reduce the amount of acid required, and I leave it those interested to develop it further.

Place a 1000ml Pyrex beaker into a pan of water and rest this on a hotplate. Add 140ml of glacial acetic acid and 32g of 80-100 mesh catalytic iron. Heat to about 85°C, just below the point where white salts begin to appear, then add 10-15g of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene crystals dissolved in 75ml of glacial acetic acid. Add slowly, allowing a vigorous reaction free from excessive frothing. Continue heating for 1.5 hours after the addition. The surface will crust up, turn whitish, and climb the walls of the beaker. Remove from heat, mix into 2000ml of clean water. Add enough concentrated lye solution to neutralize the acid, then extract with methylene chloride and distill exactly as above. One can scale this up by using a bucket made from polypropylene (try Chevron Delo 400 oil buckets). These tough buckets will stand up to 100°C temperatures without deforming. Or one can use a stainless pot either plain or Teflon coated. Glacial acetic acid has a strong vinegar smell which disperses rapidly when heated, making for an odor problem hard to disguise. But since there is no power required, one can do this in the woods somewhere. This procedure was designed by Dr. Shulgin to reduce the nitrostyrene associated with MDMA, so it can be used for both Meth and Ecstasy if one can find a supply of piperonal. The reader will find that most of the procedures described herein apply to the manufacture of both products. This writer has tried this procedure with excellent results, obtaining a 75% yield of a very pure and colorless P2P.

5.0 Manufacture of Methylamine from Formaldehyde and Ammonium Chloride

The use of phenylacetones as precursors to Meth and Ecstasy require methylamine to complete the reaction. Fortunately, it is fairly easy, if time consuming, to manufacture. Both formaldehyde and ammonium chloride are easily obtainable chemicals used extensively in industry. One can divert formaldehyde from taxidermists and ammonium chloride from many plating shops and even the drugstore. Once again, we have a two-step procedure; the first making methylamine hydrochloride crystals which are stored in the freezer until used, and a purification step where the methylamine is collected and diluted.

5.1 Equipment

To perform this procedure we will need the following equipment.

  • A rigid-base 10-liter heating mantle with dual controls.
  • Two 10-liter round-bottom 3-neck flask
  • Three 2000ml RB flasks.
  • A 30cm West condenser.
  • A 500ml dropping funnel.
  • A 75cm dual-surface reflux condenser with 24/40 joints(bottom male, top female)
  • Several clean 5-liter and 5-gal buckets with tops.
  • A fabricated condenser capable of condensing ammonia (bp -33°C). This condenser is fabricated using a 1 gallon paint can and a section of ¼” brake line found at the auto parts store. About 24″ of brake line is carefully coiled into a spiral that fits inside the paint can. An exit tube about 2″ long and an entrance are brazed to the can. There must be no leaks at the bottom. Also, the coiled brake line must not have any section that is crimped or runs “uphill” – this can cause a serious backpressure problem. When filled about 1/3 with methanol or ethanol and chilled with dry ice, this condenser will be at -75°C, which is cold enough to condense ammonia. Wrap the paint can with pipe insulation and duct tape. Without the insulation, the dry ice must be replenished at intervals short enough to be distracting. This writer attached a mounting handle but later discovered that it is much easier to simply set it on a table or bench of the proper height. Do a test run with alcohol and dry ice to see if any leaks appear when the brazing is rapidly chilled. Check to see that water runs smoothly through the condenser without any backpressure. This is not a piece of equipment one wants to test as it is used.

  • In addition to the dry ice condenser, we will need to circulate ice water through a reflux condenser in order to condense out any water vapor that may accompany the methylamine gas. This writer purchased a perfectly good circulating chiller at a mining equipment sale that pumps -20°C antifreeze solution. Otherwise, one can make a perfectly acceptable chiller out of aquarium pumps and a 10-gallon Coleman ice chest. Connect two aquarium pumps together in parallel so if one pump fails in the middle of the reaction the other can continue on until the procedure is finished. Drill holes in the top of the cooler for the pump cord and circulating lines. Add a layer of water on the bottom and drop in several bags of ice. As the ice melts, add more. This will give us about a 1°C circulating solution. If a colder solution is desired, one simply uses cheap plumbing antifreeze that won’t freeze at -30°C and chills it with dry ice instead of water ice. The pumps may become unreliable at the reduced temperature.

5.2 Chemicals

To make a useful amount of methylamine, the following is required.

  • 10-20 gallons of 35-40% Formaldehyde
  • 10kg Sodium hydroxide (lye)
  • Distilled water
  • A 40lb block of dry ice, wrapped in newspaper and stored in a good ice chest.
  • About 40lb of ice cubes or block ice from the supermarket
  • 40-50kg of ammonium chloride. Industrial grade ammonium chloride is normally mixed with a little calcium chloride to keep it from clumping up and hardening and is called “treated” ammonium chloride. The calcium chloride does not affect the reaction, so one can use the cheap industrial 50lb bags.

5.3 Methylamine Hydrochloride

Set up the 10-liter rigid base heating mantle inside the fume cabinet. We will be generating some formaldehyde gas which one does not want to breathe.

Charge the reaction vessel with 3kg of ammonium chloride and 6 liters of 35-40% formaldehyde. The ammonium chloride will not dissolve, so stir it with a section of wooden dowling. Attach a 30cm West condenser, a vacuum takeoff, and a 2000ml receiver RB flask. Lead a short section of plastic tubing from the vacuum takeoff to a small pail of water. Use a clamp to place the end of the tube just under the surface of the water. Some of the gas generated will be absorbed by the water; the rest will go out the vent. Place a one-hole rubber stopper with a thermometer in one of the side holes on the triple-neck so the solution temperature can be easily read. The chemist then turns on the heat, setting the controls on 70% full-scale for a short time. When the solution temperature reaches 60°C, reduce the heat controls to about 25% and slowly bring the temperature up to 100°C. The ammonium chloride will now start to dissolve, and can be aided with some quick stirring with a dowling rod. As the solution reaches 70°C, a little gas will begin bubbling in the water pail. As the temperature climbs towards 100°C, a lot of gas will be generated, causing pressure inside the vessel. The pressure builds up because of the back pressure created by the West condenser, which is too small. In fact, the condenser is the limiting factor in this reaction, otherwise one would use a 22-liter setup and double the volume. This writer has performed this reaction in a 22-liter rig and does not recommend it. Those familiar with methylamine manufacture will be wondering why a pot of oil warmed to the correct temperature is not used; the answer is that this writer discovered that the solution temperature can be held at 104-106°C using a carefully controlled heating mantle. One will need to play with the control adjustments a little, but it is not difficult. If the chemist experiences difficulties holding a stable temperature, simply go back to the oil pot method. Reduce the heat to about 15% when the solution temperature reaches 100°C. Once the solution stabilizes at 105°C and the gas no longer bubbles in the water pail, the chemist can apply an aspirator vacuum at 15-30 minute intervals over the next 5 hours. At the end of 5 hours, turn off the heat, remove the triple-neck from the heating mantle, and let it cool down overnight to room temperature. The cooling causes a lot of ammonium chloride crystals to precipitate out of solution. Filter out the crystals, saving them in a separate bucket for later reuse, and save the light yellow filtrate in another bucket. Repeat this procedure several more times until a 20-24 liter bucket is full of liquid.

Next, set up the 10 liter triple-neck in the same manner as before and add about 7 liters of the accumulated intermediate-stage liquid. Set the heating mantle to about 30% and apply an aspirator vacuum of -28″Hg using a bleeder on the vacuum system. One should be careful to thoroughly grease all fittings with Dow-Corning High Vacuum Grease or it’s equivalent to prevent glassware freeze-ups. The chemist now patiently distils water and acid out of the mixture until solids begin to come out of solution and strong “bumping” begins to occur inside the reaction vessel. This can take 5-6 hours or longer. At this point, turn off the heat, disassemble the rig, and pour the contents of the reaction vessel into a bucket inside the fume cabinet. Leave overnight to cool down to room temperature, at which point there will be another large slug of ammonium chloride crystals to filter out. This time, however, a little methylamine hydrochloride will be mixed in with the ammonium chloride. Because methylamine hydrochloride is very hygroscopic, the salts may be gooey. Filter through a Buchner, keeping the recovered salts in one bucket and the yellowish liquid in another. Repeat until there is enough liquid in the second-stage bucket to proceed to the third stage. One should be getting the idea now that one can increase the throughput in the system by simply setting up another 10-liter rig and processing in parallel. By organizing the separate stages properly, one person can produce about 80 liters of 40% methylamine in 9 weeks if one is dedicated. This is enough methylamine to make 175lb of pure methamphetamine.

In the third step, we use the second-stage liquid we have collected and pull more water and acid out of the solution using a vacuum of 26-27″Hg, which is slightly lower than the vacuum used during the second stage. The vacuum setting is important because if the vacuum is too strong it will induce “bumping” inside the reaction vessel and if it is too weak, not enough water will be pulled out to give us good quality crystals that do not melt the instant they contact moist air. Pull as much water as possible out of the solution before the methylamine hydrochloride crystals precipitate out of solution and strong “bumping” begins, then pull the reaction and let the hot mixture cool overnight. Using a clean Buchner, filter out the methylamine hydrochloride crystals thoroughly, then dump them into a 5 gallon bucket that has been resting in the freezer for a few days. Methylamine hydrochloride crystals are whitish platelet-type crystals. Keeping the crystals in the freezer where it is too cold for water to remain in the air prevents the crystals from picking up water from the air and melting. Throw out the residual thick golden liquid. Repeat the procedure until one has accumulated a full 5-gal bucket of frozen crystals, which is the amount that one can turn into methylamine solution in one day.

5.4 Methylamine Solution

In this step we will mix methylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide to release methylamine gas, which is then condensed with dry ice-/alcohol, allowing us to collect pure methylamine liquid and store it in a water solution.

Before one can proceed, one must do some preparatory work to make things go smoothly. About 8 liters of 50% sodium hydroxide solution must be prepared the night before. In addition, a one gallon bottle (used wine jugs) containing 2 kg of crushed ice should be placed in the bottom of the freezer several days ahead of time. We will need to dilute the liquid methylamine with distilled water unless one intends to manufacture Ecstasy, in which case one will want to mix the pure methylamine with ethanol that has been frozen for a week or so and store it in the deep freeze. Methylamine/ethanol will not keep long as the methylamine will eventually boil away even in the freezer, but it is much safer than storing pure methylamine by itself. The methylamine/alcohol solution should be used within a week. Methylamine/water will keep well for years if kept cold.

One should be aware that this step can be very dangerous to life and liberty. Done improperly, this procedure can, and will, result in extremely stinky and poisonous methylamine gas filling the structure and pouring out into the street where everyone within a mile will smell it. The building will stink until it is torn down and the unlucky chemist who experiences this will also stink of it for a long time. One must be sober and paying close attention while performing this procedure.

To set up the equipment, one places a 10-liter heating mantle on the floor near the fume cabinet so any loose fumes will get sucked out. Place a clean triple-neck into the mantle. Mount a 75cm dual-surface reflux condenser in a tri- grip attached to a 36″ lab stand. Attach the chiller lines with the input at the bottom and the output at the top and start up the chiller pump. The top of the reflux condenser should be within inches of a table or benchtop. Place the methylamine condenser on the bench and connect it to the condenser using a section of Tygon tubing and a pigtail that fits a 24/40 glass joint. Do not use rigid connections between the different mechanical assemblies. A pigtail can be made from a section of glass tubing and a 24/40 plug for those with some experience with glass. The exit end of our paint-can condenser is connected with Tygon tubing to a two-hole rubber stopper that fits snugly into a 24/40 glass joint. Inserted into the stopper are a 4″ section of glass tubing and a 3″ section. Attach the Tygon to the longer section. Cut a section of plastic tubing that leads from the short stopper tube to the inside of the fume cabinet. This is our vent. Next, carefully weigh three 2000ml RB flasks and write it down somewhere, identifying each flask with a piece of duct tape around the neck. It is important to be able to determine exactly how much methylamine one has made when it comes time to dilute it with water. Do not use markers on the flasks as they will disappear with alcohol-use duct tape on the neck. Next, place a 36″ lab stand and ring (about 6-8″) near the bench and our methylamine condenser. Use a 5-liter plastic bucket wrapped in insulation on the sides and place it at a height where the 2000ml receiver flask will sit in it nicely without requiring a long section of tubing between the condenser and the receiver. Hook the bucket handle over the top of the lab stand for safety, then attach a tri-grip around the neck of the 2000ml receiver. The receiver must be held rigidly in place or it will float and bob around in the bucket when we add alcohol and dry ice. The receiver must be kept at -75°C or the methylamine will boil away on us. Methylamine has a boiling point of -6°C, so this stuff will boil away even when it’s kept in the deep freeze. We must also insure that our stopper will not pop out of the receiving flask by accident so one buys some Velcro strips at the variety store, slides a narrow strip between the glass tubes on the top surface of the stopper and uses another strip wrapped around the receiver neck, once the stopper is in place, to trap the ends and tie the entire works together. Tapes and other chemical-based bonding materials become fragile at -70°C. Lastly, charge both the paint can and bucket with methanol and slowly chill them down by adding chunks of dry ice, one at a time, until they no longer quickly boil away but remain solid at the bottom. The paint can should be about 75% full and the bucket filled to a point at least halfway up the receiving flask. We are now ready to rock and roll.

Using a wide-mouth funnel and a piece of wooden dowling, shove methylamine hydrochloride crystals from the freezer into the triple-neck until it is no more than 1/3 full. Attach the reflux condenser to the triple-neck and place the 500ml dropping funnel into one side neck. With the stopcock closed, charge it with 50% lye solution. Using a funnel quickly add 400g of dry sodium hydroxide to the main reaction vessel. Quickly plug the neck with a glass plug. As soon as the lye contacts the methylamine crystals it produces methylamine gas and sodium chloride(salt). After an initial burst, which one can watch run into the receiving vessel, the reaction will subside. Now is a good time to check and insure that all fittings are tight and there is no blockage in the condenser, which can be disastrous. Next, open the stopcock and allow the lye solution to stream in. It can be difficult to know when too much lye has been added because there is a delay before the reaction reaches a peak, so it is recommended that one proceed slowly, carefully watching the receiving flask for signs of too much liquid coming through. Methylamine is a clear liquid with a density of about 0.7. Keep the paint can and receiver bucket charged with dry ice and the chiller with water ice while lye solution is added at intervals. After an addition, wait until the condensation subsides before adding more lye. Eventually, adding more lye solution will not produce any more liquid methylamine and we must boil the remaining methylamine out of the solution of water, salt, methylamine, and dimethylamine. The remaining methylamine is now in a water solution, which we would prefer not to happen, but there must also be enough water to dissolve the salt and hold the dimethylamine in solution, so do not cut back on the water used in the lye solution. Turn the heating mantle to 50% and wait, keeping things cold as you do. Over the next two hours the remaining 60-70% of the methylamine will boil up through the reflux condenser, where the water and dimethylamines are condensed out, and then through the paint can and into the receiver. Watch the reflux condenser for signs of salt accumulating on the glass. This is an indication that there is not enough water in the solution, so let the boiling subside and quickly add a liter or so of distilled water before continuing the distillation. When no more methylamine comes over, or it is reduced to just a drop every several seconds, the batch is done. Turn off the heat and let things cool off for about 20 minutes until the boiling has totally subsided. During this period, detach the 2000ml receiving vessel and very, very carefully take it to the fume cabinet to be weighed. Keep in mind that if one should drop and spill the liquid methylamine, it will immediately boil into a gas, will probably kill the clumsy chemist, and will definitely make one’s lab the center of attention for weeks to come. Don’t drop it! Carry it in a frozen bucket(not a warm one). Once the methylamine has been weighed inside the fume cabinet, lower a clean thermometer into the liquid and leave it for several minutes until the temperature comes up to -30°C. This will let any liquid ammonia, which we do not want, boil away leaving only pure methylamine. Weigh it, subtract the weight of the flask, and divide the weight in grams by 0.7 to determine the volume. 1000g of methylamine will occupy about 1400ml. Very slowly and carefully add this first batch of methylamine to the 1-gal wine jug containing 2kg of crushed ice. There may be considerable fuming, in which case one should stop, stuff a rubber stopper(do not use glass) into the methylamine receiver and place the whole works into the freezer for a while.

Fortunately, one only has to perform this ugly chore once. Once we have a quantity of methylamine solution we know is 40%, one can simply add enough distilled water to accommodate the next batch and throw it into the deep freeze. The diluted methylamine solution will not freeze, thus allowing one to simply add methylamine liquid to the solution to bring it up to the required concentration. The formula is simple: equal volumes of distilled water and pure methylamine liquid will result in 40% methylamine solution. Depending upon the exact amount of crystals in the triple-neck, one should have between 900g and 1200g of pure methylamine liquid. For those manufacturing MDMA, add 100ml of pure methylamine to 250ml of ethanol that has been in the freezer for a week or so. This reduces the water content of the MDMA reductive amination, improving the yield.

Now that the first batch is complete, the chemist quickly sets up the other triple-neck and repeats the procedure. Once the chemist has some experience, he can do four batches in a single day if he starts early.

6.0 Manufacture of 70% Nitric Acid

Nitric acid is an essential chemical required for making aqua regia. It is also an essential ingredient in the manufacture of nitric ester explosives, which makes it a closely watched chemical. Jewelers are able to purchase very small amounts (50ml) to make aqua regia for dissolving gold, platinum, and rhodium. Some plating operations use nitric acid. Fortunately, 70% nitric acid is easy to make.

6.1 Chemicals

One will need to acquire the following chemicals.

  • Concentrated (98%) sulfuric acid H2SO4. This acid is used extensively in industry, the most visible use being as battery acid when diluted.
  • Sodium Nitrate. This is also a fairly closely watched chemical due to it’s application in explosives, but is so widely used in industry that it is fairly easy to obtain. One can also use potassium nitrate in equivalent molar quantities. Look in the drugstore.
  • Dry ice. A 20lb block will do nicely; chip into small flakes when used.
  • A bag of rock salt and several bags of crushed ice.

6.2 Equipment
  • A 2000ml RB flask
  • A 1000ml RB flask
  • A 30cm West condenser
  • A single-element 1000W electric hotplate from the hardware store.
  • A medium-sized kitchen pot. The 2000ml RB flask must fit into the pot.
  • A lab jack for raising and lowering the hotplate and kitchen pot. A suitable lab jack may be constructed from a scissors-type car jack that has been modified. A 10″x10″ flat top is welded on the top, a circular steel plate is welded on for height adjustment, and a nut is welded onto the back bottom surface that will accept a standard lab stand shaft. This is necessary to suspend the 2000ml flask containing our reactants.
  • A 3-4″ diameter tube about 30cm long (cut to fit). This tube will be fitted around the West condenser, plugged at the lower end, and filled with dry ice. It can be either plastic or cardboard (mailing tubes). Make sure the condenser will fit inside the tube.
  • A 2-liter plastic bucket or other container in which the 1000ml RB flask will fit comfortably.
  • A controllable vacuum source.

6.3 Discussion

This is an easy procedure to perform, allowing one to make 400ml of 70% nitric acid in one day. The basic idea is to vacuum distill over the nitric oxide created by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium nitrate, condense it into a liquid with dry ice, and then drop it into distilled water to capture and dilute the resulting acid. The final step is to boil off the excess water, leaving about 200ml of very clean acid from each batch. The tricks to making this reaction work are a controllable vacuum source and precision control of the heat source.

Set up the lab jack with the hotplate and pot resting on the top surface. Suspend the empty 2000ml RB flask above the pot with a tri-grip. Position it so the bottom of the flask is clear of the pot. Also make sure that the pot can be raised to a point where the flask will touch the bottom of the pot.

While the flask is bottomed out in the pot, add enough vegetable oil (Wesson Oil works) to reach about 1″ from the top rim of the pot. Lower the lab jack, hotplate, and pot. Wipe the 2000ml flask clean with a paper towel and remove. Turn on the hotplate to a medium setting. We wish to heat the oil to 90-100°C and no hotter, so measure it with a candy thermometer and adjust the hotplate setting accordingly. We now have a precision heat source that can be applied and removed very rapidly by raising or lowering the lab jack.

We must now prepare our condenser. Seal off one nipple of the condenser with a short piece of plastic tubing that has been sealed on one end by melting the plastic together. Fill the condenser wall with isopropyl alcohol. Seal off the remaining nipple with another section of plastic tubing. Attach the vacuum takeoff and insert into the tubing. The top end should be positioned so the 24/40 joint is even with the top of the plastic tube. When positioned correctly, stuff a little pink insulation into the bottom opening and seal the bottom end of the tube with duct tape. The vacuum takeoff should be the only thing protruding. Attach the stillhead. Fill the tube with chips of dry ice and seal with a little pink insulation material. One will need to construct some custom supports for the tube-a couple of pieces of wood with “V”s cut into them works nicely, especially if mounted to a bottom plate for rigidity.

Next, pour 300ml of distilled water into the receiver flask and position it with a tri-grip and stand so it rests inside our small plastic bucket when attached to the vacuum takeoff. Add cold water to the bucket, then add crushed ice to keep the solution cool-much heat will be generated as the nitric oxide drips into the distilled water. Add a layer of rock salt on top of the ice to further reduce the temperature.

Add 365ml (685g) of sulfuric acid to the 2000ml RB flask. Then 600g of sodium nitrate is added in small portions while swirling the acid. Do this inside a fume cabinet. There will be no visible reaction. Mount well above the heat source. Assemble all of the glassware and attach the vacuum hose with the bleeder valve open so there is no vacuum. Slowly close the bleeder valve and bring the vacuum down to 25-26″Hg on the vacuum gauge.

One must be aware that excessive heat will cause foaming and the nitric oxide to come over too fast to condense. One should slowly raise the oil pot until it barely contacts the reaction vessel. Be prepared to quickly lower the pot if excessive boiling occurs. Watch the drip-tip of the vacuum takeoff; liquid nitric oxide should drip into the distilled water at a rate of 1 drop per second, maximum. Any faster than this will result in overheating the dilute acid and suck much nitric oxide into the vacuum system. It will take 2-3 hours to complete the reaction. During this time, one must replenish the dry ice supply in the tube. Use a flour scoop to carefully add to the tube. There should be 500-600ml of liquid in the receiver when done.

The next step is to remove the excess water from the acid solution in the receiver. This is done by simply boiling the liquid in a normal distillation setup. Distill over water until the temperature climbs to 118-120°C. What is left in the vessel is very pure, clear 70% nitric acid. Store in a cool dry place that is dark. It will keep for several years.

If one’s nitric acid becomes discolored, simply distill it.

7.0 Laboratory Equipment and Procedures

Unless one has spent many hours doing organic syntheses, there are many lab techniques and procedures that that will be unknown. This section attempts to cover some of the basics applicable to clandestine labs.

7.1 Fume Hood

One must have a fume cabinet, period. Fortunately, they are easy to build. This writer constructed an integrated fume cabinet/lab that fits on a single sheet of plywood. Note the plastic sheeting used to seal the enclosure when noxious fumes are present. Not shown is the exhaust fan that runs continuously. Use a fan that moves at least 250 cfm of air.

7.2 Water Aspirator

A high volume aspirator is required for many of the procedures described in this document. Although industrial strength aspirators can be purchased, they can also be constructed from common pipe fittings found at the hardware store. Shown in the accompanying photograph is this writer’s aspirator. There is a lot of cut-and-try involved in building a homebrew aspirator, so purchase one if possible. Also required to complete an aspirator system are a pump supplying 50-70 psi of water pressure and a reservoir of cold water. The pump can be a common 1/3 HP jet pump wired to a switch in the lab. These pumps are inexpensive, but are only good for about 200 hours of hard use, so keep a spare handy. The water reservoir must hold sufficient volume to prevent rapid heating of the water and be able to absorb solvents and fumes. A good reservoir size is about 100 gallons or two fifty-gallon drums connected together at the bottom and filled to 2/3. Water temperature is very important. The colder, the better. In sub-freezing temperatures, just add some plumbing antifreeze and one’s aspirator will pull a mighty vacuum. Unfortunately, as the water temperature rises, so does it’s vapor pressure, and this imposes a limit on the vacuum one can pull. To reduce the vapor pressure of the water, lower the temperature with a block of ice from the freezer.

Another essential component of the system is the vacuum trap. The trap keeps one’s mistakes during distillation from ruining the rest of the equipment. Placed between the aspirator and the vacuum hose, it collects any liquids not condensed into the receiver. One can be made using a 1-qt. Mason jar. Using a drill press, carefully drill two holes in the top that are just big enough to accept the base of a 3/8″ brass nipple. Braze the nipples to the top. Using a gasket, seat the top on the jar. Screw the top down firmly and attach the vacuum lines (Use 3/8″ reinforced hydraulic hose, as this size fits the nipples on vacuum-takeoff glassware and doesn’t collapse under a good vacuum). Place the vacuum trap somewhere it won’t get bumped; this writer built a 3-sided wood box lined with insulation. This is because the Mason jar will easily implode under a good vacuum. Check for leaks and use some pliable external house caulking to fix it. It is a good idea to change the water in the aspirator system daily, as solvents will attack the plastic pump impellors.

The next requirement is for a vacuum distribution system. The accompanying picture shows the vacuum input from the right, a distribution hose on top that attaches to glassware at the other end, a 0-29″ Hg vacuum gauge, and an industrial strength 1/8″ bleeder valve. A more suitable bleeder valve is a needle valve with a 0.050 aperture. The entire assembly is located inside the fume cabinet. The vacuum inlet at the right comes from the vacuum trap and may be replaced as required with a vacuum pump hose.

7.3 Distillation Tips

Below are some tips that will make vacuum distillations go smoothly.

  • Always use Dow-Corning High Vacuum Grease or it’s equivalent on glass joints. Use sparingly and keep glass joints clean.
  • Use Teflon (PTFE) boiling chips. They typically come in 1 lb. Cans. Use liberally, add fresh boiling stones each time the vacuum is broken or the liquid cools down.
  • Wait until the vacuum is stabilized before applying heat, then use the minimum heat required.
  • Maintain a 30°C temperature differential between the water flowing through the condenser and the condensate. The condensation line in the condenser should be between ½ and 2/3 the way down the condenser.
  • Don’t fill the distillation vessel more than halfway full. You can cheat a little bit on this one. Another don’t is “bumping”; this is easily recognizable and if it starts, stop the distillation immediately. Some heavier compounds like P2P and benzaldehyde are naturally “bumpy”, so one has to exercise some judgement.
  • Don’t get in hurry when doing large volume distillations; the condenser throughput rate is fixed and adding more heat won’t speed things up but will send some of one’s distillate into the vacuum system.

7.4 Reference Material

The following books are essential to any clandestine lab.

Merck Index
This handy volume provides one with all the essential data on most compounds, including molecular weight, density, boiling and freezing points, common usages, and references pointing to manufacturing techniques.
Uncle Fester’s Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, 3rd and 4th ed., Loompanics.
These comprehensive books provide the references and good pointers for those reading between the lines. In reading these books, one should bear in mind that if one is a little too accurate in his technical descriptions, one could find one’s ass in a prison sling. Hooray for Cypherpunks!
A Chemical Technicians Reference Handbook.
This is a valuable reference for solvent characteristics and lab procedures.
A college level Organic Chemistry textbook for a reference to common reaction mechanisms.

8.0 Keeping Out Of Trouble

If one can observe all of the following tips, one might be able to retire to a legal occupation with a good head start.

  • Work alone and keep your mouth shut. This is the most important advice this writer can pass on, and the most difficult to follow. It is tempting to share one’s secret success with one’s closest friend, perhaps even inviting him to help. Unfortunately, he feels compelled to tell his wife, who is secretly planning to leave him for a stockbroker and wants some leverage to facilitate her stripping your friend of all his assets. Well, you get the picture. One can crow all one wants, as I am in this document, once one has disposed of both product and equipment.
  • Do not talk business on the phone. Do not even call to make an appointment to talk. Every phone call, even local calls, are logged. Each log contains the originating phone number, the destination phone number, the time the call was originated, and the completion time. From this seemingly innocuous record, Inquisition Agents can weave a pattern of times, places, and connections that will look bad in court, even if fictitious. One can establish secure communications using PGP encryption software and anonymous remailers.
  • Never, ever, ever try to sell product while a lab is operating. This is like juggling rattlesnakes – it’s easy to get bit.
  • Don’t make this a career. All of the career dope cookers are in prison. Decide ahead of time how much dope you want to make, plan it carefully, do it, and then retire. Think of it as a temporary thing one is doing to get a leg up in life. Keep in mind that your first mistake will also be your last. There is no glory in becoming a headline, only grief.
  • Acquire and store all of your essential chemicals, supplies, and equipment before trying anything. This is the most dangerous activity, legally speaking, one will perform. If one attracts some heat, one can wait it out without having an operating lab to conceal. Keep in mind that the drug inquisitors do not have the time to hang around where there are no labs to busts or assets to seize. After a few months they will go away.
  • Use intermediaries to acquire chemicals, telling them you are just an intermediary also. Never tell anyone what you are doing.
  • Never front product. Once one fronts product, one is assuming all of one’s customer’s risks. One is better off flushing product down the drain. At least it can’t come back to bite. Do not trade for stolen property or phony money.
  • Don’t listen to your non-chemist customers on quality issues, no matter how emphatic or convincing they are. Users quickly build a tolerance for the product and feel the product is no longer full strength. In addition, many users grow to enjoy the jolt received from impurities present in much of the present street product. This jolt is not present in pure meth.
  • Always act like an ignorant, low-paid middleman who has to pass messages on to his superiors. This allows one to feign ignorance on all quality issues or money disputes and agree with one’s customer. It also provides one with bargaining leverage, allowing one to claim that one’s puny cut will be gone if the price goes lower.
  • Never flash cash or start buying expensive items not in fitting with one’s usual lifestyle. If one is renting, rent a nicer place or buy a modest house. Buy used cars and repair them to perfection instead of new, flashy cars. Invest the profits in stocks, T-bills, and other liquid assets. Go into a legal business and live happily ever after, knowing that one has successfully defied the Inquisition and struck a blow for individual freedom.

Important Message for Those With a Substance Abuse Problem: If you or someone you know is suffering from an addiction they need to find a Drug Rehab or Alcohol Rehab so they can recover from their substance abuse addiction. Relapse prevention is important in theaddiction treatment process and is critical for long term sobreity. For more information on how to get help with an addiction please call 800-559-9503 to speak directly with a counselor.

G.I. Joe is an iconic cartoon TV show that marked an entire generation of young boys during the 80s. Most fans still recall the main characters and the epic gun fights. But what about the storyline? A look at the TV series in today’s context is quite a strange experience: Many of Cobra’s “far-out” plots are actually happening today. Could G.I. Joe be a case of predictive programming? We will look at some G.I. Joe episodes describing the replacement of the US dollar and the usage of mind control on celebrities and civilians and see how they relate in today’s context.

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As a guy who grew up in the 80s, I can personally attest that G.I. Joe was definitely on the menu in my after-school TV cartoon line-up. If you’re a younger reader, let me tell you this (at the risk of sounding like a grumpy uncle): G.I. Joe wasn’t your wimpy Dora the Explorer cartoon. It was a half-hour full of bad-ass characters face-kicking and laser-gun-shooting their way to victory. And that’s pretty much what I remembered of this TV show – laser-gun shootouts – until recently.

A reader of this site recommended I view a particular episode of the series called Money to Burn, which depicts in great detail a vital part of today’s NWO agenda (discussed later). I was in shock. So I watched other episodes in the series and this is what I saw: psychological warfare, tapping into occult forces to obtain political power, military research funded by huge corporations and mind control used on civilians and celebrities. The series pretty much summed up the entire contents of the Vigilant Citizen website. Most of the shady things are accomplished by Cobra Commander, the “bad-guy” of the show, who is a ruthless terrorist aiming for world domination. The Joes always managed to stop Cobra, however, dismantling his evil schemes in an orgy of laser-gun fire and spectacular explosions.

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Cobra Commander angrily pointing at something.

Watching the shows today, however, was very unsettling: Because of open-access information laws and the Internet, it is slowly coming to light that today’s shadow governments are actually carrying out most of Cobra’s plans … in real life. News about these plans come on a daily basis in mainstream news (we do our best here at Vigilant Citizen to report them in Latest News section). Did G.I. Joe contain “predictive programming”, a technique based on planting ideas and concepts in the brains of viewers in order to make them seem normal and easily accepted when they actually happen?

Show Overview

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero ran in syndication from 1985 to 1989. The opening title sequence stated: “G.I. Joe is the code name for America’s daring, highly-trained Special Mission force. Its purpose: To defend human freedom against Cobra, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.” The shows ended with a public service announcement, where the Joes gave safety tips to the children. These announcements always concluded with a now-famous saying: “Knowing is half the battle!”

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A mustache makes you automatically credible.

The animated series was designed to promote Hasbro’s line of action figures of the same name. In fact, each episode purposely featured a different character in order to boost the associated toy’s sales. Maybe this is the reason why the Joes had relatively lame and clichéd dialogue compared to the more complex and interesting Cobras. Other than promoting merchandise, the series pushed an obvious pro-American-military-industrial-complex agenda, a reflection of the Reagan-era dogma happening at the time, which was characterized by a showdown with the Soviet Union. In this context, one might expect the Cobra Organization to represent the “evil communists” as was the trend in so many movies in the 1980s.

Surprisingly, that is not the case. The “bad guys” in G.I. Joe are actually funded by a huge American corporation named Extensive Enterprises and its reptilian leaders (wink to David Icke) carried out their devious plans from hidden “Cobra Temples”. These bases, established all across the world with no regard to national borders, were often situated in mystical locations, such as Easter Island or by China’s underground terracotta warriors (Cobras apparently believe in the powers of geomancy). In fact, the Cobra Organization bears few characteristics of a communist or “terrorist” organization and many characteristics of an elitist secret society in the style of what we call the Illuminati.

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The “Cobra Command” shaped like an unfinished pyramid. This shape can be found in many instances in Cobra Temples.
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The unfinished pyramid is today’s most famous Illuminati symbol.

Even more significant is the plot of the first G.I. Joe episode ever aired. In the mini-series, titled Pyramid of Darkness, Cobra seeks to take control of the world by shutting down the power grid of the Northern Hemisphere.

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The Cobra elite visualizing their plans for creating a Pyramid of Darkness on earth. Creating a pyramid to keep the world “in the dark” is a powerful symbol for Illuminati control of the masses. The word Illuminati  stands for “the enlightened” … most of its power is based on the masses being as ignorant and dumbed-down as possible. In other words: in the dark.

As we watch later episodes, it becomes noticeable that Cobra Commander’s numerous plans to conquer the world are eerily similar to actual events happening today, 25 years after the broadcast of these episodes, in another example of how “science fiction” is indeed becoming reality. Here are some aspects of the Illuminati agenda that were exploited in G.I. Joe:

Making Paper Money Worthless and Taking Possession of People’s Gold

In the episode entitled Money to Burn, Cobra finds a way to instantly burn all of America’s paper money using a “thermo-molecular ignition transmitter”, effectively rendering the American dollar useless.

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A scared lady seeing her money bursting into flames.

Cobra then addresses the nation through a TV broadcast (he seems to have easy access to mass media). This is what he says:

“Attention citizens! Due to the financial irresponsibility and incompetence of your leaders, Cobra has found it necessary to restructure your nation’s economy. We have begun by eliminating the worthless green paper, which your government has deceived you into believing is valuable. Cobra will come to your rescue and, out of the ashes, will arise a NEW ORDER!”

This is pretty deep stuff for a show aimed at children under 12. This speech basically outlines the modus operandi of the Illuminati shadow government: create a crisis, cause chaos, claim to have the only solution, get people to beg for that solution, and restore “Order out of Chaos”. Furthermore, declaring this New Order to rise out of its ashes is reminiscent of the Masonic concept of a phoenix rising out of the ashes.

There is truth in Cobra’s statement regarding the real value of  paper money. The American dollar has had no actual value since  1971, when the gold standard was abandoned by the Nixon administration. The American dollar’s value used to be based on a fixed weight of gold. Today it can effectively lose all its value and become worthless overnight, as its value is not backed by any tangible goods … and this is what was happening in this episode of G.I. Joe.

After Cobra’s announcement, the dazed and confused American people assemble before the Department of Treasury and shout “We want money!”, begging the government to provide a solution to their problem. The Joes see the situation and observe that “buying and selling has been replaced by rioting and looting”.

Then Cobra appears on TV again and says:

“Citizens of the United States, I am pleased to announce Cobra’s economic recovery plan! If you want money to buy food for your children, take all your valuables to the nearest branch of Extensive Entreprises. There, all goods will be exchanged for Cobra currency!”

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Cobra presenting the new currency to be exchanged for people’s valuables, such as gold.

This exact phenomena is happening today. There is currently a sustained effort to take gold and other valuables off the hands of the public through “Cash for Gold” programs. You might have been assaulted by ridiculous ads like these:

In a hidden Cobra Temple, the heads of Extensive Enterprises show a rich client the “largest stockpile of tangible assets ever assembled”.
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A vault full of the ignorant people’s gold.

Fortunately, the Joes come to the rescue, restored the American dollar and destroyed pretty much everything in sight, including the Cobra Temple. Yo Joe!

Mind Controlling Celebrities to Mind Control the Masses

Many articles on this site discuss the use of mind control in popular culture, a concept that might be hard for some to believe. Well, the Joes were fighting it back in 1986.

SOLD OUT SINGERS

In the episode entitled Rendez-Vous in the City of the Dead, Shipwreck and Snake Eyes (two G.I. Joe characters) enter a Cobra-owned night club named “Snake Club” (Cobra obviously knows the power of indoctrinating the youth through entertainment). There, a signer named Satin sings the praise of Cobra in the form of a love song. The singers’ backup dancers are dressed alike in Cobra-style costumes.

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Backup dancers making Cobra control cool and fashionable.

Now, where did I see a famous singer performing on stage with dancers symbolizing the people’s oppression? Oh, right, right, right …

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Beyonce making police in riot gear cool and fashionable at the 2010 Grammy Awards.
MK-ULTRA CELEBRITIES

In another episode, titled Glamour Girls, the show describes nothing less than the use of MK Ultra in the entertainment business.

Cobra Commander, with the help of Dr. Mindbender, strikes a deal with an international cosmetic tycoon. Cobra agrees to provide a constant flow of beautiful young girls to the company in exchange for a face-transplant technology developed by the tycoon. Cobra therefore launches “Operation High Fashion”, which aims to recruit young models, singers and actresses by catering to their dreams of being famous.

In order to lure these girls, Cobra sends them invitations to a photo shoot, which will appear in an issue of  “Glamour Girls” magazine, the most prestigious fashion magazine in the world – a publication that is owned by Cobra’s Extensive Enterprises (Cobra of course owns multiple media outlets, like today’s Illuminati).

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Not surprisingly, all of the girls who received an invitation are ecstatic at the idea of appearing in the magazine and they gladly present themselves at the Glamour Girls building for the photo shoot. But they are being tricked: The camera’s flash sends subliminal hypnotic messages to the models, making them highly suggestible and easily manageable.

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Once hypnotized, the models obey any command.

The models are then instructed to go to a “party” and they do so without questioning. In their mind-controlled state, the models dissociate from reality and perceive the party as being a glamorous get-together attended by classy gentlemen. When their hypnotic state wears off however, the harsh reality kicks in.

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When the girls snap out of their dissociative state, one of them says “We’re not in Kansas anymore”. This is a reference to the Wizard of Oz, a movie that is used in actual mind control programming. Being in or out of “Kansas” is in fact a code word regarding a subject’s dissociative state.

All of the young girls and celebrities who fall for this trap are manhandled and thrown into a dungeon.

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A celebrity trapped in a heavily guarded dungeon. Similar programming facilities are used in actual mind control projects.

The theme of mind control is becoming increasingly prevalent in today’s fashion industry and it is often coded with the use of lifeless mannequins and Monarch butterflies.

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Megan Fox in a mind-control themed photo shoot.

Fortunately, the Joes manage to track down the Cobra’s dungeon, punch everybody’s lights out and rescue the young ladies. Yo Joe!

Using Mind-Controlled Civilians in Secret Military Missions

In Operation Mind Menace, the theme of mind control is yet again exploited. In this episode, the Cobra Organization kidnaps civilians known to have psychic abilities, in order to harness their power and use them in secret missions.

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Kidnapped civilians with psychic powers entering the Cobra Temple. The device on their chests are amplifiers. Similar devices are reportedly implanted in the brains of actual Theta programming victims.

In Monarch programming terms, this is known as “Theta Programming” and it encompasses the usage of psychic powers, such as extra-sensory perception (ESP), remote viewing, telepathy and psychic killing. Documents have been released proving that the CIA has been conducting experiments to harness these powers and to use them on the battlefield since the 1970s:

“THETA considered to the “psychic” programming. Bloodliners (those coming from multi-generational Satanic families) were determined to exhibit a greater propensity for having telepathic abilities than did non-bloodliners. Due to its evident limitations, however, various forms of electronic mind control systems were developed and introduced, namely, bio-medical human telemetry devices (brain implants), directed-energy lasers using microwaves and/or electromagnetics.”
– Ron Patton, Project Monarch Mind Control

“Theta Programming got its name just as the Alpha, Beta, and Delta Programming in part from the four types of EEG brain waves. Theta waves are frequent in children. (…) Psychic warfare became a branch of the Monarch Programming. This is the Theta Programming. It is the marriage of occult practices with state of the art science. The idea to be able to copy what Elisha did to the King of Syria (2 KG 6:11-12) when he “telepathically” spied on the enemy, discovered their plans, and thereby ruined their chances of success. Today this has been called “ESPionage”, and the U.S. Army’s term is “psychotronics”. Of course, the CIA’s position is that they couldn’t find anything that worked, but that is simply not true, because the co-authors know of many Theta alters and Theta model systems which have Theta programming which is successful.  (…)

Whether the public perceives Psychic warfare as viable or not, billions of dollars have been spent on it, and numerous Theta models produced. (…)

Since slaves can not be consistently given Theta programming, a surgical implantation of a sodium/lithium powered high frequency receiver/transducers coupled with a multi-range discharge capacitor was placed into the brains of Monarch slaves. This gives the handlers the ability to signal by remote signals to the victim’s brain. When the receiver picks up the signals they electronically stimulate certain areas of the brain which in turn triggers pre-set programming. Implants are now being placed in a high percentage of the Monarch slaves.”
– Fritz Springmeier, The Illuminati Formula to Create an Undetectable Mind Control Slave

These secret programs are slyly being revealed to the public in movies.  In Men Who Stare at Goats, the issue is presented as comedy. However, the movie is based on an actual US military project: Lieutenant Colonel Jim Channon’s First Earth Battalion.

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The First Earth Battalion was renamed New Earth Army in Men Who Stare At Goats, a unit using extra-sensory powers (ESP). The movie also vaguely alluded to the dark/satanic side of mind control in some scenes.

In G.I. Joe, the mind-controlled civilians talk in a robotic manner and are detained in high-tech facilities.

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Mind-controlled civilians in Cobra’s high tech detention facility

Fortunately, the Joes tracked down the Cobras, rescued the civilians and kicked everyone’s ass back to sanity. Yo Joe!

In Conclusion

G.I. Joe is an iconic mid-80′s television series that undoubtedly impacted the imagination of an entire generation of children. The action-packed battle scenes, the memorable characters and the futuristic, sci-fi plots made the show a sure hit with young boys, especially. Watching these shows today, we discover that many of the Cobra’s plots have been a hidden reality and/or are slowly becoming reality. And these plans are not coming from “a shadowy terrorist organization” but from our own “elected” leaders and their elite rulers.

The Joes are presented as a group of all-American soldiers with strong values, fighting with integrity and honesty against an ever-plotting terrorist group. They are what the American army is supposed to be and the ideal image that the military-industrial-complex want us to believe. But the Joe’s enemies, the ever-plotting terrorist group is not a foreign menace: It exists within the system. In other words, if the Joes existed today, they would probably be fighting their own government , the hidden part of it … what we call the Illuminati.

So the question remains: Why did the series describe these sophisticated plans with such vivid details to its youthful audience? Was G.I. Joe one of the many TV shows and movies sponsored by the American government and the owners of the mass media companies who broadcast it? Were they preparing the youth to the revelation of realities by exposing it to them at a young age? Were they trying to warn the public? The creators of this show definitely knew the answer to these questions, and we should too. Because knowing is half the battle.

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Take action now to protect your access to vitamin C

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(NaturalNews) Not content to kill 100,000 Americans each year with deadly Big Pharma drugs while censoring the truth about the healing effects of herbs, nutritional supplements and natural medicines, the FDA has now set out todeny Americans access to yet another lifesaving medicineknown simply as vitamin C.
As reported by theAlliance for Natural Health, the FDA has notified a manufacturer of injectable vitamin C that it will becriminally prosecutedif it continues to manufacture this lifesaving nutritional therapy. (http://www.anh-usa.org/action-alert…)

Why injectablevitamin Csaves lives

In an age where tens of millions of Americans are already vitamin C deficient and suffer from colds and other infections that can be prevented withvitamins, the FDA appears to be acting on what can only be calleda death wishfor theAmerican people. But really, it’s more likely a targeted attack at thealternativecancerindustrythat frequently uses injectable vitamin C to helppatientseliminate cancer tumors and heal from various cancers.
If there’s one thing that thehealthauthorities in the United States absolutely cannot tolerate, it’snatural curesfor cancer. That’s why (nearly) all thenaturalcancer treatment clinics have been chased out of the country, leaving only toxic chemotherapy centers (poison clinics) in their place. And that’s probably whythe FDAis going after vitamin C right now as well. Take away enough naturalcuresand the people will beforcedinto accepting conventionalmedicine, regardless of whether it works or not.
Injectable vitamin C has many other uses besides cancer, too. As the ANH reports, “Thegovernment, instead of banning intravenous vitamin C, should instead be supporting research into it. Even though IV C is being used in burn units around the world, including in the US, and has been adopted by the military for this purpose, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) refuses to fund anystudiesusing intravenous C in patients. There are privately funded studies currently underway, but of course these cannot continue if theFDAbans the substance.”

Take action now to protect your access to vitamin C

Please take a moment to take action with both of the following petitions:
TheAlliance for Natural Healthhas posted an online action item that sends a letter to Dr Margaret Hamburg, the commissioner of the FDA:

https://secure3.convio.net/aahf/site/Advocacy?cmd=display&page=UserAction&id=648

TheNatural Solutions Foundationhas also posted an action item, this one going out to various FDA and government officials:
http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/…
Of course, sending these letters to FDAbureaucratsassumes that they give a damn about human health in the first place, and after observing the FDA’s behavior over the last several years, I can confidently state that the FDA’s own actions betray its real agenda: Toprotect the profits of thedrugcompaniesby eliminating competing products such as vitamin C.
As Dr Rima Laibow says about this issue, “When injectible Vitamin C goes, the rest will soon go, and the natural Docs WILL be criminalized a la the infamous Flexner report. Codex standards effectively criminalize accurate speech onnutrition. This IS the other shoe; I do not believe we are being alarmist.”

The rise of tyranny

The larger issue here, however, is not this isolated decision by the FDA but rather the question:Why do unelected regulatory bureaucrats have suchpowerin the first place?
While we may electlawmakersin America today, those lawmakers have long since delegated the real “laws of the land” to bureaucratic agencies like the FDA which are run byunelected politicianswho simply write their own laws and regulations without the approval ofCongress. This situation is described by attorney Jonathan Emord asThe Rise of Tyranny, which also happens to be the name of his book on the topic (http://www.amazon.com/Rise-Tyranny-…)
This book, which I consider a “must read” on the subject of healthfreedom, explains how the delegation of powers to rogue federal agencies (FDA,DEA, DHS, TSA, etc.) results in the nation being ruled by tyrannical bureaucrats who operateoutside the authority of Congress. Under this power structure, for example, the FDA could simply announce one day that “all vitamins are illegal,” without Congressional approval and without any new laws being debated or signed into law. The delegation of powers to agencies like the FDA is thegranting of dictatorial police state powersover entire sectors of our society.
The FCC, for example, may simply decide to seize control over the internet at any time. TheTSAcould simply announce it’s going to performbodycavity searches on all air travelers starting this Saturday. The DEA could announce it’s going to arrest operators of websites that evendiscussmarijuana. The FDA, likewise, could announce that “all herbalists are criminals” and proceed to have them all arrested.
Think this couldn’t happen? It’s happening right now, one step at a time. Last year it was cherries and walnuts (http://www.naturalnews.com/029698_c…). Today it’s injectable vitamin C. Tomorrow it could be all vitamin D supplements, or raw cacao, or medicinalherbs. The point is thatthe FDA could take away our access to supplements virtually overnightwith no debate, no scientific scrutiny, and no Congressional oversight. The FDA is, itself, a tyrannical police state branch of the federal government that is now proceeding to take away Americans’ access to lifesaving supplements one by one.
Senator Rand Paul hopes to put a stop to this bureaucratic madness by introducing legislation that would require Congressional approval for such regulatory actions by any federal agency. That would strip the power out of the hands of these rogue agencies and put it back into the hands of lawmakers who are elected. While this may not be a perfect solution (because most lawmakers are still largely just corporate whores, to state it matter-of-factly), it would certainly be an improvement over the current situation whereunelected bureaucratsrule over the American people as if they were dictators.
You know whythe TSAis reaching down your pants? For the same reason the FDA is banning injectable vitamin C — becausethis nation is run by tyrants, not the legislators who are elected by the People. And as long as the tyrants are in charge, freedom can never be fully expressed.

Stop begging the King and just pick up your pitchforks

That’s why opposing the FDA on this decisionby appealing to the FDA itselfis sort of likebegging the King to change his mind. It’s a slave-mentality action. Sure, it may be useful at some level, and that’s why we support these petitions, but let’s not kid ourselves on the fact that this is a slave-mentality appeal to a group of tyrants who act as if they were the King.
The real solution here is not to appeal to the King as peons, but rather to pick up our pitchforks,storm the castle, tie a rope around the neck of the King and hang him from a high castle wall (metaphorically speaking, of course) to send a message to all other would-be tyrants thatmessing with the freedom of the people will have consequences.
The way to accomplish that in our modern world would be toarrest FDA commissioner Margaret Hamburg for her crimes against humanity, prosecute her in a fair and open trial, and watch her serve time in prison while firing all the other bureaucrats at the FDA and dismantling the agency. No good can come out of the FDA. It is beyond repair. It is effectively workingagainstthe interests of the American people, making it as dangerous as a foreign enemy organization such as a terrorist group.
With the FDA, we are past the point of being able to negotiate with rational human beings who have ethics and souls. What we are dealing with at the FDA and other agencies are real-lifeincarnations of evilwho are pursuing an agenda to spreaddeathand suffering across our lands while they increase their power and control. And remember, the Congress just put the FDA in charge of the national food supply, too. Oh yippee. I can’t wait to see thembanbroccolibecause broccoli contains anti-cancer medicine, too.
I have a feeling that I will have a very exciting future as a broccoli smuggler. That’s my dream. To be the Han Solo ofvegetables, fighting the Evil Empire with the power of garden vegetables.
Hold on a sec… somebody already did that! You can watch the hilarious video here:http://naturalnews.tv/v.asp?v=D86C3…
The Organic Rebellion is fighting back!
Learn more:http://www.naturalnews.com/030936_vitamin_C_FDA.html#ixzz1AM7n0ZE5

15 Dirty Big Pharma Tricks That Rip You Off and Risk Your Health for Profit

Even during a recession, pharma is still the nation’s third most profitable sector. Here are some of the dirty tricks it employs to stay on top.

December 22, 2010  |

Even during a two-year recession with people losing their homes and jobs, pharma is still the nation’s third most profitable sector. How does it do that? In part by cheating the government, misrepresenting science, bribing doctors, patients and pharmacies, and squeezing the FDA. Other than that, the industry plays completely fair. Pharma has often been criticized for lack of creativity in developing new drugs. But these dirty tricks show its creativity is alive and well when it comes to putting the public at risk just to turn a profit.

1. Astroturf Patients?

Pharma promotes fake patient advocacy groups to lobby for its interests.

These front groups often push the FDA to approve an expensive drug that has acceptable, cheaper alternatives. Or, they’ll try to prevent Medicaid from switching to the less pricey drug. One of the largest faux groups, the “grassroots” National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), was investigated by Sen. Charles Grassley for undisclosed pharma links. He found the 10 top NAMI state chapters received $3.84 million from pharma in less than five years, the biggest largesse from Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb.

How else can you tell an<a href="http:// http://www.lakelandtimes.com/main.asp?SectionID=9&SubSectionID=9&ArticleID=9471&TM=44069.06 astroturf group? Their Web sites look just like the pharma companies that fund them.

2. Cheating the Government

Pharma is now a top defrauder of the federal government. “Desperate to maintain their high margin of profit in the face of a dwindling number of important new drugs,” pharma illegally promotes unapproved uses of drugs and deliberately overcharges Medicare and Medicaid, says Dr. Sidney Wolfe, director of Public Citizen’s Health Research Group. Pharmaceutical companies have been hit with $14.8 billion in wrongdoing settlements in the last five years. But that’s still cheaper for Big Pharma than going about things the old-fashioned, legal way. So the fraud continues.

3. Trials and Fibulations

Presiding over clinical trials can make a doctor thousands per patient. But they wouldn’t compromise patient safety just to make a buck, would they? Medical College of Georgia psychiatrist Richard Borison and his colleague Bruce Diamond did 13 years ago when they tested Zyprexa, Risperdal and 20 other drugs and ended up in jail. So did Baystate Medical Center’s Scott Reuben, who went to prison earlier this year for fraudulent Celebrex, Neurontin and Lyrica trials. And a Tucson facility testing asthma drugs Symbicort, Advair and Singulair doctored data and risked patients’ health to net as much as $10,000 per patient, according to a whistleblower and government and court documents. How many other drugs were tested for such fiscal outcomes? Not counting recalled ones, of course.

4. More Trials and Fibulations

Even without fraud, pharma-sponsored studies can deceive. Trials that only determine that a drug is “not worse” than another one or impute safety before real data are available — as in the case of Vioxx and Avandia’s threat of heart attacks — can skew results. And some research is not meant to be accurate to begin with. The Johnson & Johnson Center for Pediatric Psychopathology Research at Massachusetts General Hospital was founded to “move forward the commercial goals of J.& J.” according to unsealed court documents. Its head, Harvard’s Joseph Biederman, promised J.& J. a proposed drug trial “will support the safety and effectiveness of risperidone [Risperdal] in this age group,”<a href="http:// http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/25/health/25psych.html?_r=1&scp=4&sq=%22Joseph%20Biederman%22&st=cse “>”>”> before it was ever conducted. Why leave things up to science?

5. Overseas Adventurism

As pharma increasingly eyes poorer countries for new markets and cheaper manufacturing it also eyes them for cheaper clinical trials. In 1996, 11 Nigerian children died in trials testing Pfizer’s not-yet-approved antibiotic Trovan. While Pfizer paid the Nigerian government and state of Kano millions in a settlement, documents released by Wikileaks show that Pfizer tried to extort Nigeria’s former attorney general to drop the lawsuits. Trovan was withdrawn from U.S. markets in 2001 for liver toxicity, though “safety signals” may have appeared sooner.

6. Clueless Institutional Review Boards

Institutional review boards, charged with overseeing clinical trials, should catch the unsafe drugs and shady trials. But a Congress and General Accountability Office sting conducted last year on a Colorado review board raises serious doubts. When asked to oversee a study of Adhesiabloc, a product designed to reduce scar tissue after surgery, Coast Independent Review Board said…when do we start? Even though the product did not exist — nor did its developer or lead researcher!

7. ‘Previous Government Experience Desirable’

In the fight against medical fraud, the Justice Department is beginning to file criminal, not just civil, charges against pharma. More employees also are turning whistleblower thanks to provisions that entitle whistleblowers to 15 and even 30 percent of fraud settlements, in some cases. But the other side has a big advantage. As long as politicians like former Louisiana Rep. Billy Tauzin, who left government to head the industry trade group PhRMA, and former CDC director Julie Gerberding, now head of Merck vaccines, are willing to commit a career’s worth of knowledge, judgment and relationships to sell product, the government is fighting itself.

8. Double Dealing at the Pharmacy

The best thing that ever happened to pharma (after direct-to-consumer advertising) is Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs). Their job is to negotiate the best drugs for their clients, which are heath and pension plans. But they seem far more adept at taking money to push pharma’s top branded drugs, regardless of the cost.

Recently CVS’ pharmacy benefit manager, AdvancePCS, sent letters to doctors extolling the benefits of the expensive drug Zyprexa on behalf of drug giant Eli Lilly. Had a generic drug been prescribed over Zyprexa, savings would have been huge.

9. FDA Foreplay

A sneaky way pharma tries to get FDA to approve a drug — even when the science isn’t there —  is to float the drug to the public. That’s where directed marketing comes in. When “patients” (these are often astroturf groups), really want a drug approved, it puts huge pressure on the FDA to be sensitive to the public’s wishes. This tactic famously flopped for Boehringer-Ingelheim this year when it tried to sell a medication for “hypoactive sexual desire disorder” (HSDD) in women (first it had to sell the disease itself). Even though BI debuted its pink Viagra at a medical conference last year and rolled out its elaborate “Sex Brain Body: Make the Connection” Web site with TV personality Lisa Rinna soon after, FDA said no. Seems even though Boehringer-Ingelheim was effective in “raising awareness” about female sexual dysfunction, something else wasn’t effective: the drug. And when it came to foreplay, the FDA had a headache.

10. Pharma Service Announcements

Public service announcements are messages for your own good, like, “Do You Know the Seven Warning Signs of Cancer?” But a lot of the awareness messages and warning signs you hear now are not from the government or medical groups, but pharma.

“Voices of Meningitis” ads on mom sites and online TV, for example, look like they are raising awareness of meningitis, but they were actually funded by maker Sanofi Pasteur, which makes a meningitis vaccine.

“Unbranded” advertising appears to have legit origins, like the National Association of School Nurses, which sponsors the Sanofi Pasteur’s meningitis ads. But when TV, radio and web messages push “awareness” of diseases like ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), restless legs syndrome (RLS) or excessive sleepiness (ES), be suspicious. Real diseases aren’t given initials for quick recall and easy reference. Nor do they come with snappy self-quizzes and pretty patient models. Unbranded messages also pimp the PSA (public service announcement) money that media outlets have for actual public issues.

11. National ‘Interests’ of Health

The National Institutes of Health are supposed to fund research for the public health with the public’s tax dollars. But recently, a researcher who was stripped of his own NIH grant because of his huge financial links to pharma, is ruling on other researchers’ grants on NIH committees, reports theChronicle of Higher Education. The researcher, psychiatrist Charles Nemeroff, was also allowed to keep NIH funds when he moved to the University of Miami after being disqualified from them at Emory University. Clearly, when it comes to conflicts of interest at the top of level of government research, the fox is guarding thehenhouse (or pork house).

12. Big Pharma Sends Schools Doctors

Continuing Medical Education (CME) are courses that doctors are required to take to keep their state licenses and stay up-to-date with current practice and treatment guidelines. But many are created by pharma, which covers the cost of the course for the doctor in exchange for unvarnished sales pitches. Worse, many are embarrassingly dumbed down.

A recent “course” offered by Medscape was titled “Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine May Be Effective in Women 24 to 45 Years Old.” Participants were told that after taking the course, they would be able to “specify the currently recommended age range” for the vaccine (especially if they could read the title!). Another course manipulates participants to “lobby your legislators” for pharma-related Medicare funding. Congress recently investigated the billion-dollar continuing educationindustry for illegal marketing — too bad Congress couldn’t investigate for stupidity.

13. Ghostwriting

Ghostwriting — papers written by medical marketing writers, with doctors only posing as the authors — was rampant until 2008 Congressional investigations. But even though it’s now prohibited, few journals have retracted ghostwritten articles that sold Vioxx, Fen Phen, Prempro and probably Avandia. Asked about the papers ghostwritten “by” Lila Nachtigall, a professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Deborah Bohren, vice president for public affairs at New York University’s Langone Medical Center said, “If we had received a complaint, we would have investigated.”

A Congressional investigation doesn’t qualify as a complaint?

14. Crooked Books and Slanted Messages

Pharma is often accused of ghostwriting articles that end up in medical journals under doctors’ names who had nothing to do with the writing or research. But this month an entire textbook was accused of being funded and approved by pharma. The 1999 textbook, written to help primary care doctors diagnose psychiatric conditions, was funded entirely by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) — which makes pills for… psychiatric conditions! Nor were its authors, two prominent psychiatrists, strangers to GSK. Alan Schatzberg is on GSK’s speakers bureau and Charles Nemeroff was investigated by Congress for undeclared GSK income. Did the authors write the book themselves or was it ghostwritten by pharma or its marketing company? Does it matter?

15. May I Take Your Order?

Have you ever waited in a doctor’s office with a 102-degree fever, only to have pharma reps swinging Vytorin totes see the doctor first, just because they brought free samples or lunch and are dressed for a music video (pharma tends to employ attractive people to hawk their wares)? Until Congressional investigations brought about the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, some doctors in medical centers say they never paid for a meal. Nor did pharma largesse end there. One doctor told AlterNet her entire group was jetted to a Caribbean island courtesy of her Paxil rep. Even medical students were schmoozed until the 62,000-member American Medical Student Association (AMSA) sought to end the pharma practice of gifts and free meals. Now pharma must report what it spends on doctors.

Knight of Malta George TenetThe first scam was the 911 demolition carried out by intelligence agents serving the Archbishop of New York City, Edward Cardinal Egan.  Knight of Malta/CFR-member/DCI George J. Tenet, trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service, performed exactly as ordered.  With the 911 controlled demolition denied and covered up by the pope’s CFR-directed 911 Commission, another lie—first perpetrated in order to justify the invasion of Afghanistan on October 7, 2001, the very same day the naval Battle of Lepanto was fought and won by the Knights of Malta in 1571—needed to be perpetuated.

Bin Laden osama_bush_capturedThat lie was asserting Al (CIA) Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was alive and dangerous thereby justifying massive military expenditures for his proposed capture.  The fact is Bin Laden had been dead since December 13, 2001, and Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld, Rice, Wolfowitz and the entire pope-worshipping, CFR-attending, neo-con gang knew the truth all along.  PakistaniBenazir Bhutto made clear the fact that Bin Laden had been assassinated when she was interviewed by Englishman David Frost on November 2, 2007.  Thirty-six days later, on December 8, 2007, she was murdered by agents of the Black Pope’s International Intelligence Community.  Since the endgame of the Jesuit Order for apostate Protestant and Baptist 14th Amendment America is “New Right” Jesuit Fascism, Satan’s Company of Jesus provided a false enemy against whom it could rally—rallied by Roman Catholic patronizers Bill O’Reilly, Sean Hannity, Geraldo Rivera, John Gibson, Laura Ingraham and Chris Wallace at Fox News!

Now Gordon Duff, a fearless Marine, writes a scathing article enumerating these acts of high treason while excoriating Bush and Co.  Well said!  Semper Fi!

GORDON DUFF: YEARS OF DECEIT: US OPENLY ACCEPTS BIN LADEN LONG DEAD

December 5, 2009 posted by Gordon Duff · 128 Comments

screenhunter_10_dec._05_11.01_320BIN LADEN NEVER MENTIONED IN McCHRYSTAL REPORT OR OBAMA SPEECH

“HUNT FOR BIN LADEN” A NATIONAL SHAME

By Gordon Duff/STAFF WRITER/Senior Editor

Conservative commentator, former Marine Colonel Bob Pappas has been saying for years that bin Laden died at Tora Bora and that Senator Kerry’s claim that bin Laden escaped with Bush help was a lie.  Now we know that Pappas was correct.  The embarrassment of having Secretary of State Clinton talk about bin Laden in Pakistan was horrific.  He has been dead since December 13, 2001 and now, finally, everyone, Obama, McChrystal, Cheney, everyone who isn’t nuts is finally saying what they have known for years.

However, since we lost a couple of hundred of our top special operations forces hunting for bin Laden after we knew he was dead, is someone going to answer for this with some jail time?  Since we spent 200 million dollars on “special ops” looking for someone we knew was dead, who is going to jail for that?  Since Bush, Rumsfeld and Cheney continually talked about a man they knew was dead, now known to be for reasons of POLITICAL nature, who is going to jail for that?  Why were tapes brought out, now known to be forged, as legitimate intelligence to sway the disputed 2004 election in the US?  This is a criminal act if there ever was one.

In 66 pages, General Stanley McChrystal never mentions Osama bin Laden.  Everything is “Mullah Omar”now.  In his talk at West Point, President Obama never mentioned Osama bin Laden.  Col. Pappas makes it clear, Vice President Cheney let it “out of the bag” long ago.  Bin Laden was killed by American troops many many years ago.

America knew Osama bin Laden died December 13, 2001.  After that, his use was hardly one to unite America but rather one to divide, scam and play games.  With bin Laden gone, we could have started legitimate nation building in Afghanistan instead of the eternal insurgency that we invented ourselves.

Without our ill informed policies, we could have had a brought diplomatic solution in 2002 in Afghanistan, the one we are ignoring now, and spent money rebuilding the country, 5 cents on the dollar compared to what we are spending fighting a war against an enemy we ourselves recruited thru ignorance.

The bin Laden scam is one of the most shameful acts ever perpetrated against the American people.  We don’t even know if he really was an enemy, certainly he was never the person that Bush and Cheney said.  In fact, the Bush and bin Laden families were always close friends and had been for many years.

What kind of man was Osama bin Laden?  This one time American ally against Russia, son of a wealthy Saudi family, went to Afghanistan to help them fight for their freedom.  America saw him as a great hero then.  Transcripts of the real bin Laden show him to be much more moderate than we claim, angry at Israel and the US government but showing no anger toward Americans and never making the kind of theats claimed.  All of this is public record for any with the will to learn.

osama_bush_capturedHow much of America’s tragedy is tied with these two children of the rich, children of families long joined thru money and friendship, the Bush and bin Laden clans.

One son died in remote mountains, another lives in a Dallas suburb hoping nobody is sent after him.  One is a combat veteran, one never took a strong stand unless done from safety and comfort.  Islam once saw bin Laden as a great leader.  Now he is mostly forgotten.

What has America decided about Bush?

We know this:  Bin Laden always denied any ties to 9/11 and, in fact, has never been charged in relation to 9/11.  He not only denied involvement, but had done so, while alive, 4 times and had vigorously condemned those who were involved in the attack.

This is on the public record, public in every free country except ours.  We, instead, showed films made by paid actors, made up to look somewhat similar to bin Laden, actors who contradicted bin Ladens very public statements, actors pretending to be bin Laden long after bin Laden’s death.

These were done to help justify spending, repressive laws, torture and simple thievery.

For years, we attacked the government of Pakistan for not hunting down someone everyone knew was dead.  Bin Laden’s death hit the newspapers in Pakistan on December 15, 2001.  How do you think our ally felt when they were continually berated for failing to hunt down and turn over someone who didn’t exist?

What do you think this did for American credibility in Pakistan and thru the Islamic world?  Were we seen as criminals, liars or simply fools?  Which one is best?

This is also treason.

How does the death of bin Laden and the defeat and dismemberment of Al Qaeda impact the intelligence assessments, partially based on, not only bin Laden but Al Qaeda activity in Iraq that,not only never happened but was now known to have been unable to happen?

How many “Pentagon Pundits,” the retired officers who sold their honor to send us to war for what is now known to be domestic political dirty tricks and not national security are culpable in these crimes?

I don’t always agree with Col. Pappas on things.  I believe his politics overrule his judgement at times.  However, we totally agree on bin Laden, simply disagree with what it means.  To me lying and sending men to their deaths based on lies is treason.

Falsifying military intelligence and spending billions on unnecessary military operations for political reasons is an abomination.  Consider this, giving billions in contracts to GOP friends who fill campaign coffers, and doing so based on falsified intelligence is insane.  This was done for years.

We spent 8 years chasing a dead man, spending billions, sending FBI agents, the CIA, Navy Seals, Marine Force Recon, Special Forces, many to their deaths, as part of a political campaign to justify running American into debt, enriching a pack of political cronies and war profiteers and to puff up a pack of Pentagon peacocks and their White house draft dodging bosses.

How many laws were pushed thru because of a dead man?

How many hundreds were tortured to find a dead man?

How many hundreds died looking for a dead man?

How many billions were spent looking for a dead man?

Every time Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld stood before troops and talked about hunting down the dead bin Laden, it was a dishonor.  Lying to men and women who put their lives on the line is not a joke.duffster

Who is going to answer to the families of those who died for the politics and profit tied to the Hunt for Bin Laden?

Synagogue of Satan

“I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the Synagogue of Satan.”

Revelation 2:9

0ne group and one group alone is responsible for virtually all wars and bloodshed on the face of this planet. This evil cabal is few in numbers but, like a deadly octopus, its tentacles reach out to grip and strangle untold multitudes of innocent victims. The initiates of every secret society and internationalist organization, from the Council on Foreign Relations and the Jesuits to the Bilderbergers and the Order of Skull & Bones, obey the dictates of this sinister group and tremble when standing before its leaders.

The cabalist group I refer to is the Synagogue of Satan, an ancient, yet modern, elite so politically powerful and so fabulously wealthy that even past history has been twisted, reshaped, and revised to meet its preferred version of humanity’s gloomy, totalitarian future.

Religious in nature, the Synagogue of Satan is, at its essence, a grotesque, satanic cult. It’s high council is composed of High Priests of Lucifer; these are men who literally worship death while practicing sexual magick and occult rituals of the blackest nature.

Fanatical Support By Zionists

Regrettably, this Luciferian cabal of high priests is supported by the vast majority of over eighteen million people around the globe who call themselves “Jews.” Some of these people, a great many, are fanatical in their support of the Synagogue of Satan. They go by the name, “Zionists.” Other Jews provide the Cabal with only token, often nominal, support.

The millions of Zionist Jews are joined in their zealous embrace by a great number of Gentiles who are also boastful of being Zionists. While these Gentile supporters are, on the whole, woefully ignorant of the horrific, ultimate goal of the Synagogue of Satan, their support and service to the cause of Lucifer helps drive the global Synagogue of Satan’s never-ending successful campaigns of revolution, war, famine, financial calamity, and bloodshed.

Thankfully, there are a few Jews—but only a few—who have been able to escape the almost irresistible spiritual impulse to ally themselves with the Synagogue of Satan. Their escape has been made possible due to their faith in the only One who has the power to resist the Evil One’s grip. I refer, of course, to Jesus Christ our Lord, Deliverer of Israel. But, watch out! I have discovered that many Jews who claim to be “Christians” are actually Zionist deceivers. Masquerading as “Messianic Jews,” in fact they are covert propagandists for the Synagogue of Satan. “By their fruits ye shall know them.”

Courage Required to Expose this Group

Given the proven fact that the elitist High Priests of Lucifer who comprise the Synagogue of Satan and their servants

Click Here to Order Now! The Synagogue of Satan

control Big Brother’s police and spy organs and possess ownership of every major book publishing firm in the world, rarely is a book or volume ever printed that has the courage and audacity requisite to expose the ongoing conspiracy of this monstrous group.

I am, therefore, extremely pleased to recommend to thinking men and women an excellent, new volume,The Synagogue of Satan, by Britain’s Andrew Hitchcock. You will find it to be a useful, revealing, and accurate historical guide to the sinister crimes and dark events that have propelled the Synagogue of Satan to the precipice of world power. So impressed was I with Mr. Hitchcock’s new book that I volunteered to write the introduction for an American edition, which Power of Prophecy, is pleased to publish and distribute under our RiverCrest Publishing imprint.

The term Synagogue of Satan is biblical in origin. As Mr. Hitchcock notes, the book of Revelation in the Holy Bible minces no words. God warns us of the horrendous and diabolical power to be wielded in the last days by the entity identified as the “Synagogue of Satan.”

Jews Who Are Not Jews

What is most fascinating, however, is that the scriptures clearly tell us that the evil leaders of this entity are not Jews! Yes, they say they are Jews, and the world recognizes them as Jews, even as “Israel,” but they lie! Listen to what God’s Word reveals:

“I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the Synagogue of Satan.” (Revelation 2:9)

Mind-boggling, isn’t it? These wicked, world power-brokers want us to believe they are Jews; they boastfully lay claim to Israel as their heritage. But, in reality, they are blasphemous liars. What is going on here?

The masters of the Synagogue of Satan today possess extraordinary influence over the media. Most people believe in the pro-Zionist propaganda that gushes forth daily from Hollywood, New York, and Washington. It therefore stands to reason that the average world citizen easily falls for the Lie. People everywhere trust these great and beneficent leaders who say, “We are Jews” to be exactly that: Jews. No wonder the Apostle Paul warned that Satan’s disciples come disguised as “ministers of righteousness” and as “angels of light.”

In the case of the minions of the Synagogue of Satan, they come to us disguised as “God’s Chosen,” as “Israel,” as the One Race selected by God to produce in the future a Messiah (not Jesus!) for eternity. We are Jews, they proudly boast while, at the same time, they suggest that others—that is, the defective lower and inferior races—are obligated by God to bless them, to follow the Jews’ lead, to bow down and serve them as “God’s Chosen.”

“Yes,” they arrogantly explain, “we are Jews, and you are goyim (cattle), and we have been chosen by divine edict to rule over you and over the entire planet.”

So complete is Jewish domination of the media that Americans are left totally in the dark about Jewish hate crimes and atrocities. In 1994 in Hebron, Israel, Baruch Goldstein took a machine gun into a Moslem mosque during worship. Goldstein, a believer in the Jewish holy book, The Talmud, which teaches that Jews are a superior god race, but Gentiles are like insects and cattle, savagely massacred 29 unarmed worshippers and wounded 125.

Click this image to view readable article
Baruch Goldstein

Celebrating the Hebron massacre, Jewish admirers of mass murderer, Baruch Goldstein, carried automatic weapons similar to the one Goldstein (right) used to carry out his “mission.”

Today, in Israel and in Jewish communities worldwide, Goldstein is a hero. Rabbis portray him as a “saint.” Joyful celebrations take place at his grave site on the anniversary of the Hebron massacre. All this is widely reported in the Jewish media, but carefully hidden from ordinary Americans.

Baruch Goldstein Gravesite

The massive, park-like memorial made of killer Baruch Goldstein’s grave indicates the high esteem in which he was held by Jews following the massacre. Goldstein’s grave describes him as an honorable man, even a saint.

Gullible Evangelicals Fall for Lie

Shocking as it is, claims by the Jewish pretenders of racial and spiritual superiority have been accepted by most Christian evangelicals as legitimate, authoritative, and coming direct from God. Christian evangelicals say it is the lot of the Gentiles to bow down and accord virtual god-like status to the “Jew” and to their newly formed political entity, Israel, lest God be angered and curse and punish those who resist the Jews and their artificially created nation, “Israel.”

Sadly, almost nowhere in the established Christian Church can be found a pastor or evangelist today who has the spiritual wisdom, or even the common sense, to ask the cardinal question,“Who is this Synagogue of Satan that God warns about in the book of Revelation?” And nary a soul seems to ask the correlating question, “Just who are these wicked imposters of whom God warns will say they are “Jews” and are not, but do lie?”

One thing is for sure—the Bible regards these false, lying Jewish imposters as dangerous, murderous vessels in the hands of their infernal lord, Satan. Revelation 2:10 says the Synagogue of Satan will cast some Christians into prison and kill many others. Their evil plot to conquer the world by stealth and deceit will finally bring about a precarious Hour of Temptation for all mankind (Revelation 3:10). So, why aren’t pastors and evangelists today warning us to watch out for and beware of these imposter Jews of the Synagogue of Satan?

It is as if the modern-day descendants of Attila the Hun, Genghis Khan, or Japan’s World War II Emperor Hirohito were to falsely declare, with absolutely no proof or evidence to back up their contention, that they are “Jews,” and the whole world were to foolishly accept their preposterous, juvenile and unscientific bloodline claims.

Their Destiny Revealed in Scripture

Jesus Christ Himself prophesied that all who ally themselves with the Synagogue of Satan, including those millions of deceived evangelicals who foolishly reject or disregard Jesus’ warning about this evil Luciferian cult group, someday shall see their Zionist ambitions go down in flames. On that day, the butchers of history will be forced to grovel at the very feet of those whom the Synagogue of Satan have so viciously and cruelly robbed, persecuted, and killed.

“Behold, I will make them of the Synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie: behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.”

Revelation 3:9

David Icke Newsletter Preview

THEY DARE NOT SPEAK ITS NAME …

alt

ROTHSCHILD ZIONISM

But to understand the financial crisis, 9/11 and so much more, it must be spoken constantly.

The David Icke Newsletter this Sunday is a major six thousand word exposure of the extent of Rothschild Zionist control of Big Government, Big Banking, Big Media, etc. and its fundamental role in the atrocities of 9/11.

I laid out in simple terms last week the agenda behind the unfolding global financial crisis and today I will expose the coordinating force, or at least a prime one, behind that agenda. Most conspiracy researchers either don’t realise the fundamental significance of this network or are too frightened to say so if they do. Sod that.

It is widely known as Zionism or, as I call it, more accurately, I suggest … Rothschild Zionism. I add the ‘Rothschild’ to constantly emphasise the true creators of Zionism and its controllers to this day …

… They have sought to sell the ‘Zionism-means-all-Jewish-people’ lie so they can condemn as ‘anti-Semites’ and ‘racists’ anyone who exposes the truth about Rothschild Zionism and its agents in government, banking, business, media, military, etc.

This is why most researchers won’t go there even if they are aware enough to know that they shouldreally goes beyond five-sense reality. go there. To uncover and expose what is happening in the world we need all the ‘bees’ – brain, backbone, balls – and never more so than now. Oh yeah, and add consciousness if you want to see how deep the rabbit hole

Racism is the ultimate ignorance in that it relates ‘self’ to the body instead of the Consciousness – Awareness – animating and experiencing through the body. It is like judging a man by his spacesuit instead of the person inside it.

So racism is ridiculous, juvenile and silly, but no way is the threat of being branded as one (they have already tried and failed) going to stop me exposing what must be exposed if the Control System is to fall.

The world’s most extreme racists are, after all, the Rothschild Zionists, anyway. Israel is an apartheid state every bit as much as were apartheid South Africa and apartheid America.

I am not a person, or an individual, or a Human, and although some humans look similar to me, I am not a human.

Some would say that I am a ‘natural’ person, but as I will show you, I am not one of those either. Who then or what then am I?

To understand who I am, you must first understand the definitions which have been placed on the words I have quoted above, words that are commonly used, but do not describe me anymore. For example, the word ‘person’.

Person - The Revised Code of Washington, RCW 1.16.080, (I live in Washington State) defines a person as follows: “The term ‘person’ may be construed to include the United States, this state, or any state or territory, or any public or private corporation, as well as an individual.”

Person - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, pg. 791, defines ‘person’ as follows: “In general usage, a human being (i.e. natural person), though by statute term may include labor organizations, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, or receivers.”

Person - Oran’s Dictionary of the Law, West Group 1999, defines Person as: 1. A human being (a “natural” person). 2. A corporation (an “artificial” person). Corporations are treated as persons in many legal situations. Also, the word “person” includes corporations in most definitions in this dictionary. 3. Any other “being” entitled to sue as a legal entity (a government, an association, a group of Trustees, etc.). 4. The plural of person is persons, not people (see that word). -

Person - Duhaime’s Law Dictionary. An entity with legal rights and existence including the ability to sue and be sued, to sign contracts, to receive gifts, to appear in court either by themselves or by lawyer and, generally, other powers incidental to the full expression of the entity in law. Individuals are “persons” in law unless they are minors or under some kind of other incapacity such as a court finding of mental incapacity. Many laws give certain powers to “persons” which, in almost all instances, includes business organizations that have been formally registered such as partnerships, corporations or associations. -

Person, noun. per’sn. - Webster’s 1828 Dictionary. Defines person as: [Latin persona; said to be compounded of per, through or by, and sonus, sound; a Latin word signifying primarily a mask used by actors on the stage.]

legal person - Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law 1996, defines a legal person as : a body of persons or an entity (as a corporation) considered as having many of the rights and responsibilities of a natural person and esp. the capacity to sue and be sued.

A person according to these definitions, is basically an entity – legal fiction – of some kind that has been legally created and has the legal capacity to be sued. Isn’t it odd that the word lawful is not used within these definitions?

Well….. I am not “the United States, this state, or any territory, or any public or private corporation”. I am not “labor organizations, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, or receivers.” So, I cannot be a ‘person’ under this part of the definition.

The RCW quoted above also states that a person could also be an “individual”. Black’s Law Dictionary also defines a person as a “human being,” which they define by stating “(i.e. natural person)”. So let’s first check to see if I am an “individual”.

Individual - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, pg. 533, defines “individual” as follows: “As a noun, this term denotes a single person as distinguished from a group or class, and also, very commonly, a private or natural person as distinguished from a partnership, corporation, or association; but it is said that this restrictive signification is not necessarily inherent in the word, and that it may, in proper cases, include artificial persons.”

Well now, I have already been shown that I am not a ‘person’, and since ‘individual’ denotes a single ‘person’ as distinguished from a group or class, I can’t be an ‘individual’ under this definition either. But I see the term ‘natural person’ used in the definition of the RCW, and also in the definition of some of the Law Dictionaries. Maybe I am a ‘natural’ person, since I know I am not an ‘artificial’ one.

I could not find the term ‘Natural person’ defined anywhere, so I had to look up the word ‘natural’ for a definition to see if that word would fit with the word person…

Natural - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, pg. 712, defines ‘Natural’ as follows: “Untouched by man or by influences of civilization; wild; untutored, and is the opposite of the word “artificial”. The juristic meaning of this term does not differ from the vernacular, except in the cases where it is used in opposition to the term “legal”; and then it means proceeding from or determined by physical causes or conditions, as distinguished from positive enactments of law, or attributable to the nature of man rather than the commands of law, or based upon moral rather than legal considerations or sanctions.”

Wow, what do they mean by this definition? Am I untouched by man (depends on what the word ‘man’ means), or by influences of civilization? I don’t think so. Am I ‘wild’, or ‘untutored’? nope, not me. Even though the definition states that this word is the opposite of the word ‘artificial’, it still does not describe who I believe I am. So I must conclude that I am not a ‘natural’ person, under this definition of the word ‘natural’. So the term ‘natural person’ cannot apply to me.

Black’s Law Dictionary also used the term ‘human being’, and although Black’s defined it as a ‘natural person’, maybe they made a mistake, maybe I am a ‘human being’. ‘Human’ or ‘human being’ does not appear to have a ‘legal’ definition, so I went to my old standby 1888 Noah Webster’s Dictionary for a vernacular definition of this word. Maybe Noah would know who I am.

Human - Webster’s 1888 Dictionary defines ‘human’ as follows: n. A human being; one of the race of man. [Rare and inelegant.] “Sprung of humans that inhabit earth.” …To me, the etymology of the word Hu-man, suggests that it is a marriage of two separate words ‘Hue’ (defined as the property of color), and man. But this cannot of course be correct, at least not politically correct, so I can’t go there, because the word would then mean ‘colored man’!

Am I of the race of man? Rare and inelegant? Sprung of humans that inhabit earth (ground)? (I’m not colored either). Well, it looks like I have to define the word ‘man’ through Webster’s because there appears to be no legal definition for ‘man’.

Man - Webster’s 1888 Dictionary defines ‘man’ as follows: An individual of the human race; a human being; a person.

Oh! Oh! Well, it looks like we are back to the beginning of our study of definitions, yup, back to the start, completed the circle. I am not an ‘individual’, so I cannot be considered ‘of the human race'; and since I’m not of the human race, I can’t be ‘a human being’, and I’ve also been shown that I’m not ‘a person’ either.

When I was younger, I remember filling out forms, which had the word ‘Caucasian’, listed for race (they don’t seem to use that definition any more for some reason). I was always told that this was the word for me to use since I had white skin. (It is actually pinkish, and some is tanned, with mostly white next to the tanned, but I was still told I was a ‘Caucasian’). So back to the definitions of ‘Caucasian”.

Caucasian - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, defines ‘Caucasian’ as follows: Of or pertaining to the white race.

Well, I guess that makes some sense, since I have always held myself to be ‘white’, but this is really not a very descriptive definition, so let’s see what an ‘older’ Black’s Law Dictionary has to say, if anything (they have a tendency to change the meaning of words in the new dictionaries for some reason).

Caucasian - Black’s Law Dictionary 4th Edition, defines “Caucasian’ As follows: Pertaining to the white race, to which belong the greater part of European nations and those of western Asia. The term is inapplicable to denote families or stocks inhabiting Europe and speaking either the so-called Aryan or Semitic languages.

That’s interesting, it appears that ‘white racist Aryan’ groups, like ‘Aryan Nations’ types, or those speaking Aryan, are not even ‘Caucasians’ under this definition, so they can’t be from the ‘White’ Race (I wonder if they know that). Neither are the people who call themselves Jews, and speak a form of Hebrew (which appears to be derived from the older ‘Semitic’ language referred to in Black’s Law Dictionary).

Back to Noah’s Dictionary to see if he has a vernacular definition of the word ‘Caucasian’.

Caucasian - Webster’s 1888 Dictionary defines ‘Caucasian’ as follows: Anyone belonging to the Indo-European race, and the white races originating near Mount Caucasus.

OK, here is my Conclusion: There may be some beings that are ‘persons’ and some of them are ‘individuals’, and some ‘Natural persons’ do exist, of this I have no doubt, I’ve met some of them. There are also many that I believe are ‘Humans’, or ‘Human beings’, these beings seem to exist all over this globe. However…

My kinfolk came from Western Europe, so I must have come from one of the European Nations. I am also white (I use the term loosely), so by definition I must be a ‘Caucasian’. Since I am a Caucasian, I must have come from, or be a member of one of the white races originating near Mount Caucasus. I am a male of my race, so I must conclude that I am a ‘Caucasian male’. I am also a follower of the Scriptural Messiah, commonly called a Christian. I am a living breathing being, on the soil. Therefore I must conclude that I am a living breathing Christian Caucasian (White) male, in other words, I should be called a ‘Living Breathing Caucasian Christian Male’……. or an ‘LBCCM’ – Cool – Ok, now where is that Mount Caucasus, and why would my Christian ‘White’ Race be originating from the area near that mountain called Mount Caucasus ………Hummmmmmmmmm??

assemblyoftrueisrael.com/TruthPage/Iamnotaperson.html

_______________________________________________________________

For the ‘Living Breathing Caucasian Christian Male’

The Caucasus or Caucas is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including Europe’s highest mountain (Mount Elbrus).

North Caucasus comprises:

South Caucasus comprises:

The word Caucasus derives from Caucas, the purported ancestor of the North Caucasians.[1] He was a son of Togarmah, grandson of Biblical Noah‘s third son Japheth. According to Leonti Mroveli, after the fall of the Tower of Babel and the division of humanity into different languages, Togarmah settled with his sons: Kartlos, Haik (Georgian: ჰაოს, Haos), Movakos, Lekos (Lak people),Heros[disambiguation needed] (Kingdom of Hereti), Kavkasos, and Egros (Kingdom of Egrisi) between two inaccessible mountains, presumably Mount Ararat and Mount Elbrus.

Alternative origins are: From a Pelasgian word for “mountain” or from a Scythian word meaning “snow-white”

The region has many different languages and language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region.[7] No less than three language families are unique to the area, but also Indo-European languages such as Armenian and Ossetic, and the Altaic language Azerbaijani are local to the area.

Today the peoples of the Northern and Southern Caucasus tend to be either Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, or Sunni Muslims. Shia Islam has had many adherents historically in Azerbaijan, located in the eastern part of the region.

Located on the peripheries of Turkey, Iran, and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries. Throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire conquered the territory from the Qajars.[5]

Ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia, Albania, Colchis and Iberia, among others. These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including Media, Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, and Sassanid Empire. In 95-55 BC under the reign of Armenian king of kings Tigranes the Great, Kingdom of Armenia became an empire, including besides Kingdom of Armenia, vassals Iberia, Albania, Parthiaand afew Arab tribes Atropatene, Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, Assyria, Nabataean kingdom, Judea and Atropatene, stretching from Caucasian Mountains to Egypt and from Mediterranean Sea toCaspian Sea, including a territory of 3,000,000 km2 (1,158,000 sq mi), and becoming the last strong Hellenist king, and the strongest in the region by 67 BC. By this time, Zoroastrianism had become the dominant religion of the region (except Kingdom of Armenia); however, the region would go through two other religious transformations. Owing to the rivalry between Persia and Rome, and later Byzantium, the latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region.

However, because Kingdom of Armenia(301 AD, the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion) Caucasian Albania and Georgia had become a Christian entity, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism. With the Islamic conquest of Persia, the region came under the rule of the Arabs. And soon Emirate of Armenia was formed.But after several rebellions in 884\885 AD Kingdom of Armenia became independent, and several times crushed Arab armies. At that timeKingdom of Armenia capital was Ani, with a population of 200,000 and a city of “1001 churches”. It was at its peak under the reign of Gagik I, when it stretched fromByzantine Empire to Caucasian Albania, from Caucasian Iberia to Mesopotamia, including also vassal states such as Caucasian Albania and Caucasian Iberia, until in 1045 AD the kingdom was conquered by Byzantine Empire. In XII century Georgian king David the Builder drove the Muslims out from Caucasus and made theKingdom of Georgia a strong regional power. In 1194–1204 Georgian Queen Tamar‘s armies crushed new Turkish invasions from the south-east and south and launched several successful campaigns into Turkish-controlled Southern Armenia. Georgian Kingdom continued military campaigns outside of Caucasus. As a result of her military campaigns and the temporary fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1204, Georgia became the strongest Christian state in the whole Near Eastarea. The region would later be conquered by the Ottomans, Mongols, local kingdoms and khanates, as well as, once again, Persia, until its conquest by Russia.

The region was unified as a single political entity twice – during the Russian Civil War (Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic) from 9 April 1918 to 26 May 1918, and under the Soviet rule (Transcaucasian SFSR) from 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936.

In modern times, the Caucasus became a region of war among the Ottoman Empire, Iran and Russia, and was eventually conquered by the latter (seeCaucasian Wars).

In the 1940s, the Chechens and Ingush (480,000 altogether), along with the Balkars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks (120,000), Kurds and Caucasus Germans(almost 200,000) were deported en masse to Central Asia and Siberia. Eric D. Weitz wrote, “By 1948, according to Nicolas Werth, the mortality rate of the 600,000 people deported from the Caucasus between 1943 and 1944 had reached 25 percent.”[6]

Following the end of the Soviet Union, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia became independent in 1991. The Caucasus region has been subject to various territorial disputes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, leading to the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994), the Ossetian-Ingush conflict (1989–1991), theWar in Abkhazia (1992–1993), the First Chechen War (1994–1996), the Second Chechen War (1999–2009), and the 2008 South Ossetia War.

Stellar classification

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. The spectral class of a star is a designated class of a star describing the ionization of its chromosphere, what atomic excitations are most prominent in the light, giving an objective measure of the temperature in this chromosphere. Light from the star is analyzed by splitting it up by a diffraction grating, subdividing the incoming photons into a spectrum exhibiting a rainbow of colors interspersed byabsorption lines, each line indicating a certain ion of a certain chemical element. The presence of a certain chemical element in such an absorption spectrum primarily indicates that the temperature conditions are suitable for a certain excitation of this element. If the star temperature has been determined by a majority of absorption lines, unusual absences or strengths of lines for a certain element may indicate an unusual chemical composition of the chromosphere.

Most stars are currently classified using the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, and M (usually memorized by astrophysicists as “Oh, be a fine girl/guy, kiss me”), where O stars are the hottest and the letter sequence indicates successively cooler stars up to the coolest M class. According to informal tradition, O stars are called “blue”, B “blue-white”, A stars “white”, F stars “yellow-white”, G stars “yellow”, K stars “orange”, and M stars “red”, even though the actual star colors perceived by an observer may deviate from these colors depending on visual conditions and individual stars observed. The current non-alphabetical scheme developed from an earlier scheme using all letters from A to O; the old letters were retained but the star classes were re-ordered in the current temperature order when the connection between the stars’ class and temperatures became clear. A few star classes were dropped as duplicates of others.

In the current star classification system, the Morgan-Keenan system, the spectrum letter is enhanced by a number from 0 to 9 indicating tenths of the range between two star classes, so that A5 is five tenths between A0 and F0, but A2 is two tenths of the full range from A0 to F0. Lower numbered stars in the same class are hotter. Another dimension that is included in the Morgan-Keenan system is the luminosity class expressed by the Roman numbers I, II, III, IV and V, expressing the width of certain absorption lines in the star’s spectrum. It has been shown that this feature is a general measure of the size of the star, and thus of the total luminosity output from the star. Class I are generally called supergiants, class III simply giants and class V eitherdwarfs or more properly main sequence stars. For example our Sun has the spectral type G2V, which might be interpreted as “a ‘yellow’ two tenths towards ‘orange’ main sequence star”. The apparently brightest star Sirius has type A1V.

Contents

[hide]

[edit]Secchi classes

During the 1860s and 1870s, pioneering stellar spectroscopist Father Angelo Secchi created the Secchi classes in order to classify observed spectra. By 1866, he had developed three classes of stellar spectra:[1][2][3]

  • Class I: white and blue stars with broad heavy hydrogen lines, such as Vega and Altair. This includes the modern class A and early class F.
    Class I, Orion subtype: a subtype of class I with narrow lines in place of wide bands, such as Rigel and Bellatrix. In modern terms, this corresponds to early B-type stars.
  • Class II: yellow stars—hydrogen less strong, but evident metallic lines, such as the Sun, Arcturus and Capella. This includes the modern classes G and K as well as late class F.
  • Class III: orange to red stars with complex band spectra, such as Betelgeuse and Antares. This corresponds to the modern class M.

In 1868, he discovered carbon stars, which he put into a distinct group:[4]

  • Class IV: red stars with significant carbon bands and lines (carbon stars.)

In 1877, he added a fifth class:[5]

In the late 1890s, this classification began to be superseded by the Harvard classification, which is discussed in the remainder of this article.[6][7]

[edit]Harvard spectral classification

The Harvard classification system is a one-dimensional classification scheme. Stars vary in surface temperature from about 2 to 40 kK (2,000 to 40,000 kelvins). Physically, the classes indicate the temperature of the star’s atmosphere and are normally listed from hottest to coldest, as is done in the following table:

Class
Temperature[8]
(kelvins)
Conventional color
Apparent color[9][10][11]
Mass[8]
(solar masses)
Radius[8]
(solar radii)
Luminosity[8]
(bolometric)
Hydrogen
lines
Fraction of all
main sequence stars[12]

O
≥ 33,000 K
blue
blue
≥ 16 M
≥ 6.6 R
≥ 30,000 L
Weak
~0.00003%

B
10,000–33,000 K
blue to blue white
blue white
2.1–16 M
1.8–6.6 R
25–30,000 L
Medium
0.13%

A
7,500–10,000 K
white
white to blue white
1.4–2.1 M
1.4–1.8 R
5–25 L
Strong
0.6%

F
6,000–7,500 K
yellowish white
white
1.04–1.4 M
1.15–1.4 R
1.5–5 L
Medium
3%

G
5,200–6,000 K
yellow
yellowish white
0.8–1.04 M
0.96–1.15 R
0.6–1.5 L
Weak
7.6%

K
3,700–5,200 K
orange
yellow orange
0.45–0.8 M
0.7–0.96 R
0.08–0.6 L
Very weak
12.1%

M
≤ 3,700 K
red
orange red
≤ 0.45 M
≤ 0.7 R
≤ 0.08 L
Very weak
76.45%

The mass, radius, and luminosity listed for each class are appropriate only for stars on the main sequence portion of their lives and so are not appropriate for red giants. A popular mnemonic for remembering the order is “Oh Be A Fine Girl/Guy, Kiss Me” (there are many variants of this mnemonic). The spectral classes O through M are subdivided by Arabic numerals (0–9). For example, A0 denotes the hottest stars in the A class and A9 denotes the coolest ones. The Sun is classified as G2.

Classifications in the Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra[13][14]

Secchi
Draper
Comment

I
A, B, C, D
Hydrogen lines dominant.

II
E, F, G, H, I, K, L

III
M

IV
N
Did not appear in the catalogue.

O
Wolf-Rayet spectra with bright lines.

P
Planetary nebulae.

Q
Other spectra.

The reason for the odd arrangement of letters is historical. An early classification of spectra by Angelo Secchi in the 1860s divided stars into those with prominent lines from the hydrogenBalmer series (group I, with a subtype representing many of the stars in Orion); those with spectra which, like the Sun, showed calcium and sodium lines (group II); colored stars whose spectra showed wide bands (group III); and carbon stars (group IV).[15] In the 1880s, the astronomer Edward C. Pickering began to make a survey of stellar spectra at the Harvard College Observatory, using the objective-prism method. A first result of this work was the Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra, published in 1890. Williamina Fleming classified most of the spectra in this catalogue. It used a scheme in which the previously used Secchi classes (I to IV) were divided into more specific classes, given letters from A to N. Also, the letters O, P and Q were used, O for stars whose spectra consisted mainly of bright lines, P for planetary nebulae, and Q for stars not fitting into any other class.[13][14]

In 1897, another worker at Harvard, Antonia Maury, placed the Orion subtype of Secchi class I ahead of the remainder of Secchi class I, thus placing the modern type B ahead of the modern type A. She was the first to do so, although she did not use lettered spectral types, but rather a series of 22 types numbered from I to XXII.[16][17] In 1901, Annie Jump Cannonreturned to the lettered types, but dropped all letters except O, B, A, F, G, K, and M, used in that order, as well as P for planetary nebulae and Q for some peculiar spectra. She also used types such as B5A for stars halfway between types B and A, F2G for stars one-fifth of the way from F to G, and so forth.[18][19] Finally, by 1912, Cannon had changed the types B, A, B5A, F2G, etc. to B0, A0, B5, F2, etc.[20][21] This is essentially the modern form of the Harvard classification system.

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The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram relates stellar classification with absolute magnitude, luminosity, and surface temperature.

The fact that the Harvard classification of a star indicated its surface temperature was not fully understood until after its development. In the 1920s, the Indian physicist Meghnad Sahaderived a theory of ionization by extending well-known ideas in physical chemistry pertaining to the dissociation of molecules to the ionization of atoms. First applied to the solar chromosphere, he then applied it to stellar spectra.[22] The Harvard astronomer Cecilia Helena Payne (later to become Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin) then demonstrated that the OBAFGKM spectral sequence is actually a sequence in temperature.[23] Because the classification sequence predates our understanding that it is a temperature sequence, the placement of a spectrum into a given subtype, such as B3 or A7, depends upon (largely subjective) estimates of the strengths of absorption features in stellar spectra. As a result, these subtypes are not evenly divided into any sort of mathematically representable intervals.

O, B, and A stars are sometimes misleadingly called “early type”, while K and M stars are said to be “late type”. This stems from a early 20th century model of stellar evolution in which stars were powered by gravitational contraction via the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism in which stars start their lives as very hot “early type” stars, and then gradually cool down, thereby evolving into “late type” stars. This mechanism provided ages of the sun that were much smaller than what is observed, and was rendered obsolete by the discovery that stars are powered by nuclear fusion. However, brown dwarfs, whose energy comes from gravitational attraction alone, cool as they age and so progress to later spectral types. The highest mass brown dwarfs start their lives with M-type spectra and will cool through the L, T, and Y spectral classes.

[edit]Spectrum images by Harvard spectral class

Obafgkm noao big

[edit]Conventional and apparent colors

The conventional color descriptions are traditional in astronomy, and represent colors relative to the mean color of an A class star which is considered to be white. The Apparent color[9] descriptions is what the observer would see if trying to describe the stars under a dark sky without aid to the eye, or with binoculars. The table colors used are D65 standard colors, which is what you would see if the star light would be intensely magnified and projected onto a white paper, then observed in ordinary daylight.[24] Most stars in the sky, except the brightest ones, appear white or bluish white to the unaided eye because they are too dim for color vision to work.

Our Sun itself is white. It is sometimes called a yellow star (spectroscopically, relative to Vega), and may appear yellow or red (viewed through the atmosphere), or appear white (viewed when too bright for the eye to see any color). Astronomy images often use a variety of exaggerated colors (partially founded in faint light conditions observations, partially in conventions). But the Sun’s own intrinsic color is white (aside from sunspots), with no trace of color, and closely approximates a black body of 5780 K(see color temperature). This is a natural consequence of the evolution of our optical senses: the response curve that maximizes the overall efficiency against solar illumination will by definition perceive the Sun as white. The sun is known as a G type star.

[edit]Yerkes spectral classification

The Yerkes spectral classification, also called the MKK system from the authors’ initials, is a system of stellar spectral classification introduced in 1943 by William Wilson Morgan, Philip C. Keenan, and Edith Kellman from Yerkes Observatory.[25] This two-dimensional (temperature and luminosity) classification scheme is based on spectral lines sensitive to stellar temperature and surface gravity which is related to luminosity (whilst the Harvard classification is based on surface temperature only). Later, in 1953, after some revisions of list of standard stars and classification criteria, the scheme was named MK (by William Wilson Morgan and Phillip C. Keenan initials).[26]

Since the radius of a giant star is much greater than a dwarf star while their masses are roughly comparable, the gravity and thus the gas density and pressure on the surface of a giant star are much lower than for a dwarf. These differences manifest themselves in the form of luminosity effects which affect both the width and the intensity of spectral lines which can then be measured. Denser stars with higher surface gravity will exhibit greater pressure broadening of spectral lines.

A number of different luminosity classes are distinguished:

alt

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Spectral Type

Brown dwarfs

White dwarfs

Red dwarfs

Subdwarfs

Main sequence
(“dwarfs”)

Subgiants

Giants

Bright Giants

Supergiants

Hypergiants

absolute

magni-

tude

(MV)

    • Ia-0 (hypergiants or extremely luminous supergiants (later addition)), Example: Eta Carinae (spectrum-peculiar)
    • Ia (luminous supergiants), Example: Deneb (spectrum is A2Ia)
    • Iab (intermediate luminous supergiants) Example: Betelgeuse (spectrum is M2Iab)
    • Ib (less luminous supergiants)
    • IIa, Example: β Scuti (HD 173764) (spectrum is G4 IIa)
    • IIab Example: HR 8752 (spectrum is G0Iab:)
    • IIb, Example: HR 6902 (spectrum is G9 IIb)
  • III normal giants
    • IIIa, Example: ρ Persei (spectrum is M4 IIIa)
    • IIIab Example: δ Reticuli (spectrum is M2 IIIab)
    • IIIb, Example: Pollux (spectrum is K2 IIIb)
    • IVa, Example: ε Reticuli (spectrum is K1-2 IVa-III)
    • IVb, Example: HR 672 A (spectrum is G0.5 IVb)
  • V main sequence stars (dwarfs)
    • Va, Example: AD Leonis (spectrum M4Vae)
    • Vab[27]
    • Vb, Example: 85 Pegasi A (spectrum G5 Vb)
    • Vz“, Example: LH10 : 3102 (spectrum O7 Vz), located in the Large Magellanic Cloud.[28]
  • VI subdwarfs. Subdwarfs are generally represented with a prescript of sd or esd (extreme subdwarf) in front of the spectra.
    • sd, Example: SSSPM J1930-4311 (spectrum sdM7)
    • esd, Example: APMPM J0559-2903 (spectrum esdM7)
  • VII (uncommon) white dwarfs. White dwarfs are represented with a prescript wD or WD.

Marginal cases are allowed; for instance a star classified as Ia-0 would be a very luminous supergiant, verging on hypergiant. Examples are below. The spectral type of the star is not a factor.

Marginal Symbols
Example
Explanation

-
G2 I-II
A star is between supergiant and bright giant.

+
O9.5 Ia+
A star is a hypergiant star.

/
M2 IV/V
A star is either a subgiant or a dwarf star.

[edit]Spectral types

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The Morgan-Keenan spectral classification

The following illustration represents star classes with the colors very close to those actually perceived by the human eye. The relative sizes are for main sequence or “dwarf” stars.

[edit]Class O

Main article: O-type main sequence star

Class O stars are very hot and very luminous, being bluish in color; in fact, most of their output is in the ultraviolet range. These are the rarest of all main sequence stars. About 1 in 3,000,000 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class O stars.[nb 1][12] Some of the most massive stars lie within this spectral class. Type-O stars are so hot as to have complicated surroundings which make measurement of their spectra difficult.

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Spectrum of an O5 V star

O-stars shine with a power over a million times our Sun’s output. These stars have dominant lines of absorption and sometimes emission for He II lines, prominent ionized (Si IV, O III, N III, and C III) and neutralhelium lines, strengthening from O5 to O9, and prominent hydrogen Balmer lines, although not as strong as in later types. Because they are so massive, class O stars have very hot cores, thus burn through their hydrogen fuel very quickly, and so are the first stars to leave the main sequence. Recent observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that planetary formation does not occur around other stars in the vicinity of an O class star due to the photoevaporation effect.[29]

When the MKK classification scheme was first described in 1943, the only subtypes of class O used were O5 to O9.5.[30] The MKK scheme was extended to O4 in 1978,[31] and new classification schemes have subsequently been introduced which add types O2, O3 and O3.5. O3 stars are the hottest stars.[32]

[edit]Class B

Main article: B-type main sequence star

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alt

The Pleiades open star cluster with many bright B stars

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alt

Proper motion of stars spectral classes B and A in -/+ 200 000 years

alt

alt

3D viewing (for red-green or red-blue glasses) of proper motion

Class B stars are extremely luminous and blue. Their spectra have neutral helium, which are most prominent at the B2 subclass, and moderate hydrogen lines. Ionized metal lines include Mg II and Si II. As O and B stars are so powerful, they only live for a very short time, and thus they do not stray far from the area in which they were formed.

These stars tend to cluster together in what are called OB associations, which are associated with giant molecular clouds. The Orion OB1 association occupies a large portion of a spiral arm of our galaxy and contains many of the brighter stars of the constellation Orion. About 1 in 800 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class B stars.[nb 1][12].

Examples: Rigel, Spica, the brighter Pleiades, VV Cephei B, Algol A
[edit]Class A

Main article: A-type main sequence star

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Class A Vega (left) compared to the Sun (right).

Class A stars are amongst the more common naked eye stars, and are white or bluish-white. They have strong hydrogen lines, at a maximum by A0, and also lines of ionized metals (Fe II, Mg II, Si II) at a maximum at A5. The presence of Ca II lines is notably strengthening by this point. About 1 in 160 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class A stars.[nb 1][12]

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Two Class F stars: Supergiant Polaris A and its distant companion Polaris B[33]

Examples: Sirius, Deneb, Altair, Vega
[edit]Class F

Main article: F-type main sequence star

Class F stars have strengthening H and K lines of Ca II. Neutral metals (Fe I, Cr I) beginning to gain on ionized metal lines by late F. Their spectra are characterized by the weaker hydrogen lines and ionized metals. Their color is white. About 1 in 33 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class F stars.[nb 1][12]

[edit]Class G

Main article: G-type main sequence star

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The most important class G star to humanity: our Sun. The dark area visible in the lower left is a large sunspot.

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The movement of stars of spectral class G around the apex (left) and antapex (right) in -/+ 200 000 years

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The movement of stars of spectral class G for 3D glasses (red-green or red-blue).

Class G stars are probably the best known, if only for the reason that our Sun is of this class. About 1 in 13 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class G stars.[nb 1][12]

Most notable are the H and K lines of Ca II, which are most prominent at G2. They have even weaker hydrogen lines than F, but along with the ionized metals, they have neutral metals. There is a prominent spike in the G band of CH molecules. G is host to the “Yellow Evolutionary Void”.[34] Supergiant stars often swing between O or B (blue) and K or M (red). While they do this, they do not stay for long in the G classification as this is an extremely unstable place for a supergiant to be.

[edit]Class K

Main article: K-type main sequence star

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Comparison between Class K star Arcturus, Class M Antares, and the Sun.

Class K are orangish stars that are slightly cooler than our Sun. Some K stars are giants and supergiants, such as Arcturus, while orange dwarfs, like Alpha Centauri B, are main sequence stars. They have extremely weak hydrogen lines, if they are present at all, and mostly neutral metals (Mn I, Fe I, Si I).

By late K, molecular bands of titanium oxide become present. About 1 in 8 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class K stars.[nb 1][12] There is a suggestion that K Spectrum stars are very well suited for life.[35]

[edit]Class M

Main articles: Red giant and Red dwarf

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Betelgeuse is a red supergiant, one of the largest stars known. Image from theHubble Space Telescope.

Class M is by far the most common class. About 76% of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class M stars.[nb 1][nb 2][12]

Although most Class M stars are red dwarfs, the class also hosts most giants and some supergiants such as Antares and Betelgeuse, as well as Mira variables. The late-M group holds hotter brown dwarfs that are above the L spectrum. This is usually in the range of M6.5 to M9.5. The spectrum of an M star shows lines belonging to moleculesand all neutral metals but hydrogen lines are usually absent. Titanium oxide can be strong in M stars, usually dominating by about M5. Vanadium oxide bands become present by late M.

Examples: LEHPM 2-59 [36], SSSPM J1930-4311 (subdwarf)
Example: APMPM J0559-2903 (extreme subdwarf)
Examples: Teide 1 (field brown dwarf), GSC 08047-00232 B [37] (companion brown dwarf)

[edit]Extended spectral types

A number of new spectral types have been taken into use from newly discovered types of stars.

[edit]Hot blue emission star classes

Spectra of some very hot and bluish stars exhibit marked emission lines from carbon or nitrogen, or sometimes oxygen.

[edit]Class W: Wolf-Rayet

Main article: Wolf-Rayet star

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Artist’s impression of a Wolf-Rayet star

Class W or WR represents the superluminous Wolf-Rayet stars, notably unusual since they have mostly helium in their atmospheres instead of hydrogen. They are thought to be dying supergiants with their hydrogen layer blown away by hot stellar winds caused by their high temperatures, thereby directly exposing their hot helium shell. Class W is subdivided into subclasses WN (WNE early-type, WNL late-type) and WC (WCE early-type, WCL late-type, and extend class WO), according to the dominance of nitrogen and carbon emission lines in their spectra (and outer layers).[38]

  • WR spectra range is listed below:
WNE (WN2 to WN5 with some WN6)
WNL (WN7 to WN9 with some WN6)
Extended WN class (WN10 to WN11), was created to encompass the Ofpe/WN9 stars.[38]
WN/C, and intermediate class between the nitrogen-rich and carbon-rich WR stars.[38]
WCE (WC4 to WC6)
WCL (WC7 to WC9)
WO (WO1 to WO4)
  • W: Up to 70,000 K
Example: WR124 (WN)
Example: Gamma Velorum A (WC)
Example: WR93B (WO)
[edit]Classes OC, ON, BC, BN: Wolf-Rayet related O and B stars

Intermediary between the genuine Wolf-Rayets and ordinary hot stars of classes O and early B, there are OC, ON, BC and BN stars. They seem to constitute a short continuum from the Wolf-Rayets into the ordinary OBs.

Example: HD 152249 (OC)
Example: HD 105056 (ON)
Example: HD 2905 (BC)
Example: HD 163181 (BN)
[edit]The “Slash” stars

The slash stars are stars with O-type spectra and WN sequence in their spectra. The name slash comes from their spectra having a slash.

Example spectra: Of/WNL[28]

There is a secondary group found with this spectra, a cooler, “intermediate” group. They are found in the Large Magellanic Cloud and have a designation of Ofpe/WN9.[28]

[edit]The Magnetic O stars

They are O stars with strong magnetic fields. Designation is Of?p[28]

[edit]The “class” OB

Main article: OB star

In lists of spectra, the “spectrum OB” may occur. This is in fact not a spectrum, but a marker which means that “the spectrum of this star is unknown, but it belongs to an OB association, so probably either a class O or class B star, or perhaps a fairly hot class A star.”

[edit]Cool red and brown dwarf classes

The new spectral types L and T were created to classify infrared spectra of cool stars. This included both red dwarfs and brown dwarfs which are very faint in the visual spectrum. The hypothetical spectral type Y has been reserved for objects cooler than T dwarfs which have spectra that are qualitatively distinct from T dwarfs.[39]

[edit]Class L

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Artist’s vision of an L-dwarf

Class L dwarfs get their designation because they are cooler than M stars and L is the remaining letter alphabetically closest to M. L does not mean lithium dwarf; a large fraction of these stars do not havelithium in their spectra. Some of these objects have masses large enough to support hydrogen fusion, but some are of substellar mass and do not, so collectively these objects should be referred to as L dwarfs, not L stars. They are a very dark red in color and brightest in infrared. Their atmosphere is cool enough to allow metal hydrides and alkali metals to be prominent in their spectra.[40][41] Due to low gravities in giant stars, TiO- and VO-bearing condensates never form. Thus, larger L-type stars can never form in an isolated environment. It may be possible for these L-type supergiants to form through stellar collisions, however, an example of which is V838 Monocerotis.

Example: VW Hyi
Example: 2MASSW J0746425+2000321 binary[42]
Component A is an L dwarf star
Component B is an L brown dwarf
Example: LSR 1610-0040 (subdwarf)[43]
Example: V838 Monocerotis (supergiants)
[edit]Class T: methane dwarfs

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Artist’s vision of a T-dwarf

Class T dwarfs are cool brown dwarfs with surface temperatures between approximately 700 and 1,300 K. Their emission peaks in the infrared. Methane is prominent in their spectra.[40][41]

Examples: SIMP 0136 (the brightest T dwarf discovered in northern hemisphere)[44]
Examples: Epsilon Indi Ba & Epsilon Indi Bb

Class T and L could be more common than all the other classes combined if recent research is accurate. From studying the number of proplyds (protoplanetary discs, clumps of gas in nebulae from which stars and solar systems are formed) then the number of stars in the galaxy should be several orders of magnitude higher than what we know about. It is theorized that these proplyds are in a race with each other. The first one to form will become a proto-star, which are very violent objects and will disrupt other proplyds in the vicinity, stripping them of their gas. The victim proplyds will then probably go on to become main sequence stars or brown dwarf stars of the L and T classes, but quite invisible to us. Since they live so long, these smaller stars will accumulate over time.

[edit]Class Y

See also: Sub-brown dwarf and Substellar object

The spectral class Y has been proposed for brown dwarfs that are cooler than T dwarfs and have qualitatively different spectra from them. Although such dwarfs have been modelled[45], there is no well-defined spectral sequence yet with prototypes, and no certain example of class Y has yet been seen.[46]

As of early 2009, the coolest known brown dwarfs have estimated effective temperatures between 500 and 600 K, and have been assigned the spectral class T9. Three examples are the brown dwarfs CFBDS J005910.90-011401.3, ULAS J133553.45+113005.2, and ULAS J003402.77−005206.7.[47] The spectra of these objects display absorption around 1.55 micrometers.[47] Delorme et al. has suggested that this feature is due to absorption from ammonia and that this should be taken as indicating the T-Y transition, making these objects of type Y0.[47][48] However, the feature is difficult to distinguish from absorption by water and methane,[47] and other authors have stated that the assignment of class Y0 is premature.[49]

[edit]Carbon related late giant star classes

Carbon related stars are stars whose spectra indicate production of carbon by helium triple-alpha fusion. With increased carbon abundance, and some parallel s-process heavy element production, the spectra of these stars become increasingly deviant from the usual late spectral classes G, K and M. The giants among those stars are presumed to produce this carbon themselves, but not too few of this class of stars are believed to be double stars whose odd atmosphere once was transferred from a former carbon star companion that is now a white dwarf.

[edit]Class C: carbon stars

Main article: Carbon star

Originally classified as R and N stars, these are also known as ‘carbon stars’. These are red giants, near the end of their lives, in which there is an excess of carbon in the atmosphere. The old R and N classes ran parallel to the normal classification system from roughly mid G to late M. These have more recently been remapped into a unified carbon classifier C, with N0 starting at roughly C6. Another subset of cool carbon stars are the J-type stars, which are characterized by the strong presence of molecules of 13CN in addition to those of 12CN.[50] A few dwarf (that is, main sequence) carbon stars are known, but the overwhelming majority of known carbon stars are giants or supergiants.

  • C: Carbon stars, e.g. R CMi
    • C-R: Formerly a class on its own representing the carbon star equivalent of late G to early K stars. Example: S Camelopardalis
    • C-N: Formerly a class on its own representing the carbon star equivalent of late K to M stars. Example: R Leporis
    • C-J: A subtype of cool C stars with a high content of 13C. Example: Y Canum Venaticorum
    • C-H: Population II analogues of the C-R stars. Examples: V Ari, TT CVn[51]
    • C-Hd: Hydrogen-Deficient Carbon Stars, similar to late G supergiants with CH and C2 bands added. Example: HD 137613
[edit]Class S

Main article: S-type star

Class S stars have zirconium oxide lines in addition to (or, rarely, instead of) those of titanium oxide, and are in between the Class M stars and the carbon stars.[52] S stars have excess amounts of zirconium and other elements produced by the s-process, and have their carbon and oxygen abundances closer to equal than is the case for M stars. The latter condition results in both carbon and oxygen being locked up almost entirely in carbon monoxide molecules. For stars cool enough for carbon monoxide to form that molecule tends to “eat up” all of whichever element is less abundant, resulting in “leftover oxygen” (which becomes available to form titanium oxide) in stars of normal composition, “leftover carbon” (which becomes available to form the diatomic carbon molecules) in carbon stars, and “leftover nothing” in the S stars. The relation between these stars and the ordinary M stars indicates a continuum of carbon abundance. Like carbon stars, nearly all known S stars are giants or supergiants.

Examples: S Ursae Majoris, HR 1105
[edit]Classes MS and SC: intermediary carbon related classes

In between the M class and the S class, border cases are named MS stars. In a similar way border cases between the S class and the C-N class are named SC or CS. The sequence M → MS → S → SC → C-N is believed to be a sequence of increased carbon abundance with age for carbon stars in the asymptotic giant branch.

Examples: R Serpentis, ST Monocerotis (MS)
Examples: CY Cygni, BH Crucis (SC)
[edit]White dwarf classifications

Main article: White dwarf spectroscopy

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Sirius A and B (a white dwarf of type DA2) resolved by HST

The class D (for Degenerate) is the modern classification used for white dwarfs, low-mass stars that are no longer undergoing nuclear fusion and have shrunk to planetary size, slowly cooling down. Class D is further divided into spectral types DA, DB, DC, DO, DQ, DX, and DZ. The letters are not related to the letters used in the classification of other stars, but instead indicate the composition of the white dwarf’s visible outer layer or atmosphere.

Examples: Sirius B (DA2), Procyon B (DA4), Van Maanen’s star (DZ7)[53], Table 1

The white dwarf types are as follows:[54]

  • DA: a hydrogen-rich atmosphere or outer layer, indicated by strong Balmer hydrogen spectral lines.
  • DB: a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated by neutral helium, He I, spectral lines.
  • DO: a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated by ionized helium, He II, spectral lines.
  • DQ: a carbon-rich atmosphere, indicated by atomic or molecular carbon lines.
  • DZ: a metal-rich atmosphere, indicated by metal spectral lines (a merger of the obsolete white dwarf spectral types, DG, DK and DM).
  • DC: no strong spectral lines indicating one of the above categories.
  • DX: spectral lines are insufficiently clear to classify into one of the above categories.

The type is followed by a number giving the white dwarf’s surface temperature. This number is a rounded form of 50400/Teff, where Teff is the effective surface temperature, measured in kelvins. Originally, this number was rounded to one of the digits 1 through 9, but more recently fractional values have started to be used, as well as values below 1 and above 9.[54][55]

Two or more of the type letters may be used to indicate a white dwarf which displays more than one of the spectral features above. Also, the letter V is used to indicate a variable white dwarf.[54]

Extended white dwarf spectral types:[54]

  • DAB: a hydrogen- and helium-rich white dwarf displaying neutral helium lines.
  • DAO: a hydrogen- and helium-rich white dwarf displaying ionized helium lines.
  • DAZ: a hydrogen-rich metallic white dwarf.
  • DBZ: a helium-rich metallic white dwarf.

Variable star designations:

  • DAV or ZZ Ceti: a hydrogen-rich pulsating white dwarf.[56], pp. 891, 895
  • DBV or V777 Her: a helium-rich pulsating white dwarf.[57], p. 3525
  • GW Vir, sometimes divided into DOV and PNNV: a hot helium-rich pulsating white dwarf (or pre-white dwarf.)[58], §1.1, 1.2;[59][60] These stars are generally PG 1159 stars, although some authors also include non-PG 1159 stars in this class.[58][61]
[edit]Non-stellar spectral types: Class P & Q

Finally, the classes P and Q are occasionally used for certain non-stellar objects. Type P objects are planetary nebulae and type Q objects are novae.

[edit]Spectral peculiarities

Additional nomenclature, in the form of lower-case letters, can follow the spectral type to indicate peculiar features of the spectrum.[62]

Code
Spectral peculiarities for stars

:
Blending and/or uncertain spectral value


Undescribed spectral peculiarities exist

!
Special peculiarity

comp
Composite spectrum

e
Emission lines present

[e]
“Forbidden” emission lines present

er
“Reversed” center of emission lines weaker than edges

ep
Emission lines with peculiarity

eq
Emission lines with P Cygni profile

ev
Spectral emission that exhibits variability

f
N III and He II emission (for element name followed by roman numeral see spectral line)

f*
NIV λ4058Å is stronger than the NIII λ4634Å, λ4640Å, & λ4642Å lines[63]

f+
SiIV λ4089Å & λ4116Å are emission in addition to the NIII line[63]

(f)
Weak emission lines of He

((f))
Displays strong HeII absorption accompanied by weak NIII emissions[64]

h
WR stars with emission lines due to hydrogen.[38]

ha
WR stars with hydrogen emissions seen on both absorption and emission.[38]

He wk
Weak He lines

k
Spectra with interstellar absorption features

m
Enhanced metal features

n
Broad (“nebulous”) absorption due to spinning

nn
Very broad absorption features due to spinning very fast

neb
A nebula’s spectrum mixed in

p
Unspecified peculiarity, peculiar star.

pq
Peculiar spectrum, similar to the spectra of novae

q
Red & blue shifts line present

s
Narrowly “sharp” absorption lines

ss
Very narrow lines

sh
Shell star features

v
Variable spectral feature (also “var”)

w
Weak lines (also “wl” & “wk”)

d Del
Type A and F giants with weak calcium H and K lines, as in prototype Delta Delphini

d Sct
Type A and F stars with spectra similar to that of short-period variable Delta Scuti

Code
If spectrum shows enhanced metal features

Ba
Abnormally strong Barium

Ca
Abnormally strong Calcium

Cr
Abnormally strong Chromium

Eu
Abnormally strong Europium

He
Abnormally strong Helium

Hg
Abnormally strong Mercury

Mn
Abnormally strong Manganese

Si
Abnormally strong Silicon

Sr
Abnormally strong Strontium

Tc
Abnormally strong Technetium

Code
Spectral peculiarities for white dwarfs

:
Uncertain assigned classification

P
Magnetic white dwarf with detectable polarization

E
Emission lines present

H
Magnetic white dwarf without detectable polarization

V
Variable

PEC
Spectral peculiarities exist

For example, Epsilon Ursae Majoris is listed as spectral type A0pCr, indicating general classification A0 with strong emission lines of the element chromium. There are several common classes of chemically peculiar stars, where the spectral lines of a number of elements appear abnormally strong.

[edit]Photometric classification

Stars can also be classified using photometric data from any photometric system. For example, we can calibrate color index diagrams of U−B and B−V in the UBV system according to spectral and luminosity classes. Nevertheless, this calibration is not straightforward, because many effects are superimposed in such diagrams: interstellar reddening, color changes due to metallicity, and the blending of light from binary and multiple stars.

Photometric systems with more colors and narrower passbands allow a star’s class, and hence physical parameters, to be determined more precisely. The most accurate determination comes of course from spectral measurements, but there is not always enough time to get qualitative spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio.

[edit]See also

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Star portal

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Astronomy portal

[edit]Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g These proportions are fractions of stars brighter than absolute magnitude 16; lowering this limit will render earlier types even rarer while generally adding only to the M class.
  2. ^ This rises to 78.6% if we include all stars. (See the above note.)

[edit]References

  1. ^ Analyse spectrale de la lumière de quelques étoiles, et nouvelles observations sur les taches solaires, P. Secchi,Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 63 (July–December 1866), pp. 364–368.
  2. ^ Nouvelles recherches sur l’analyse spectrale de la lumière des étoiles, P. Secchi, Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 63 (July–December 1866), pp. 621–628.
  3. ^ pp. 60, 134, The Analysis of Starlight: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Astronomical Spectroscopy, J. B. Hearnshaw, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-521-25548-1.
  4. ^ pp. 62–63, Hearnshaw 1986.
  5. ^ p. 60, Hearnshaw 1986.
  6. ^ pp. 62–63, Stars and Their Spectra: An Introduction to the Spectral Sequence, James B. Kaler, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0521585708.
  7. ^ a b c d Tables VII, VIII, Empirical bolometric corrections for the main-sequence, G. M. H. J. Habets and J. R. W. Heinze,Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 46 (November 1981), pp. 193–237, Bibcode: 1981A&AS…46..193H. Luminosities are derived from Mbol figures, using Mbol(☉)=4.75.
  8. ^ a b The Guinness book of astronomy facts & feats, Patrick Moore, 1992, 0-900424-76-1
  9. ^ “The Colour of Stars”. Australia Telescope Outreach and Education. 2004-12-21. Retrieved 2007-09-26. — Explains the reason for the difference in color perception.
  10. ^ What color are the stars?, Mitchell Charity. Accessed online March 19, 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h LeDrew, G.; The Real Starry Sky, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 95, No. 1 (whole No. 686, February 2001), pp. 32–33. Note: Table 2 has an error and so this article will use 824 as the assumed correct total of main sequence stars
  12. ^ a b The Draper Catalogue of stellar spectra photographed with the 8-inch Bache telescope as a part of the Henry Draper memorial, Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 27 (1890), Bibcode: 1890AnHar..27….1P. See in particular pp. 1–4.
  13. ^ a b pp. 106–108, Hearnshaw 1986.
  14. ^ p. 60–63, Hearnshaw 1986; pp. 623–625, Secchi 1866.
  15. ^ pp. 111–112, Hearnshaw 1986.
  16. ^ Spectra of bright stars photographed with the 11-inch Draper Telescope as part of the Henry Draper Memorial, Antonia C. Maury and Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 28, part 1 (1897), pp. 1–128,Bibcode: 1897AnHar..28….1M; see in particular Table I.
  17. ^ Spectra of bright southern stars photographed with the 13-inch Boyden telescope as part of the Henry Draper Memorial, Annie J. Cannon and Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 28, part 2 (1901), pp. 129–263,Bibcode: 1901AnHar..28..129C; see in particular pp. 139–143.
  18. ^ pp. 117–119, Hearnshaw 1986.
  19. ^ Classification of 1,688 southern stars by means of their spectra, Annie Jump Cannon and Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 56, #5 (1912), pp. 115–164, Bibcode: 1912AnHar..56..115C.
  20. ^ pp. 121–122, Hearnshaw 1986.
  21. ^ Saha, M. N.; On a Physical Theory of Stellar Spectra, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Volume 99, Issue 697 (May 1921), pp. 135–153
  22. ^ Charity, Mitchell. “What color are the stars?”. Retrieved 2006-05-13.
  23. ^ Morgan, William Wilson; Keenan, Philip Childs; Kellman, Edith (1943), “An atlas of stellar spectra, with an outline of spectral classification”, Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago press
  24. ^ Phillip C. Keenan, William Wilson Morgan; Keenan, P C (1973). “Spectral Classification”. Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Annual Reviews) 11: 29–50. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.11.090173.000333.
  25. ^ An atlas of stellar spectra, with an outline of spectral classification, W. W. Morgan, P. C. Keenan and E. Kellman, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1943.
  26. ^ Revised MK Spectral Atlas for Stars Earlier than the Sun, W. W. Morgan, H. A. Abt, and J. W. Tapscott, Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago and Kitt Peak National Observatory, 1978.
  27. ^ A New Spectral Classification System for the Earliest O Stars: Definition of Type O2, Nolan R. Walborn et al., The Astronomical Journal 123, #5 (May 2002), pp. 2754–2771, doi:10.1086/339831, Bibcode: 2002AJ….123.2754W.
  28. ^ “SIMBAD Object query : CCDM J02319+8915″. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Physical Properties of Wolf-Rayet Stars, Crowther, Paul A., 2007
  30. ^ Outstanding Issues in Our Understanding of L, T, and Y Dwarfs, J. D. Kirkpatrick, April 2007, arXiv:0704.1522. Accessed on line September 18, 2007.
  31. ^ a b Kirkpatrick et al., J. Davy; Reid, I. Neill; Liebert, James; Cutri, Roc M.; Nelson, Brant; Beichman, Charles A.; Dahn, Conard C.; Monet, David G. et al. (July 10, 1999). “Dwarfs Cooler than M: the Definition of Spectral Type L Using Discovery from the 2-µ ALL-SKY Survey (2MASS)”. The Astrophysical Journal (The University of Chicago Press) 519 (2): 802–833.doi:10.1086/307414. ISSN: 0004-637X.
  32. ^ a b Kirkpatrick, J. Davy (2005). “New Spectral Types L and T”. Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Annual Reviews) 43 (1): 195–246. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.42.053102.134017. ISSN: 0066-4146.
  33. ^ The minimum Jeans mass, brown dwarf companion IMF, and predictions for detection of Y-type dwarfs, B. Zuckerman and I. Song, Astronomy and Astrophysics 493, #3 (January 2009), pp. 1149–1154, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810038,Bibcode: 2009A&A…493.1149Z.
  34. ^ a b c d The Physical Properties of Four ~600 K T Dwarfs, S. K. Leggett et al., The Astrophysical Journal 695, #2 (April 2009), pp. 1517–1526, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/1517, Bibcode: 2009ApJ…695.1517L.
  35. ^ CFBDS J005910.90-011401.3: reaching the T-Y brown dwarf transition?, P. Delorme et al., Astronomy and Astrophysics 482, #3 (May 2008), pp. 961–971, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20079317, Bibcode: 2008A&A…482..961D.
  36. ^ Exploring the substellar temperature regime down to ~550K, Ben Burningham et al., Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 391, #1 (November 2008), pp. 320–333, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13885.x,Bibcode: 2008MNRAS.391..320B; see the abstract.
  37. ^ Bouigue, R. 1954, Annales d’Astrophysique, Vol. 17, p.104
  38. ^ Keenan, P. C. 1954 Astrophysical Journal, vol. 120, p.484
  39. ^ A Determination of the Local Density of White Dwarf Stars, J. B. Holberg, Terry D. Oswalt and E. M. Sion, The Astrophysical Journal 571, #1 (May 2002), pp. 512–518.
  40. ^ a b c d A proposed new white dwarf spectral classification system, E. M. Sion, J. L. Greenstein, J. D. Landstreet, J. Liebert, H. L. Shipman, and G. A. Wegner, The Astrophysical Journal 269, #1 (June 1, 1983), pp. 253–257.
  41. ^ A Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs, George P. McCook and Edward M. Sion, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 121, #1 (March 1999), pp. 1–130.
  42. ^ Physics of white dwarf stars, D. Koester and G. Chanmugam, Reports on Progress in Physics 53 (1990), pp. 837–915.
  43. ^ White dwarfs, Gilles Fontaine and François Wesemael, in Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, ed. Paul Murdin, Bristol and Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing and London, New York and Tokyo: Nature Publishing Group, 2001.ISBN 0333750888.
  44. ^ a b Mapping the Instability Domains of GW Vir Stars in the Effective Temperature-Surface Gravity Diagram, Quirion, P.-O., Fontaine, G., Brassard, P., Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 171 (2007), pp. 219–248.
  45. ^ §1, Detection of non-radial g-mode pulsations in the newly discovered PG 1159 star HE 1429–1209, T. Nagel and K. Werner, Astronomy and Astrophysics 426 (2004), pp. L45–L48.
  46. ^ The Extent and Cause of the Pre-White Dwarf Instability Strip, M. S. O’Brien, Astrophysical Journal 532, #2 (April 2000), pp. 1078–1088.
  47. ^ a b Pismis 24-1: The Stellar Upper Mass Limit Preserved, J. Maíz Apellániz et al. 2006

[edit]External links

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Evolution

Formation · Pre–main sequence · Main sequence · Horizontal branch · Asymptotic giant branch · Dredge-up · Instability strip · Red clump · PG1159 star · Mira variable · Planetary nebula · Protoplanetary nebula · Luminous red nova · Luminous blue variable ·Wolf–Rayet star · Supernova impostor · Supernova · Hypernova · Hertzsprung–Russell diagram · Color-color diagram

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Luminosity class

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Spectral classification

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ISRAEL TRUTH TIMES

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

George Soros: time to expose this diseased and dangerous WWII Nazi collaborator once again.

Soros’s Anti-Human-Rights Agenda
Republicans and conservatives must stop leaving the important field
of human rights to anti-American relativists.

This article by Anne Bayefsky appears today on National Review Online.

George Soros’s enormous gift of $100 million to the non-governmental organization Human Rights Watch is a serious shot across the bow for Republicans and conservatives. Billionaire Sheldon Adelson once said he would become “the Right’s answer to George Soros,” but he has not. Although “human rights” is the most powerful political currency of our time, no one on the right has stepped up to the plate, and Soros has the playing field to himself.
The significance of his gift can be understood only by appreciating the web of connections associated with this human-rights organization and its resulting influence.
Thirty years ago, the undisputed leader among international human-rights NGOs was Amnesty International. Founded in order to shine a spotlight on individual prisoners of conscience and victims of torture, Amnesty had a focused purpose and succeeded in pressuring governments and liberating real people.
But corrupt governments in developing countries, Communist regimes, and the despotic rulers of Arab and Islamic states pushed back. Under the guise of protecting their sovereignty and natural resources from the ravages of Western imperialism, they commandeered the United Nations, disputed its foundational human-rights framework, and rolled out new and improved “human rights,” such as the right to development, the right of peoples to “international solidarity,” and the right to be free of “the adverse effects of toxic wastes.” No matter that the beneficiaries of such rights were essentially governments and not individuals, or that the rights of women and minorities were then trampled for the sake of maintaining a united front against the West.
Amnesty International jumped on the bandwagon. It expanded its original mandate to include rights violations which it says result from globalization, “business,” and a wide gambit of social issues. Amnesty’s leaders, who bear the title of secretary general, harbored an anti-Western bias and a penchant for conceiving of developing countries as sympathetic underdogs whose inability to institute the rule of law was permanently someone else’s fault. In 2005, Secretary General Irene Khan, from Bangladesh, likened Guantanamo Bay to the Soviet Gulag. In 2010, after the head of Amnesty’s gender unit criticized Amnesty for its links to a major supporter of the Taliban, Amnesty reacted by suspending and then severing its relationship with the employee, not by severing its links to the Taliban devotee.
Arab and Muslim states were masters at this form of political gamesmanship. Anxious to rid themselves of the presence of a Jewish and democratic state uncomfortably close to them, and worried about the threat that universal human-rights norms posed to their legitimacy, they recast their extremism in terms of human rights. Though one-fifth of Israel’s people are Arabs, and they have more democratic rights than they would in any Arab state, these states accused Israel of apartheid. Arab and Muslim states, meanwhile, rendered themselves Judenrein, outlawed public displays of Christianity, and turned non-Muslims into second-class citizens in the name of protecting cultural rights, religious identity, and “national particularities.” To complete the metamorphosis, the Organization of the Islamic Conference seized effective power at the U.N.’s lead human-rights body, the Human Rights Council.
As human rights were being rewritten, the U.S.-based Human Rights Watch wrongly believed it had only two options. It could find itself defending the governments of the United States, Israel, and other allegedly colonialist-imperialist regimes — a tack that seemed to be at odds with the mandate of a human-rights NGO, for which governments are supposedly the adversaries by definition. Or it could join the party, trash Israel and America, and prove its bona fides on the world stage.
As Robert Bernstein, the founder of Human Rights Watch and its active chairman for 20 years until 1998, complained in the New York Times last October, Human Rights Watch chose the latter. Bernstein lamented the fact that the organization had jettisoned the crucial distinction between open democratic societies and closed societies, between societies that are willing to acknowledge and correct abuses and ones that deny and ignore them. Distancing itself from its American roots and embracing the timeworn strategy of scapegoating Jews, the organization began to rival the made-over Amnesty.
Human Rights Watch defended the U.N.’s “anti-racism” Durban Declaration despite its blatant discrimination against Israel and cast its lot with those who have painted the defenders of Jewish self-determination as racists. HRW supported the U.N.’s Goldstone report, a modern-day blood libel that claims Israel “deliberately” aimed to murder Palestinian civilians under the guise of defending its own people against Hamas terror. HRW championed the U.N. Human Rights Council and strongly advocated U.S. membership, in the full knowledge that the council has adopted more resolutions and decisions condemning Israel than all the other 191 U.N. member states combined.
Last year, representatives of Human Rights Watch unashamedly traveled to one of the world’s worst human-rights abusers, Saudi Arabia, to raise money by casting the organization as an antidote to what they labeled “pro-Israel pressure groups.” Since HRW had, as Bernstein put it, itself produced “far more condemnations of Israel . . . than of any other country in the region,” he rightly concluded that it had turned its back on its founding mission and significantly diminished its moral force.
Why, then, did George Soros deem it worthy of the largest gift he has ever made?
Because Soros has recognized what Republicans ignore at their peril — namely, the power of human-rights claims, legitimate or not.
Soros, logged as one of President Obama’s frequent White House guests, appreciates that a human-rights mantra, particularly when amplified with the U.N.’s global megaphone, is a formidable tool for manipulating public policy. A tool, mind you, and not a principle.
President Obama has styled himself a champion of the victims of human-rights violations. But he is the president who went to Egypt and spoke in support of Muslim women who want to cover their bodies while saying nothing in defense of those who want the freedom to do otherwise. He is the president who has let Iranian dissidents die in vain. The president who keeps mumbling about reset buttons while Russian human-rights defenders are systematically eliminated.
The U.N.’s Human Rights Council — which, in its earlier incarnation, was once presided over by Eleanor Roosevelt — opened its current session this week in Geneva with Libya taking a seat as a full-fledged voting member. Next week the General Assembly, which once adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, will again permit a call for the destruction of Israel to be made from its podium, as Mahmoud Ahmadinejad delivers his annual diatribe about Jewish global domination.
And outside the General Assembly Hall, the only NGO allowed to speak at microphones reserved for states is Human Rights Watch — which has specialized in delivering congratulatory messages to the U.N.
So Soros’s acquisition of Human Rights Watch, coupled with his legendary support of the Democratic party and the United Nations, creates the perfect storm. He has brought together the unelected, unaccountable NGO claiming to represent “civil society,” the Democratic party and its sitting president, and the world’s chief global organization, each supportive of the others in a plethora of financial and personal interrelationships, and all sharing common goals: diminishing American power and mothballing the idea of unadulterated universal values.
Soros makes no attempt to hide his agenda. As he wrote in The Bubble of American Supremacy: “People have different views and . . . nobody is in possession of the ultimate truth . . . [P]eople are supposed to decide for themselves what they mean by freedom and democracy. . . . What goes on within individual states can be of vital interest to the rest of the world, but the principle of sovereignty militates against interfering in their internal affairs.” The same speech has been made by China and Cuba and thugs the world over.
Soros’s view is the antithesis of human-rights protection. It directly contradicts the vision of common, inviolable rights and freedoms, which the visionaries who founded America, the United Nations, and Human Rights Watch understood. It is high time to launch an equally well-endowed human-rights organization not beholden to the rapacious relativism and anti-Americanism of George Soros.

…. And speaking about the devil…:

Print Edition

Photo by: Associated Press

Soros revealed to be major J-Street donor

By GIL SHEFLER 25/09/2010

Amid accusations of mischaracterization of ties, J-Street website reveals George Soros has donated money to organization.

Billionaire George Soros known for his support of liberal causes and occasional criticism of Israel is a major J-Street donor, it emerged Friday.
Tax forms obtained by the Washington Times’ Eli Lake revealed that over the past three years the Hungarian-born Holocaust survivor and finance guru has given $750,000 to the organization.
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The revelation was followed by accusations that the advocacy group which sees itself as a leftwing alternative to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee had mislead the public about its relationship with the controversial philanthropist.
For years J-Street had repeatedly denied having any connections with Soros.
Under a section called “myths and facts” on J-Street’s Web site the organization posted a statement which seemingly implies it never received funding from Soros.
“George Soros did not found J Street. In fact, George Soros very publicly stated his decision not to be engaged in J Street when it was launched – precisely out of fear that his involvement would be used against the organization,” the J-Street statement read. “J Street’s Executive Director has stated many times that he would in fact be very pleased to have funding from Mr. Soros and the offer remains open to him to be a funder should he wish to support the effort.”
Earlier this year in an interview with Moment magazine Ben Ami denied receiving funds from Soros.
“We got tagged as having his support, without the benefit of actually getting funded!” he was quoted as saying.
J-Street spokesperson Amy Spitalnick told the The Jerusalem Post on Saturday that Ben Ami’s quote in Moment magazine was taken out of context and referred to the initial stages of the creation of J-Street.
“We never denied that Soros gave us any money,” she wrote in an Email. “c4 donors are supposed to remain private by law (to protect their privacy) and the IRS illegally released the Schedule B part of our 990 that lists them. No c4 discloses its donors.”
She emphasized that donations from Soros made up about 7 percent of J-Street’s annual budget.
“The most important thing to do is put this in the context of the $11.2 million the J Street family of organizations has raised from over 10,000 donors in the last 2.5 years,” Spitalnick added.
Soros has often been criticized by Jewish organizations for his comments on Israel. For instance, in 2003 he gave a speech in which he said Israel and US policies fed anti-Semitism.
He recently pledged $100 million to Human Rights Watch, an organization which has been accused by its founder Richard Bernstein as being biased against Israel. At the same time he gave $1 million to World Ort, a Jewish educational organization.
The Washington Times report also revealed that one of J-Street’s major donors was a Hong Kong-based businesswoman named Consolacion Esdicul.
According to the tax returns, Esdicul gave $811,697 over a three year timeframe.
Asked if J-Street had conducted a background check on Esdicul, Spitalnick said she was not at liberty to divulge the process by which it examines whether to accept money from donors.
She added that funds from Esdicul were solicited by Bill Benter, a supporter of J-Street’s from Pittsburgh.

Contributed by C.

You want evil??? In another life, George Soros was the CEO of Soylent Corporation. In this life, he thinks he’s a messiah… After himself, he follows Alinsky, Cloward and Piven. His “church” is a bank. And his “god” (besides himself) is Mammon.

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