15 Dirty Big Pharma Tricks That Rip You Off and Risk Your Health for Profit

Even during a recession, pharma is still the nation’s third most profitable sector. Here are some of the dirty tricks it employs to stay on top.

December 22, 2010  |

Even during a two-year recession with people losing their homes and jobs, pharma is still the nation’s third most profitable sector. How does it do that? In part by cheating the government, misrepresenting science, bribing doctors, patients and pharmacies, and squeezing the FDA. Other than that, the industry plays completely fair. Pharma has often been criticized for lack of creativity in developing new drugs. But these dirty tricks show its creativity is alive and well when it comes to putting the public at risk just to turn a profit.

1. Astroturf Patients?

Pharma promotes fake patient advocacy groups to lobby for its interests.

These front groups often push the FDA to approve an expensive drug that has acceptable, cheaper alternatives. Or, they’ll try to prevent Medicaid from switching to the less pricey drug. One of the largest faux groups, the “grassroots” National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), was investigated by Sen. Charles Grassley for undisclosed pharma links. He found the 10 top NAMI state chapters received $3.84 million from pharma in less than five years, the biggest largesse from Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb.

How else can you tell an<a href="http:// astroturf group? Their Web sites look just like the pharma companies that fund them.

2. Cheating the Government

Pharma is now a top defrauder of the federal government. “Desperate to maintain their high margin of profit in the face of a dwindling number of important new drugs,” pharma illegally promotes unapproved uses of drugs and deliberately overcharges Medicare and Medicaid, says Dr. Sidney Wolfe, director of Public Citizen’s Health Research Group. Pharmaceutical companies have been hit with $14.8 billion in wrongdoing settlements in the last five years. But that’s still cheaper for Big Pharma than going about things the old-fashioned, legal way. So the fraud continues.

3. Trials and Fibulations

Presiding over clinical trials can make a doctor thousands per patient. But they wouldn’t compromise patient safety just to make a buck, would they? Medical College of Georgia psychiatrist Richard Borison and his colleague Bruce Diamond did 13 years ago when they tested Zyprexa, Risperdal and 20 other drugs and ended up in jail. So did Baystate Medical Center’s Scott Reuben, who went to prison earlier this year for fraudulent Celebrex, Neurontin and Lyrica trials. And a Tucson facility testing asthma drugs Symbicort, Advair and Singulair doctored data and risked patients’ health to net as much as $10,000 per patient, according to a whistleblower and government and court documents. How many other drugs were tested for such fiscal outcomes? Not counting recalled ones, of course.

4. More Trials and Fibulations

Even without fraud, pharma-sponsored studies can deceive. Trials that only determine that a drug is “not worse” than another one or impute safety before real data are available — as in the case of Vioxx and Avandia’s threat of heart attacks — can skew results. And some research is not meant to be accurate to begin with. The Johnson & Johnson Center for Pediatric Psychopathology Research at Massachusetts General Hospital was founded to “move forward the commercial goals of J.& J.” according to unsealed court documents. Its head, Harvard’s Joseph Biederman, promised J.& J. a proposed drug trial “will support the safety and effectiveness of risperidone [Risperdal] in this age group,”<a href="http:// “>”>”> before it was ever conducted. Why leave things up to science?

5. Overseas Adventurism

As pharma increasingly eyes poorer countries for new markets and cheaper manufacturing it also eyes them for cheaper clinical trials. In 1996, 11 Nigerian children died in trials testing Pfizer’s not-yet-approved antibiotic Trovan. While Pfizer paid the Nigerian government and state of Kano millions in a settlement, documents released by Wikileaks show that Pfizer tried to extort Nigeria’s former attorney general to drop the lawsuits. Trovan was withdrawn from U.S. markets in 2001 for liver toxicity, though “safety signals” may have appeared sooner.

6. Clueless Institutional Review Boards

Institutional review boards, charged with overseeing clinical trials, should catch the unsafe drugs and shady trials. But a Congress and General Accountability Office sting conducted last year on a Colorado review board raises serious doubts. When asked to oversee a study of Adhesiabloc, a product designed to reduce scar tissue after surgery, Coast Independent Review Board said…when do we start? Even though the product did not exist — nor did its developer or lead researcher!

7. ‘Previous Government Experience Desirable’

In the fight against medical fraud, the Justice Department is beginning to file criminal, not just civil, charges against pharma. More employees also are turning whistleblower thanks to provisions that entitle whistleblowers to 15 and even 30 percent of fraud settlements, in some cases. But the other side has a big advantage. As long as politicians like former Louisiana Rep. Billy Tauzin, who left government to head the industry trade group PhRMA, and former CDC director Julie Gerberding, now head of Merck vaccines, are willing to commit a career’s worth of knowledge, judgment and relationships to sell product, the government is fighting itself.

8. Double Dealing at the Pharmacy

The best thing that ever happened to pharma (after direct-to-consumer advertising) is Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs). Their job is to negotiate the best drugs for their clients, which are heath and pension plans. But they seem far more adept at taking money to push pharma’s top branded drugs, regardless of the cost.

Recently CVS’ pharmacy benefit manager, AdvancePCS, sent letters to doctors extolling the benefits of the expensive drug Zyprexa on behalf of drug giant Eli Lilly. Had a generic drug been prescribed over Zyprexa, savings would have been huge.

9. FDA Foreplay

A sneaky way pharma tries to get FDA to approve a drug — even when the science isn’t there —  is to float the drug to the public. That’s where directed marketing comes in. When “patients” (these are often astroturf groups), really want a drug approved, it puts huge pressure on the FDA to be sensitive to the public’s wishes. This tactic famously flopped for Boehringer-Ingelheim this year when it tried to sell a medication for “hypoactive sexual desire disorder” (HSDD) in women (first it had to sell the disease itself). Even though BI debuted its pink Viagra at a medical conference last year and rolled out its elaborate “Sex Brain Body: Make the Connection” Web site with TV personality Lisa Rinna soon after, FDA said no. Seems even though Boehringer-Ingelheim was effective in “raising awareness” about female sexual dysfunction, something else wasn’t effective: the drug. And when it came to foreplay, the FDA had a headache.

10. Pharma Service Announcements

Public service announcements are messages for your own good, like, “Do You Know the Seven Warning Signs of Cancer?” But a lot of the awareness messages and warning signs you hear now are not from the government or medical groups, but pharma.

“Voices of Meningitis” ads on mom sites and online TV, for example, look like they are raising awareness of meningitis, but they were actually funded by maker Sanofi Pasteur, which makes a meningitis vaccine.

“Unbranded” advertising appears to have legit origins, like the National Association of School Nurses, which sponsors the Sanofi Pasteur’s meningitis ads. But when TV, radio and web messages push “awareness” of diseases like ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), restless legs syndrome (RLS) or excessive sleepiness (ES), be suspicious. Real diseases aren’t given initials for quick recall and easy reference. Nor do they come with snappy self-quizzes and pretty patient models. Unbranded messages also pimp the PSA (public service announcement) money that media outlets have for actual public issues.

11. National ‘Interests’ of Health

The National Institutes of Health are supposed to fund research for the public health with the public’s tax dollars. But recently, a researcher who was stripped of his own NIH grant because of his huge financial links to pharma, is ruling on other researchers’ grants on NIH committees, reports theChronicle of Higher Education. The researcher, psychiatrist Charles Nemeroff, was also allowed to keep NIH funds when he moved to the University of Miami after being disqualified from them at Emory University. Clearly, when it comes to conflicts of interest at the top of level of government research, the fox is guarding thehenhouse (or pork house).

12. Big Pharma Sends Schools Doctors

Continuing Medical Education (CME) are courses that doctors are required to take to keep their state licenses and stay up-to-date with current practice and treatment guidelines. But many are created by pharma, which covers the cost of the course for the doctor in exchange for unvarnished sales pitches. Worse, many are embarrassingly dumbed down.

A recent “course” offered by Medscape was titled “Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine May Be Effective in Women 24 to 45 Years Old.” Participants were told that after taking the course, they would be able to “specify the currently recommended age range” for the vaccine (especially if they could read the title!). Another course manipulates participants to “lobby your legislators” for pharma-related Medicare funding. Congress recently investigated the billion-dollar continuing educationindustry for illegal marketing — too bad Congress couldn’t investigate for stupidity.

13. Ghostwriting

Ghostwriting — papers written by medical marketing writers, with doctors only posing as the authors — was rampant until 2008 Congressional investigations. But even though it’s now prohibited, few journals have retracted ghostwritten articles that sold Vioxx, Fen Phen, Prempro and probably Avandia. Asked about the papers ghostwritten “by” Lila Nachtigall, a professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Deborah Bohren, vice president for public affairs at New York University’s Langone Medical Center said, “If we had received a complaint, we would have investigated.”

A Congressional investigation doesn’t qualify as a complaint?

14. Crooked Books and Slanted Messages

Pharma is often accused of ghostwriting articles that end up in medical journals under doctors’ names who had nothing to do with the writing or research. But this month an entire textbook was accused of being funded and approved by pharma. The 1999 textbook, written to help primary care doctors diagnose psychiatric conditions, was funded entirely by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) — which makes pills for… psychiatric conditions! Nor were its authors, two prominent psychiatrists, strangers to GSK. Alan Schatzberg is on GSK’s speakers bureau and Charles Nemeroff was investigated by Congress for undeclared GSK income. Did the authors write the book themselves or was it ghostwritten by pharma or its marketing company? Does it matter?

15. May I Take Your Order?

Have you ever waited in a doctor’s office with a 102-degree fever, only to have pharma reps swinging Vytorin totes see the doctor first, just because they brought free samples or lunch and are dressed for a music video (pharma tends to employ attractive people to hawk their wares)? Until Congressional investigations brought about the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, some doctors in medical centers say they never paid for a meal. Nor did pharma largesse end there. One doctor told AlterNet her entire group was jetted to a Caribbean island courtesy of her Paxil rep. Even medical students were schmoozed until the 62,000-member American Medical Student Association (AMSA) sought to end the pharma practice of gifts and free meals. Now pharma must report what it spends on doctors.

Knight of Malta George TenetThe first scam was the 911 demolition carried out by intelligence agents serving the Archbishop of New York City, Edward Cardinal Egan.  Knight of Malta/CFR-member/DCI George J. Tenet, trained by Jesuits at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service, performed exactly as ordered.  With the 911 controlled demolition denied and covered up by the pope’s CFR-directed 911 Commission, another lie—first perpetrated in order to justify the invasion of Afghanistan on October 7, 2001, the very same day the naval Battle of Lepanto was fought and won by the Knights of Malta in 1571—needed to be perpetuated.

Bin Laden osama_bush_capturedThat lie was asserting Al (CIA) Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was alive and dangerous thereby justifying massive military expenditures for his proposed capture.  The fact is Bin Laden had been dead since December 13, 2001, and Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld, Rice, Wolfowitz and the entire pope-worshipping, CFR-attending, neo-con gang knew the truth all along.  PakistaniBenazir Bhutto made clear the fact that Bin Laden had been assassinated when she was interviewed by Englishman David Frost on November 2, 2007.  Thirty-six days later, on December 8, 2007, she was murdered by agents of the Black Pope’s International Intelligence Community.  Since the endgame of the Jesuit Order for apostate Protestant and Baptist 14th Amendment America is “New Right” Jesuit Fascism, Satan’s Company of Jesus provided a false enemy against whom it could rally—rallied by Roman Catholic patronizers Bill O’Reilly, Sean Hannity, Geraldo Rivera, John Gibson, Laura Ingraham and Chris Wallace at Fox News!

Now Gordon Duff, a fearless Marine, writes a scathing article enumerating these acts of high treason while excoriating Bush and Co.  Well said!  Semper Fi!


December 5, 2009 posted by Gordon Duff · 128 Comments



By Gordon Duff/STAFF WRITER/Senior Editor

Conservative commentator, former Marine Colonel Bob Pappas has been saying for years that bin Laden died at Tora Bora and that Senator Kerry’s claim that bin Laden escaped with Bush help was a lie.  Now we know that Pappas was correct.  The embarrassment of having Secretary of State Clinton talk about bin Laden in Pakistan was horrific.  He has been dead since December 13, 2001 and now, finally, everyone, Obama, McChrystal, Cheney, everyone who isn’t nuts is finally saying what they have known for years.

However, since we lost a couple of hundred of our top special operations forces hunting for bin Laden after we knew he was dead, is someone going to answer for this with some jail time?  Since we spent 200 million dollars on “special ops” looking for someone we knew was dead, who is going to jail for that?  Since Bush, Rumsfeld and Cheney continually talked about a man they knew was dead, now known to be for reasons of POLITICAL nature, who is going to jail for that?  Why were tapes brought out, now known to be forged, as legitimate intelligence to sway the disputed 2004 election in the US?  This is a criminal act if there ever was one.

In 66 pages, General Stanley McChrystal never mentions Osama bin Laden.  Everything is “Mullah Omar”now.  In his talk at West Point, President Obama never mentioned Osama bin Laden.  Col. Pappas makes it clear, Vice President Cheney let it “out of the bag” long ago.  Bin Laden was killed by American troops many many years ago.

America knew Osama bin Laden died December 13, 2001.  After that, his use was hardly one to unite America but rather one to divide, scam and play games.  With bin Laden gone, we could have started legitimate nation building in Afghanistan instead of the eternal insurgency that we invented ourselves.

Without our ill informed policies, we could have had a brought diplomatic solution in 2002 in Afghanistan, the one we are ignoring now, and spent money rebuilding the country, 5 cents on the dollar compared to what we are spending fighting a war against an enemy we ourselves recruited thru ignorance.

The bin Laden scam is one of the most shameful acts ever perpetrated against the American people.  We don’t even know if he really was an enemy, certainly he was never the person that Bush and Cheney said.  In fact, the Bush and bin Laden families were always close friends and had been for many years.

What kind of man was Osama bin Laden?  This one time American ally against Russia, son of a wealthy Saudi family, went to Afghanistan to help them fight for their freedom.  America saw him as a great hero then.  Transcripts of the real bin Laden show him to be much more moderate than we claim, angry at Israel and the US government but showing no anger toward Americans and never making the kind of theats claimed.  All of this is public record for any with the will to learn.

osama_bush_capturedHow much of America’s tragedy is tied with these two children of the rich, children of families long joined thru money and friendship, the Bush and bin Laden clans.

One son died in remote mountains, another lives in a Dallas suburb hoping nobody is sent after him.  One is a combat veteran, one never took a strong stand unless done from safety and comfort.  Islam once saw bin Laden as a great leader.  Now he is mostly forgotten.

What has America decided about Bush?

We know this:  Bin Laden always denied any ties to 9/11 and, in fact, has never been charged in relation to 9/11.  He not only denied involvement, but had done so, while alive, 4 times and had vigorously condemned those who were involved in the attack.

This is on the public record, public in every free country except ours.  We, instead, showed films made by paid actors, made up to look somewhat similar to bin Laden, actors who contradicted bin Ladens very public statements, actors pretending to be bin Laden long after bin Laden’s death.

These were done to help justify spending, repressive laws, torture and simple thievery.

For years, we attacked the government of Pakistan for not hunting down someone everyone knew was dead.  Bin Laden’s death hit the newspapers in Pakistan on December 15, 2001.  How do you think our ally felt when they were continually berated for failing to hunt down and turn over someone who didn’t exist?

What do you think this did for American credibility in Pakistan and thru the Islamic world?  Were we seen as criminals, liars or simply fools?  Which one is best?

This is also treason.

How does the death of bin Laden and the defeat and dismemberment of Al Qaeda impact the intelligence assessments, partially based on, not only bin Laden but Al Qaeda activity in Iraq that,not only never happened but was now known to have been unable to happen?

How many “Pentagon Pundits,” the retired officers who sold their honor to send us to war for what is now known to be domestic political dirty tricks and not national security are culpable in these crimes?

I don’t always agree with Col. Pappas on things.  I believe his politics overrule his judgement at times.  However, we totally agree on bin Laden, simply disagree with what it means.  To me lying and sending men to their deaths based on lies is treason.

Falsifying military intelligence and spending billions on unnecessary military operations for political reasons is an abomination.  Consider this, giving billions in contracts to GOP friends who fill campaign coffers, and doing so based on falsified intelligence is insane.  This was done for years.

We spent 8 years chasing a dead man, spending billions, sending FBI agents, the CIA, Navy Seals, Marine Force Recon, Special Forces, many to their deaths, as part of a political campaign to justify running American into debt, enriching a pack of political cronies and war profiteers and to puff up a pack of Pentagon peacocks and their White house draft dodging bosses.

How many laws were pushed thru because of a dead man?

How many hundreds were tortured to find a dead man?

How many hundreds died looking for a dead man?

How many billions were spent looking for a dead man?

Every time Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld stood before troops and talked about hunting down the dead bin Laden, it was a dishonor.  Lying to men and women who put their lives on the line is not a joke.duffster

Who is going to answer to the families of those who died for the politics and profit tied to the Hunt for Bin Laden?

Synagogue of Satan

“I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the Synagogue of Satan.”

Revelation 2:9

0ne group and one group alone is responsible for virtually all wars and bloodshed on the face of this planet. This evil cabal is few in numbers but, like a deadly octopus, its tentacles reach out to grip and strangle untold multitudes of innocent victims. The initiates of every secret society and internationalist organization, from the Council on Foreign Relations and the Jesuits to the Bilderbergers and the Order of Skull & Bones, obey the dictates of this sinister group and tremble when standing before its leaders.

The cabalist group I refer to is the Synagogue of Satan, an ancient, yet modern, elite so politically powerful and so fabulously wealthy that even past history has been twisted, reshaped, and revised to meet its preferred version of humanity’s gloomy, totalitarian future.

Religious in nature, the Synagogue of Satan is, at its essence, a grotesque, satanic cult. It’s high council is composed of High Priests of Lucifer; these are men who literally worship death while practicing sexual magick and occult rituals of the blackest nature.

Fanatical Support By Zionists

Regrettably, this Luciferian cabal of high priests is supported by the vast majority of over eighteen million people around the globe who call themselves “Jews.” Some of these people, a great many, are fanatical in their support of the Synagogue of Satan. They go by the name, “Zionists.” Other Jews provide the Cabal with only token, often nominal, support.

The millions of Zionist Jews are joined in their zealous embrace by a great number of Gentiles who are also boastful of being Zionists. While these Gentile supporters are, on the whole, woefully ignorant of the horrific, ultimate goal of the Synagogue of Satan, their support and service to the cause of Lucifer helps drive the global Synagogue of Satan’s never-ending successful campaigns of revolution, war, famine, financial calamity, and bloodshed.

Thankfully, there are a few Jews—but only a few—who have been able to escape the almost irresistible spiritual impulse to ally themselves with the Synagogue of Satan. Their escape has been made possible due to their faith in the only One who has the power to resist the Evil One’s grip. I refer, of course, to Jesus Christ our Lord, Deliverer of Israel. But, watch out! I have discovered that many Jews who claim to be “Christians” are actually Zionist deceivers. Masquerading as “Messianic Jews,” in fact they are covert propagandists for the Synagogue of Satan. “By their fruits ye shall know them.”

Courage Required to Expose this Group

Given the proven fact that the elitist High Priests of Lucifer who comprise the Synagogue of Satan and their servants

Click Here to Order Now! The Synagogue of Satan

control Big Brother’s police and spy organs and possess ownership of every major book publishing firm in the world, rarely is a book or volume ever printed that has the courage and audacity requisite to expose the ongoing conspiracy of this monstrous group.

I am, therefore, extremely pleased to recommend to thinking men and women an excellent, new volume,The Synagogue of Satan, by Britain’s Andrew Hitchcock. You will find it to be a useful, revealing, and accurate historical guide to the sinister crimes and dark events that have propelled the Synagogue of Satan to the precipice of world power. So impressed was I with Mr. Hitchcock’s new book that I volunteered to write the introduction for an American edition, which Power of Prophecy, is pleased to publish and distribute under our RiverCrest Publishing imprint.

The term Synagogue of Satan is biblical in origin. As Mr. Hitchcock notes, the book of Revelation in the Holy Bible minces no words. God warns us of the horrendous and diabolical power to be wielded in the last days by the entity identified as the “Synagogue of Satan.”

Jews Who Are Not Jews

What is most fascinating, however, is that the scriptures clearly tell us that the evil leaders of this entity are not Jews! Yes, they say they are Jews, and the world recognizes them as Jews, even as “Israel,” but they lie! Listen to what God’s Word reveals:

“I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the Synagogue of Satan.” (Revelation 2:9)

Mind-boggling, isn’t it? These wicked, world power-brokers want us to believe they are Jews; they boastfully lay claim to Israel as their heritage. But, in reality, they are blasphemous liars. What is going on here?

The masters of the Synagogue of Satan today possess extraordinary influence over the media. Most people believe in the pro-Zionist propaganda that gushes forth daily from Hollywood, New York, and Washington. It therefore stands to reason that the average world citizen easily falls for the Lie. People everywhere trust these great and beneficent leaders who say, “We are Jews” to be exactly that: Jews. No wonder the Apostle Paul warned that Satan’s disciples come disguised as “ministers of righteousness” and as “angels of light.”

In the case of the minions of the Synagogue of Satan, they come to us disguised as “God’s Chosen,” as “Israel,” as the One Race selected by God to produce in the future a Messiah (not Jesus!) for eternity. We are Jews, they proudly boast while, at the same time, they suggest that others—that is, the defective lower and inferior races—are obligated by God to bless them, to follow the Jews’ lead, to bow down and serve them as “God’s Chosen.”

“Yes,” they arrogantly explain, “we are Jews, and you are goyim (cattle), and we have been chosen by divine edict to rule over you and over the entire planet.”

So complete is Jewish domination of the media that Americans are left totally in the dark about Jewish hate crimes and atrocities. In 1994 in Hebron, Israel, Baruch Goldstein took a machine gun into a Moslem mosque during worship. Goldstein, a believer in the Jewish holy book, The Talmud, which teaches that Jews are a superior god race, but Gentiles are like insects and cattle, savagely massacred 29 unarmed worshippers and wounded 125.

Click this image to view readable article
Baruch Goldstein

Celebrating the Hebron massacre, Jewish admirers of mass murderer, Baruch Goldstein, carried automatic weapons similar to the one Goldstein (right) used to carry out his “mission.”

Today, in Israel and in Jewish communities worldwide, Goldstein is a hero. Rabbis portray him as a “saint.” Joyful celebrations take place at his grave site on the anniversary of the Hebron massacre. All this is widely reported in the Jewish media, but carefully hidden from ordinary Americans.

Baruch Goldstein Gravesite

The massive, park-like memorial made of killer Baruch Goldstein’s grave indicates the high esteem in which he was held by Jews following the massacre. Goldstein’s grave describes him as an honorable man, even a saint.

Gullible Evangelicals Fall for Lie

Shocking as it is, claims by the Jewish pretenders of racial and spiritual superiority have been accepted by most Christian evangelicals as legitimate, authoritative, and coming direct from God. Christian evangelicals say it is the lot of the Gentiles to bow down and accord virtual god-like status to the “Jew” and to their newly formed political entity, Israel, lest God be angered and curse and punish those who resist the Jews and their artificially created nation, “Israel.”

Sadly, almost nowhere in the established Christian Church can be found a pastor or evangelist today who has the spiritual wisdom, or even the common sense, to ask the cardinal question,“Who is this Synagogue of Satan that God warns about in the book of Revelation?” And nary a soul seems to ask the correlating question, “Just who are these wicked imposters of whom God warns will say they are “Jews” and are not, but do lie?”

One thing is for sure—the Bible regards these false, lying Jewish imposters as dangerous, murderous vessels in the hands of their infernal lord, Satan. Revelation 2:10 says the Synagogue of Satan will cast some Christians into prison and kill many others. Their evil plot to conquer the world by stealth and deceit will finally bring about a precarious Hour of Temptation for all mankind (Revelation 3:10). So, why aren’t pastors and evangelists today warning us to watch out for and beware of these imposter Jews of the Synagogue of Satan?

It is as if the modern-day descendants of Attila the Hun, Genghis Khan, or Japan’s World War II Emperor Hirohito were to falsely declare, with absolutely no proof or evidence to back up their contention, that they are “Jews,” and the whole world were to foolishly accept their preposterous, juvenile and unscientific bloodline claims.

Their Destiny Revealed in Scripture

Jesus Christ Himself prophesied that all who ally themselves with the Synagogue of Satan, including those millions of deceived evangelicals who foolishly reject or disregard Jesus’ warning about this evil Luciferian cult group, someday shall see their Zionist ambitions go down in flames. On that day, the butchers of history will be forced to grovel at the very feet of those whom the Synagogue of Satan have so viciously and cruelly robbed, persecuted, and killed.

“Behold, I will make them of the Synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie: behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.”

Revelation 3:9

David Icke Newsletter Preview




But to understand the financial crisis, 9/11 and so much more, it must be spoken constantly.

The David Icke Newsletter this Sunday is a major six thousand word exposure of the extent of Rothschild Zionist control of Big Government, Big Banking, Big Media, etc. and its fundamental role in the atrocities of 9/11.

I laid out in simple terms last week the agenda behind the unfolding global financial crisis and today I will expose the coordinating force, or at least a prime one, behind that agenda. Most conspiracy researchers either don’t realise the fundamental significance of this network or are too frightened to say so if they do. Sod that.

It is widely known as Zionism or, as I call it, more accurately, I suggest … Rothschild Zionism. I add the ‘Rothschild’ to constantly emphasise the true creators of Zionism and its controllers to this day …

… They have sought to sell the ‘Zionism-means-all-Jewish-people’ lie so they can condemn as ‘anti-Semites’ and ‘racists’ anyone who exposes the truth about Rothschild Zionism and its agents in government, banking, business, media, military, etc.

This is why most researchers won’t go there even if they are aware enough to know that they shouldreally goes beyond five-sense reality. go there. To uncover and expose what is happening in the world we need all the ‘bees’ – brain, backbone, balls – and never more so than now. Oh yeah, and add consciousness if you want to see how deep the rabbit hole

Racism is the ultimate ignorance in that it relates ‘self’ to the body instead of the Consciousness – Awareness – animating and experiencing through the body. It is like judging a man by his spacesuit instead of the person inside it.

So racism is ridiculous, juvenile and silly, but no way is the threat of being branded as one (they have already tried and failed) going to stop me exposing what must be exposed if the Control System is to fall.

The world’s most extreme racists are, after all, the Rothschild Zionists, anyway. Israel is an apartheid state every bit as much as were apartheid South Africa and apartheid America.

I am not a person, or an individual, or a Human, and although some humans look similar to me, I am not a human.

Some would say that I am a ‘natural’ person, but as I will show you, I am not one of those either. Who then or what then am I?

To understand who I am, you must first understand the definitions which have been placed on the words I have quoted above, words that are commonly used, but do not describe me anymore. For example, the word ‘person’.

Person - The Revised Code of Washington, RCW 1.16.080, (I live in Washington State) defines a person as follows: “The term ‘person’ may be construed to include the United States, this state, or any state or territory, or any public or private corporation, as well as an individual.”

Person - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, pg. 791, defines ‘person’ as follows: “In general usage, a human being (i.e. natural person), though by statute term may include labor organizations, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, or receivers.”

Person - Oran’s Dictionary of the Law, West Group 1999, defines Person as: 1. A human being (a “natural” person). 2. A corporation (an “artificial” person). Corporations are treated as persons in many legal situations. Also, the word “person” includes corporations in most definitions in this dictionary. 3. Any other “being” entitled to sue as a legal entity (a government, an association, a group of Trustees, etc.). 4. The plural of person is persons, not people (see that word). -

Person - Duhaime’s Law Dictionary. An entity with legal rights and existence including the ability to sue and be sued, to sign contracts, to receive gifts, to appear in court either by themselves or by lawyer and, generally, other powers incidental to the full expression of the entity in law. Individuals are “persons” in law unless they are minors or under some kind of other incapacity such as a court finding of mental incapacity. Many laws give certain powers to “persons” which, in almost all instances, includes business organizations that have been formally registered such as partnerships, corporations or associations. -

Person, noun. per’sn. - Webster’s 1828 Dictionary. Defines person as: [Latin persona; said to be compounded of per, through or by, and sonus, sound; a Latin word signifying primarily a mask used by actors on the stage.]

legal person - Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law 1996, defines a legal person as : a body of persons or an entity (as a corporation) considered as having many of the rights and responsibilities of a natural person and esp. the capacity to sue and be sued.

A person according to these definitions, is basically an entity – legal fiction – of some kind that has been legally created and has the legal capacity to be sued. Isn’t it odd that the word lawful is not used within these definitions?

Well….. I am not “the United States, this state, or any territory, or any public or private corporation”. I am not “labor organizations, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, or receivers.” So, I cannot be a ‘person’ under this part of the definition.

The RCW quoted above also states that a person could also be an “individual”. Black’s Law Dictionary also defines a person as a “human being,” which they define by stating “(i.e. natural person)”. So let’s first check to see if I am an “individual”.

Individual - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, pg. 533, defines “individual” as follows: “As a noun, this term denotes a single person as distinguished from a group or class, and also, very commonly, a private or natural person as distinguished from a partnership, corporation, or association; but it is said that this restrictive signification is not necessarily inherent in the word, and that it may, in proper cases, include artificial persons.”

Well now, I have already been shown that I am not a ‘person’, and since ‘individual’ denotes a single ‘person’ as distinguished from a group or class, I can’t be an ‘individual’ under this definition either. But I see the term ‘natural person’ used in the definition of the RCW, and also in the definition of some of the Law Dictionaries. Maybe I am a ‘natural’ person, since I know I am not an ‘artificial’ one.

I could not find the term ‘Natural person’ defined anywhere, so I had to look up the word ‘natural’ for a definition to see if that word would fit with the word person…

Natural - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, pg. 712, defines ‘Natural’ as follows: “Untouched by man or by influences of civilization; wild; untutored, and is the opposite of the word “artificial”. The juristic meaning of this term does not differ from the vernacular, except in the cases where it is used in opposition to the term “legal”; and then it means proceeding from or determined by physical causes or conditions, as distinguished from positive enactments of law, or attributable to the nature of man rather than the commands of law, or based upon moral rather than legal considerations or sanctions.”

Wow, what do they mean by this definition? Am I untouched by man (depends on what the word ‘man’ means), or by influences of civilization? I don’t think so. Am I ‘wild’, or ‘untutored’? nope, not me. Even though the definition states that this word is the opposite of the word ‘artificial’, it still does not describe who I believe I am. So I must conclude that I am not a ‘natural’ person, under this definition of the word ‘natural’. So the term ‘natural person’ cannot apply to me.

Black’s Law Dictionary also used the term ‘human being’, and although Black’s defined it as a ‘natural person’, maybe they made a mistake, maybe I am a ‘human being’. ‘Human’ or ‘human being’ does not appear to have a ‘legal’ definition, so I went to my old standby 1888 Noah Webster’s Dictionary for a vernacular definition of this word. Maybe Noah would know who I am.

Human - Webster’s 1888 Dictionary defines ‘human’ as follows: n. A human being; one of the race of man. [Rare and inelegant.] “Sprung of humans that inhabit earth.” …To me, the etymology of the word Hu-man, suggests that it is a marriage of two separate words ‘Hue’ (defined as the property of color), and man. But this cannot of course be correct, at least not politically correct, so I can’t go there, because the word would then mean ‘colored man’!

Am I of the race of man? Rare and inelegant? Sprung of humans that inhabit earth (ground)? (I’m not colored either). Well, it looks like I have to define the word ‘man’ through Webster’s because there appears to be no legal definition for ‘man’.

Man - Webster’s 1888 Dictionary defines ‘man’ as follows: An individual of the human race; a human being; a person.

Oh! Oh! Well, it looks like we are back to the beginning of our study of definitions, yup, back to the start, completed the circle. I am not an ‘individual’, so I cannot be considered ‘of the human race'; and since I’m not of the human race, I can’t be ‘a human being’, and I’ve also been shown that I’m not ‘a person’ either.

When I was younger, I remember filling out forms, which had the word ‘Caucasian’, listed for race (they don’t seem to use that definition any more for some reason). I was always told that this was the word for me to use since I had white skin. (It is actually pinkish, and some is tanned, with mostly white next to the tanned, but I was still told I was a ‘Caucasian’). So back to the definitions of ‘Caucasian”.

Caucasian - Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition, defines ‘Caucasian’ as follows: Of or pertaining to the white race.

Well, I guess that makes some sense, since I have always held myself to be ‘white’, but this is really not a very descriptive definition, so let’s see what an ‘older’ Black’s Law Dictionary has to say, if anything (they have a tendency to change the meaning of words in the new dictionaries for some reason).

Caucasian - Black’s Law Dictionary 4th Edition, defines “Caucasian’ As follows: Pertaining to the white race, to which belong the greater part of European nations and those of western Asia. The term is inapplicable to denote families or stocks inhabiting Europe and speaking either the so-called Aryan or Semitic languages.

That’s interesting, it appears that ‘white racist Aryan’ groups, like ‘Aryan Nations’ types, or those speaking Aryan, are not even ‘Caucasians’ under this definition, so they can’t be from the ‘White’ Race (I wonder if they know that). Neither are the people who call themselves Jews, and speak a form of Hebrew (which appears to be derived from the older ‘Semitic’ language referred to in Black’s Law Dictionary).

Back to Noah’s Dictionary to see if he has a vernacular definition of the word ‘Caucasian’.

Caucasian - Webster’s 1888 Dictionary defines ‘Caucasian’ as follows: Anyone belonging to the Indo-European race, and the white races originating near Mount Caucasus.

OK, here is my Conclusion: There may be some beings that are ‘persons’ and some of them are ‘individuals’, and some ‘Natural persons’ do exist, of this I have no doubt, I’ve met some of them. There are also many that I believe are ‘Humans’, or ‘Human beings’, these beings seem to exist all over this globe. However…

My kinfolk came from Western Europe, so I must have come from one of the European Nations. I am also white (I use the term loosely), so by definition I must be a ‘Caucasian’. Since I am a Caucasian, I must have come from, or be a member of one of the white races originating near Mount Caucasus. I am a male of my race, so I must conclude that I am a ‘Caucasian male’. I am also a follower of the Scriptural Messiah, commonly called a Christian. I am a living breathing being, on the soil. Therefore I must conclude that I am a living breathing Christian Caucasian (White) male, in other words, I should be called a ‘Living Breathing Caucasian Christian Male’……. or an ‘LBCCM’ – Cool – Ok, now where is that Mount Caucasus, and why would my Christian ‘White’ Race be originating from the area near that mountain called Mount Caucasus ………Hummmmmmmmmm??


For the ‘Living Breathing Caucasian Christian Male’

The Caucasus or Caucas is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including Europe’s highest mountain (Mount Elbrus).

North Caucasus comprises:

South Caucasus comprises:

The word Caucasus derives from Caucas, the purported ancestor of the North Caucasians.[1] He was a son of Togarmah, grandson of Biblical Noah‘s third son Japheth. According to Leonti Mroveli, after the fall of the Tower of Babel and the division of humanity into different languages, Togarmah settled with his sons: Kartlos, Haik (Georgian: ჰაოს, Haos), Movakos, Lekos (Lak people),Heros[disambiguation needed] (Kingdom of Hereti), Kavkasos, and Egros (Kingdom of Egrisi) between two inaccessible mountains, presumably Mount Ararat and Mount Elbrus.

Alternative origins are: From a Pelasgian word for “mountain” or from a Scythian word meaning “snow-white”

The region has many different languages and language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region.[7] No less than three language families are unique to the area, but also Indo-European languages such as Armenian and Ossetic, and the Altaic language Azerbaijani are local to the area.

Today the peoples of the Northern and Southern Caucasus tend to be either Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, or Sunni Muslims. Shia Islam has had many adherents historically in Azerbaijan, located in the eastern part of the region.

Located on the peripheries of Turkey, Iran, and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries. Throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire conquered the territory from the Qajars.[5]

Ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia, Albania, Colchis and Iberia, among others. These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including Media, Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, and Sassanid Empire. In 95-55 BC under the reign of Armenian king of kings Tigranes the Great, Kingdom of Armenia became an empire, including besides Kingdom of Armenia, vassals Iberia, Albania, Parthiaand afew Arab tribes Atropatene, Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, Assyria, Nabataean kingdom, Judea and Atropatene, stretching from Caucasian Mountains to Egypt and from Mediterranean Sea toCaspian Sea, including a territory of 3,000,000 km2 (1,158,000 sq mi), and becoming the last strong Hellenist king, and the strongest in the region by 67 BC. By this time, Zoroastrianism had become the dominant religion of the region (except Kingdom of Armenia); however, the region would go through two other religious transformations. Owing to the rivalry between Persia and Rome, and later Byzantium, the latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region.

However, because Kingdom of Armenia(301 AD, the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion) Caucasian Albania and Georgia had become a Christian entity, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism. With the Islamic conquest of Persia, the region came under the rule of the Arabs. And soon Emirate of Armenia was formed.But after several rebellions in 884\885 AD Kingdom of Armenia became independent, and several times crushed Arab armies. At that timeKingdom of Armenia capital was Ani, with a population of 200,000 and a city of “1001 churches”. It was at its peak under the reign of Gagik I, when it stretched fromByzantine Empire to Caucasian Albania, from Caucasian Iberia to Mesopotamia, including also vassal states such as Caucasian Albania and Caucasian Iberia, until in 1045 AD the kingdom was conquered by Byzantine Empire. In XII century Georgian king David the Builder drove the Muslims out from Caucasus and made theKingdom of Georgia a strong regional power. In 1194–1204 Georgian Queen Tamar‘s armies crushed new Turkish invasions from the south-east and south and launched several successful campaigns into Turkish-controlled Southern Armenia. Georgian Kingdom continued military campaigns outside of Caucasus. As a result of her military campaigns and the temporary fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1204, Georgia became the strongest Christian state in the whole Near Eastarea. The region would later be conquered by the Ottomans, Mongols, local kingdoms and khanates, as well as, once again, Persia, until its conquest by Russia.

The region was unified as a single political entity twice – during the Russian Civil War (Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic) from 9 April 1918 to 26 May 1918, and under the Soviet rule (Transcaucasian SFSR) from 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936.

In modern times, the Caucasus became a region of war among the Ottoman Empire, Iran and Russia, and was eventually conquered by the latter (seeCaucasian Wars).

In the 1940s, the Chechens and Ingush (480,000 altogether), along with the Balkars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks (120,000), Kurds and Caucasus Germans(almost 200,000) were deported en masse to Central Asia and Siberia. Eric D. Weitz wrote, “By 1948, according to Nicolas Werth, the mortality rate of the 600,000 people deported from the Caucasus between 1943 and 1944 had reached 25 percent.”[6]

Following the end of the Soviet Union, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia became independent in 1991. The Caucasus region has been subject to various territorial disputes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, leading to the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994), the Ossetian-Ingush conflict (1989–1991), theWar in Abkhazia (1992–1993), the First Chechen War (1994–1996), the Second Chechen War (1999–2009), and the 2008 South Ossetia War.

Stellar classification

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. The spectral class of a star is a designated class of a star describing the ionization of its chromosphere, what atomic excitations are most prominent in the light, giving an objective measure of the temperature in this chromosphere. Light from the star is analyzed by splitting it up by a diffraction grating, subdividing the incoming photons into a spectrum exhibiting a rainbow of colors interspersed byabsorption lines, each line indicating a certain ion of a certain chemical element. The presence of a certain chemical element in such an absorption spectrum primarily indicates that the temperature conditions are suitable for a certain excitation of this element. If the star temperature has been determined by a majority of absorption lines, unusual absences or strengths of lines for a certain element may indicate an unusual chemical composition of the chromosphere.

Most stars are currently classified using the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, and M (usually memorized by astrophysicists as “Oh, be a fine girl/guy, kiss me”), where O stars are the hottest and the letter sequence indicates successively cooler stars up to the coolest M class. According to informal tradition, O stars are called “blue”, B “blue-white”, A stars “white”, F stars “yellow-white”, G stars “yellow”, K stars “orange”, and M stars “red”, even though the actual star colors perceived by an observer may deviate from these colors depending on visual conditions and individual stars observed. The current non-alphabetical scheme developed from an earlier scheme using all letters from A to O; the old letters were retained but the star classes were re-ordered in the current temperature order when the connection between the stars’ class and temperatures became clear. A few star classes were dropped as duplicates of others.

In the current star classification system, the Morgan-Keenan system, the spectrum letter is enhanced by a number from 0 to 9 indicating tenths of the range between two star classes, so that A5 is five tenths between A0 and F0, but A2 is two tenths of the full range from A0 to F0. Lower numbered stars in the same class are hotter. Another dimension that is included in the Morgan-Keenan system is the luminosity class expressed by the Roman numbers I, II, III, IV and V, expressing the width of certain absorption lines in the star’s spectrum. It has been shown that this feature is a general measure of the size of the star, and thus of the total luminosity output from the star. Class I are generally called supergiants, class III simply giants and class V eitherdwarfs or more properly main sequence stars. For example our Sun has the spectral type G2V, which might be interpreted as “a ‘yellow’ two tenths towards ‘orange’ main sequence star”. The apparently brightest star Sirius has type A1V.



[edit]Secchi classes

During the 1860s and 1870s, pioneering stellar spectroscopist Father Angelo Secchi created the Secchi classes in order to classify observed spectra. By 1866, he had developed three classes of stellar spectra:[1][2][3]

  • Class I: white and blue stars with broad heavy hydrogen lines, such as Vega and Altair. This includes the modern class A and early class F.
    Class I, Orion subtype: a subtype of class I with narrow lines in place of wide bands, such as Rigel and Bellatrix. In modern terms, this corresponds to early B-type stars.
  • Class II: yellow stars—hydrogen less strong, but evident metallic lines, such as the Sun, Arcturus and Capella. This includes the modern classes G and K as well as late class F.
  • Class III: orange to red stars with complex band spectra, such as Betelgeuse and Antares. This corresponds to the modern class M.

In 1868, he discovered carbon stars, which he put into a distinct group:[4]

  • Class IV: red stars with significant carbon bands and lines (carbon stars.)

In 1877, he added a fifth class:[5]

In the late 1890s, this classification began to be superseded by the Harvard classification, which is discussed in the remainder of this article.[6][7]

[edit]Harvard spectral classification

The Harvard classification system is a one-dimensional classification scheme. Stars vary in surface temperature from about 2 to 40 kK (2,000 to 40,000 kelvins). Physically, the classes indicate the temperature of the star’s atmosphere and are normally listed from hottest to coldest, as is done in the following table:

Conventional color
Apparent color[9][10][11]
(solar masses)
(solar radii)
Fraction of all
main sequence stars[12]

≥ 33,000 K
≥ 16 M
≥ 6.6 R
≥ 30,000 L

10,000–33,000 K
blue to blue white
blue white
2.1–16 M
1.8–6.6 R
25–30,000 L

7,500–10,000 K
white to blue white
1.4–2.1 M
1.4–1.8 R
5–25 L

6,000–7,500 K
yellowish white
1.04–1.4 M
1.15–1.4 R
1.5–5 L

5,200–6,000 K
yellowish white
0.8–1.04 M
0.96–1.15 R
0.6–1.5 L

3,700–5,200 K
yellow orange
0.45–0.8 M
0.7–0.96 R
0.08–0.6 L
Very weak

≤ 3,700 K
orange red
≤ 0.45 M
≤ 0.7 R
≤ 0.08 L
Very weak

The mass, radius, and luminosity listed for each class are appropriate only for stars on the main sequence portion of their lives and so are not appropriate for red giants. A popular mnemonic for remembering the order is “Oh Be A Fine Girl/Guy, Kiss Me” (there are many variants of this mnemonic). The spectral classes O through M are subdivided by Arabic numerals (0–9). For example, A0 denotes the hottest stars in the A class and A9 denotes the coolest ones. The Sun is classified as G2.

Classifications in the Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra[13][14]


A, B, C, D
Hydrogen lines dominant.

E, F, G, H, I, K, L


Did not appear in the catalogue.

Wolf-Rayet spectra with bright lines.

Planetary nebulae.

Other spectra.

The reason for the odd arrangement of letters is historical. An early classification of spectra by Angelo Secchi in the 1860s divided stars into those with prominent lines from the hydrogenBalmer series (group I, with a subtype representing many of the stars in Orion); those with spectra which, like the Sun, showed calcium and sodium lines (group II); colored stars whose spectra showed wide bands (group III); and carbon stars (group IV).[15] In the 1880s, the astronomer Edward C. Pickering began to make a survey of stellar spectra at the Harvard College Observatory, using the objective-prism method. A first result of this work was the Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra, published in 1890. Williamina Fleming classified most of the spectra in this catalogue. It used a scheme in which the previously used Secchi classes (I to IV) were divided into more specific classes, given letters from A to N. Also, the letters O, P and Q were used, O for stars whose spectra consisted mainly of bright lines, P for planetary nebulae, and Q for stars not fitting into any other class.[13][14]

In 1897, another worker at Harvard, Antonia Maury, placed the Orion subtype of Secchi class I ahead of the remainder of Secchi class I, thus placing the modern type B ahead of the modern type A. She was the first to do so, although she did not use lettered spectral types, but rather a series of 22 types numbered from I to XXII.[16][17] In 1901, Annie Jump Cannonreturned to the lettered types, but dropped all letters except O, B, A, F, G, K, and M, used in that order, as well as P for planetary nebulae and Q for some peculiar spectra. She also used types such as B5A for stars halfway between types B and A, F2G for stars one-fifth of the way from F to G, and so forth.[18][19] Finally, by 1912, Cannon had changed the types B, A, B5A, F2G, etc. to B0, A0, B5, F2, etc.[20][21] This is essentially the modern form of the Harvard classification system.



The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram relates stellar classification with absolute magnitude, luminosity, and surface temperature.

The fact that the Harvard classification of a star indicated its surface temperature was not fully understood until after its development. In the 1920s, the Indian physicist Meghnad Sahaderived a theory of ionization by extending well-known ideas in physical chemistry pertaining to the dissociation of molecules to the ionization of atoms. First applied to the solar chromosphere, he then applied it to stellar spectra.[22] The Harvard astronomer Cecilia Helena Payne (later to become Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin) then demonstrated that the OBAFGKM spectral sequence is actually a sequence in temperature.[23] Because the classification sequence predates our understanding that it is a temperature sequence, the placement of a spectrum into a given subtype, such as B3 or A7, depends upon (largely subjective) estimates of the strengths of absorption features in stellar spectra. As a result, these subtypes are not evenly divided into any sort of mathematically representable intervals.

O, B, and A stars are sometimes misleadingly called “early type”, while K and M stars are said to be “late type”. This stems from a early 20th century model of stellar evolution in which stars were powered by gravitational contraction via the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism in which stars start their lives as very hot “early type” stars, and then gradually cool down, thereby evolving into “late type” stars. This mechanism provided ages of the sun that were much smaller than what is observed, and was rendered obsolete by the discovery that stars are powered by nuclear fusion. However, brown dwarfs, whose energy comes from gravitational attraction alone, cool as they age and so progress to later spectral types. The highest mass brown dwarfs start their lives with M-type spectra and will cool through the L, T, and Y spectral classes.

[edit]Spectrum images by Harvard spectral class

Obafgkm noao big

[edit]Conventional and apparent colors

The conventional color descriptions are traditional in astronomy, and represent colors relative to the mean color of an A class star which is considered to be white. The Apparent color[9] descriptions is what the observer would see if trying to describe the stars under a dark sky without aid to the eye, or with binoculars. The table colors used are D65 standard colors, which is what you would see if the star light would be intensely magnified and projected onto a white paper, then observed in ordinary daylight.[24] Most stars in the sky, except the brightest ones, appear white or bluish white to the unaided eye because they are too dim for color vision to work.

Our Sun itself is white. It is sometimes called a yellow star (spectroscopically, relative to Vega), and may appear yellow or red (viewed through the atmosphere), or appear white (viewed when too bright for the eye to see any color). Astronomy images often use a variety of exaggerated colors (partially founded in faint light conditions observations, partially in conventions). But the Sun’s own intrinsic color is white (aside from sunspots), with no trace of color, and closely approximates a black body of 5780 K(see color temperature). This is a natural consequence of the evolution of our optical senses: the response curve that maximizes the overall efficiency against solar illumination will by definition perceive the Sun as white. The sun is known as a G type star.

[edit]Yerkes spectral classification

The Yerkes spectral classification, also called the MKK system from the authors’ initials, is a system of stellar spectral classification introduced in 1943 by William Wilson Morgan, Philip C. Keenan, and Edith Kellman from Yerkes Observatory.[25] This two-dimensional (temperature and luminosity) classification scheme is based on spectral lines sensitive to stellar temperature and surface gravity which is related to luminosity (whilst the Harvard classification is based on surface temperature only). Later, in 1953, after some revisions of list of standard stars and classification criteria, the scheme was named MK (by William Wilson Morgan and Phillip C. Keenan initials).[26]

Since the radius of a giant star is much greater than a dwarf star while their masses are roughly comparable, the gravity and thus the gas density and pressure on the surface of a giant star are much lower than for a dwarf. These differences manifest themselves in the form of luminosity effects which affect both the width and the intensity of spectral lines which can then be measured. Denser stars with higher surface gravity will exhibit greater pressure broadening of spectral lines.

A number of different luminosity classes are distinguished:


Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Spectral Type

Brown dwarfs

White dwarfs

Red dwarfs


Main sequence



Bright Giants







    • Ia-0 (hypergiants or extremely luminous supergiants (later addition)), Example: Eta Carinae (spectrum-peculiar)
    • Ia (luminous supergiants), Example: Deneb (spectrum is A2Ia)
    • Iab (intermediate luminous supergiants) Example: Betelgeuse (spectrum is M2Iab)
    • Ib (less luminous supergiants)
    • IIa, Example: β Scuti (HD 173764) (spectrum is G4 IIa)
    • IIab Example: HR 8752 (spectrum is G0Iab:)
    • IIb, Example: HR 6902 (spectrum is G9 IIb)
  • III normal giants
    • IIIa, Example: ρ Persei (spectrum is M4 IIIa)
    • IIIab Example: δ Reticuli (spectrum is M2 IIIab)
    • IIIb, Example: Pollux (spectrum is K2 IIIb)
    • IVa, Example: ε Reticuli (spectrum is K1-2 IVa-III)
    • IVb, Example: HR 672 A (spectrum is G0.5 IVb)
  • V main sequence stars (dwarfs)
    • Va, Example: AD Leonis (spectrum M4Vae)
    • Vab[27]
    • Vb, Example: 85 Pegasi A (spectrum G5 Vb)
    • Vz“, Example: LH10 : 3102 (spectrum O7 Vz), located in the Large Magellanic Cloud.[28]
  • VI subdwarfs. Subdwarfs are generally represented with a prescript of sd or esd (extreme subdwarf) in front of the spectra.
    • sd, Example: SSSPM J1930-4311 (spectrum sdM7)
    • esd, Example: APMPM J0559-2903 (spectrum esdM7)
  • VII (uncommon) white dwarfs. White dwarfs are represented with a prescript wD or WD.

Marginal cases are allowed; for instance a star classified as Ia-0 would be a very luminous supergiant, verging on hypergiant. Examples are below. The spectral type of the star is not a factor.

Marginal Symbols

A star is between supergiant and bright giant.

O9.5 Ia+
A star is a hypergiant star.

A star is either a subgiant or a dwarf star.

[edit]Spectral types



The Morgan-Keenan spectral classification

The following illustration represents star classes with the colors very close to those actually perceived by the human eye. The relative sizes are for main sequence or “dwarf” stars.

[edit]Class O

Main article: O-type main sequence star

Class O stars are very hot and very luminous, being bluish in color; in fact, most of their output is in the ultraviolet range. These are the rarest of all main sequence stars. About 1 in 3,000,000 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class O stars.[nb 1][12] Some of the most massive stars lie within this spectral class. Type-O stars are so hot as to have complicated surroundings which make measurement of their spectra difficult.



Spectrum of an O5 V star

O-stars shine with a power over a million times our Sun’s output. These stars have dominant lines of absorption and sometimes emission for He II lines, prominent ionized (Si IV, O III, N III, and C III) and neutralhelium lines, strengthening from O5 to O9, and prominent hydrogen Balmer lines, although not as strong as in later types. Because they are so massive, class O stars have very hot cores, thus burn through their hydrogen fuel very quickly, and so are the first stars to leave the main sequence. Recent observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that planetary formation does not occur around other stars in the vicinity of an O class star due to the photoevaporation effect.[29]

When the MKK classification scheme was first described in 1943, the only subtypes of class O used were O5 to O9.5.[30] The MKK scheme was extended to O4 in 1978,[31] and new classification schemes have subsequently been introduced which add types O2, O3 and O3.5. O3 stars are the hottest stars.[32]

[edit]Class B

Main article: B-type main sequence star



The Pleiades open star cluster with many bright B stars



Proper motion of stars spectral classes B and A in -/+ 200 000 years



3D viewing (for red-green or red-blue glasses) of proper motion

Class B stars are extremely luminous and blue. Their spectra have neutral helium, which are most prominent at the B2 subclass, and moderate hydrogen lines. Ionized metal lines include Mg II and Si II. As O and B stars are so powerful, they only live for a very short time, and thus they do not stray far from the area in which they were formed.

These stars tend to cluster together in what are called OB associations, which are associated with giant molecular clouds. The Orion OB1 association occupies a large portion of a spiral arm of our galaxy and contains many of the brighter stars of the constellation Orion. About 1 in 800 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class B stars.[nb 1][12].

Examples: Rigel, Spica, the brighter Pleiades, VV Cephei B, Algol A
[edit]Class A

Main article: A-type main sequence star



Class A Vega (left) compared to the Sun (right).

Class A stars are amongst the more common naked eye stars, and are white or bluish-white. They have strong hydrogen lines, at a maximum by A0, and also lines of ionized metals (Fe II, Mg II, Si II) at a maximum at A5. The presence of Ca II lines is notably strengthening by this point. About 1 in 160 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class A stars.[nb 1][12]



Two Class F stars: Supergiant Polaris A and its distant companion Polaris B[33]

Examples: Sirius, Deneb, Altair, Vega
[edit]Class F

Main article: F-type main sequence star

Class F stars have strengthening H and K lines of Ca II. Neutral metals (Fe I, Cr I) beginning to gain on ionized metal lines by late F. Their spectra are characterized by the weaker hydrogen lines and ionized metals. Their color is white. About 1 in 33 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class F stars.[nb 1][12]

[edit]Class G

Main article: G-type main sequence star



The most important class G star to humanity: our Sun. The dark area visible in the lower left is a large sunspot.



The movement of stars of spectral class G around the apex (left) and antapex (right) in -/+ 200 000 years



The movement of stars of spectral class G for 3D glasses (red-green or red-blue).

Class G stars are probably the best known, if only for the reason that our Sun is of this class. About 1 in 13 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class G stars.[nb 1][12]

Most notable are the H and K lines of Ca II, which are most prominent at G2. They have even weaker hydrogen lines than F, but along with the ionized metals, they have neutral metals. There is a prominent spike in the G band of CH molecules. G is host to the “Yellow Evolutionary Void”.[34] Supergiant stars often swing between O or B (blue) and K or M (red). While they do this, they do not stay for long in the G classification as this is an extremely unstable place for a supergiant to be.

[edit]Class K

Main article: K-type main sequence star



Comparison between Class K star Arcturus, Class M Antares, and the Sun.

Class K are orangish stars that are slightly cooler than our Sun. Some K stars are giants and supergiants, such as Arcturus, while orange dwarfs, like Alpha Centauri B, are main sequence stars. They have extremely weak hydrogen lines, if they are present at all, and mostly neutral metals (Mn I, Fe I, Si I).

By late K, molecular bands of titanium oxide become present. About 1 in 8 of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class K stars.[nb 1][12] There is a suggestion that K Spectrum stars are very well suited for life.[35]

[edit]Class M

Main articles: Red giant and Red dwarf



Betelgeuse is a red supergiant, one of the largest stars known. Image from theHubble Space Telescope.

Class M is by far the most common class. About 76% of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are Class M stars.[nb 1][nb 2][12]

Although most Class M stars are red dwarfs, the class also hosts most giants and some supergiants such as Antares and Betelgeuse, as well as Mira variables. The late-M group holds hotter brown dwarfs that are above the L spectrum. This is usually in the range of M6.5 to M9.5. The spectrum of an M star shows lines belonging to moleculesand all neutral metals but hydrogen lines are usually absent. Titanium oxide can be strong in M stars, usually dominating by about M5. Vanadium oxide bands become present by late M.

Examples: LEHPM 2-59 [36], SSSPM J1930-4311 (subdwarf)
Example: APMPM J0559-2903 (extreme subdwarf)
Examples: Teide 1 (field brown dwarf), GSC 08047-00232 B [37] (companion brown dwarf)

[edit]Extended spectral types

A number of new spectral types have been taken into use from newly discovered types of stars.

[edit]Hot blue emission star classes

Spectra of some very hot and bluish stars exhibit marked emission lines from carbon or nitrogen, or sometimes oxygen.

[edit]Class W: Wolf-Rayet

Main article: Wolf-Rayet star



Artist’s impression of a Wolf-Rayet star

Class W or WR represents the superluminous Wolf-Rayet stars, notably unusual since they have mostly helium in their atmospheres instead of hydrogen. They are thought to be dying supergiants with their hydrogen layer blown away by hot stellar winds caused by their high temperatures, thereby directly exposing their hot helium shell. Class W is subdivided into subclasses WN (WNE early-type, WNL late-type) and WC (WCE early-type, WCL late-type, and extend class WO), according to the dominance of nitrogen and carbon emission lines in their spectra (and outer layers).[38]

  • WR spectra range is listed below:
WNE (WN2 to WN5 with some WN6)
WNL (WN7 to WN9 with some WN6)
Extended WN class (WN10 to WN11), was created to encompass the Ofpe/WN9 stars.[38]
WN/C, and intermediate class between the nitrogen-rich and carbon-rich WR stars.[38]
WCE (WC4 to WC6)
WCL (WC7 to WC9)
WO (WO1 to WO4)
  • W: Up to 70,000 K
Example: WR124 (WN)
Example: Gamma Velorum A (WC)
Example: WR93B (WO)
[edit]Classes OC, ON, BC, BN: Wolf-Rayet related O and B stars

Intermediary between the genuine Wolf-Rayets and ordinary hot stars of classes O and early B, there are OC, ON, BC and BN stars. They seem to constitute a short continuum from the Wolf-Rayets into the ordinary OBs.

Example: HD 152249 (OC)
Example: HD 105056 (ON)
Example: HD 2905 (BC)
Example: HD 163181 (BN)
[edit]The “Slash” stars

The slash stars are stars with O-type spectra and WN sequence in their spectra. The name slash comes from their spectra having a slash.

Example spectra: Of/WNL[28]

There is a secondary group found with this spectra, a cooler, “intermediate” group. They are found in the Large Magellanic Cloud and have a designation of Ofpe/WN9.[28]

[edit]The Magnetic O stars

They are O stars with strong magnetic fields. Designation is Of?p[28]

[edit]The “class” OB

Main article: OB star

In lists of spectra, the “spectrum OB” may occur. This is in fact not a spectrum, but a marker which means that “the spectrum of this star is unknown, but it belongs to an OB association, so probably either a class O or class B star, or perhaps a fairly hot class A star.”

[edit]Cool red and brown dwarf classes

The new spectral types L and T were created to classify infrared spectra of cool stars. This included both red dwarfs and brown dwarfs which are very faint in the visual spectrum. The hypothetical spectral type Y has been reserved for objects cooler than T dwarfs which have spectra that are qualitatively distinct from T dwarfs.[39]

[edit]Class L



Artist’s vision of an L-dwarf

Class L dwarfs get their designation because they are cooler than M stars and L is the remaining letter alphabetically closest to M. L does not mean lithium dwarf; a large fraction of these stars do not havelithium in their spectra. Some of these objects have masses large enough to support hydrogen fusion, but some are of substellar mass and do not, so collectively these objects should be referred to as L dwarfs, not L stars. They are a very dark red in color and brightest in infrared. Their atmosphere is cool enough to allow metal hydrides and alkali metals to be prominent in their spectra.[40][41] Due to low gravities in giant stars, TiO- and VO-bearing condensates never form. Thus, larger L-type stars can never form in an isolated environment. It may be possible for these L-type supergiants to form through stellar collisions, however, an example of which is V838 Monocerotis.

Example: VW Hyi
Example: 2MASSW J0746425+2000321 binary[42]
Component A is an L dwarf star
Component B is an L brown dwarf
Example: LSR 1610-0040 (subdwarf)[43]
Example: V838 Monocerotis (supergiants)
[edit]Class T: methane dwarfs



Artist’s vision of a T-dwarf

Class T dwarfs are cool brown dwarfs with surface temperatures between approximately 700 and 1,300 K. Their emission peaks in the infrared. Methane is prominent in their spectra.[40][41]

Examples: SIMP 0136 (the brightest T dwarf discovered in northern hemisphere)[44]
Examples: Epsilon Indi Ba & Epsilon Indi Bb

Class T and L could be more common than all the other classes combined if recent research is accurate. From studying the number of proplyds (protoplanetary discs, clumps of gas in nebulae from which stars and solar systems are formed) then the number of stars in the galaxy should be several orders of magnitude higher than what we know about. It is theorized that these proplyds are in a race with each other. The first one to form will become a proto-star, which are very violent objects and will disrupt other proplyds in the vicinity, stripping them of their gas. The victim proplyds will then probably go on to become main sequence stars or brown dwarf stars of the L and T classes, but quite invisible to us. Since they live so long, these smaller stars will accumulate over time.

[edit]Class Y

See also: Sub-brown dwarf and Substellar object

The spectral class Y has been proposed for brown dwarfs that are cooler than T dwarfs and have qualitatively different spectra from them. Although such dwarfs have been modelled[45], there is no well-defined spectral sequence yet with prototypes, and no certain example of class Y has yet been seen.[46]

As of early 2009, the coolest known brown dwarfs have estimated effective temperatures between 500 and 600 K, and have been assigned the spectral class T9. Three examples are the brown dwarfs CFBDS J005910.90-011401.3, ULAS J133553.45+113005.2, and ULAS J003402.77−005206.7.[47] The spectra of these objects display absorption around 1.55 micrometers.[47] Delorme et al. has suggested that this feature is due to absorption from ammonia and that this should be taken as indicating the T-Y transition, making these objects of type Y0.[47][48] However, the feature is difficult to distinguish from absorption by water and methane,[47] and other authors have stated that the assignment of class Y0 is premature.[49]

[edit]Carbon related late giant star classes

Carbon related stars are stars whose spectra indicate production of carbon by helium triple-alpha fusion. With increased carbon abundance, and some parallel s-process heavy element production, the spectra of these stars become increasingly deviant from the usual late spectral classes G, K and M. The giants among those stars are presumed to produce this carbon themselves, but not too few of this class of stars are believed to be double stars whose odd atmosphere once was transferred from a former carbon star companion that is now a white dwarf.

[edit]Class C: carbon stars

Main article: Carbon star

Originally classified as R and N stars, these are also known as ‘carbon stars’. These are red giants, near the end of their lives, in which there is an excess of carbon in the atmosphere. The old R and N classes ran parallel to the normal classification system from roughly mid G to late M. These have more recently been remapped into a unified carbon classifier C, with N0 starting at roughly C6. Another subset of cool carbon stars are the J-type stars, which are characterized by the strong presence of molecules of 13CN in addition to those of 12CN.[50] A few dwarf (that is, main sequence) carbon stars are known, but the overwhelming majority of known carbon stars are giants or supergiants.

  • C: Carbon stars, e.g. R CMi
    • C-R: Formerly a class on its own representing the carbon star equivalent of late G to early K stars. Example: S Camelopardalis
    • C-N: Formerly a class on its own representing the carbon star equivalent of late K to M stars. Example: R Leporis
    • C-J: A subtype of cool C stars with a high content of 13C. Example: Y Canum Venaticorum
    • C-H: Population II analogues of the C-R stars. Examples: V Ari, TT CVn[51]
    • C-Hd: Hydrogen-Deficient Carbon Stars, similar to late G supergiants with CH and C2 bands added. Example: HD 137613
[edit]Class S

Main article: S-type star

Class S stars have zirconium oxide lines in addition to (or, rarely, instead of) those of titanium oxide, and are in between the Class M stars and the carbon stars.[52] S stars have excess amounts of zirconium and other elements produced by the s-process, and have their carbon and oxygen abundances closer to equal than is the case for M stars. The latter condition results in both carbon and oxygen being locked up almost entirely in carbon monoxide molecules. For stars cool enough for carbon monoxide to form that molecule tends to “eat up” all of whichever element is less abundant, resulting in “leftover oxygen” (which becomes available to form titanium oxide) in stars of normal composition, “leftover carbon” (which becomes available to form the diatomic carbon molecules) in carbon stars, and “leftover nothing” in the S stars. The relation between these stars and the ordinary M stars indicates a continuum of carbon abundance. Like carbon stars, nearly all known S stars are giants or supergiants.

Examples: S Ursae Majoris, HR 1105
[edit]Classes MS and SC: intermediary carbon related classes

In between the M class and the S class, border cases are named MS stars. In a similar way border cases between the S class and the C-N class are named SC or CS. The sequence M → MS → S → SC → C-N is believed to be a sequence of increased carbon abundance with age for carbon stars in the asymptotic giant branch.

Examples: R Serpentis, ST Monocerotis (MS)
Examples: CY Cygni, BH Crucis (SC)
[edit]White dwarf classifications

Main article: White dwarf spectroscopy



Sirius A and B (a white dwarf of type DA2) resolved by HST

The class D (for Degenerate) is the modern classification used for white dwarfs, low-mass stars that are no longer undergoing nuclear fusion and have shrunk to planetary size, slowly cooling down. Class D is further divided into spectral types DA, DB, DC, DO, DQ, DX, and DZ. The letters are not related to the letters used in the classification of other stars, but instead indicate the composition of the white dwarf’s visible outer layer or atmosphere.

Examples: Sirius B (DA2), Procyon B (DA4), Van Maanen’s star (DZ7)[53], Table 1

The white dwarf types are as follows:[54]

  • DA: a hydrogen-rich atmosphere or outer layer, indicated by strong Balmer hydrogen spectral lines.
  • DB: a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated by neutral helium, He I, spectral lines.
  • DO: a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated by ionized helium, He II, spectral lines.
  • DQ: a carbon-rich atmosphere, indicated by atomic or molecular carbon lines.
  • DZ: a metal-rich atmosphere, indicated by metal spectral lines (a merger of the obsolete white dwarf spectral types, DG, DK and DM).
  • DC: no strong spectral lines indicating one of the above categories.
  • DX: spectral lines are insufficiently clear to classify into one of the above categories.

The type is followed by a number giving the white dwarf’s surface temperature. This number is a rounded form of 50400/Teff, where Teff is the effective surface temperature, measured in kelvins. Originally, this number was rounded to one of the digits 1 through 9, but more recently fractional values have started to be used, as well as values below 1 and above 9.[54][55]

Two or more of the type letters may be used to indicate a white dwarf which displays more than one of the spectral features above. Also, the letter V is used to indicate a variable white dwarf.[54]

Extended white dwarf spectral types:[54]

  • DAB: a hydrogen- and helium-rich white dwarf displaying neutral helium lines.
  • DAO: a hydrogen- and helium-rich white dwarf displaying ionized helium lines.
  • DAZ: a hydrogen-rich metallic white dwarf.
  • DBZ: a helium-rich metallic white dwarf.

Variable star designations:

  • DAV or ZZ Ceti: a hydrogen-rich pulsating white dwarf.[56], pp. 891, 895
  • DBV or V777 Her: a helium-rich pulsating white dwarf.[57], p. 3525
  • GW Vir, sometimes divided into DOV and PNNV: a hot helium-rich pulsating white dwarf (or pre-white dwarf.)[58], §1.1, 1.2;[59][60] These stars are generally PG 1159 stars, although some authors also include non-PG 1159 stars in this class.[58][61]
[edit]Non-stellar spectral types: Class P & Q

Finally, the classes P and Q are occasionally used for certain non-stellar objects. Type P objects are planetary nebulae and type Q objects are novae.

[edit]Spectral peculiarities

Additional nomenclature, in the form of lower-case letters, can follow the spectral type to indicate peculiar features of the spectrum.[62]

Spectral peculiarities for stars

Blending and/or uncertain spectral value

Undescribed spectral peculiarities exist

Special peculiarity

Composite spectrum

Emission lines present

“Forbidden” emission lines present

“Reversed” center of emission lines weaker than edges

Emission lines with peculiarity

Emission lines with P Cygni profile

Spectral emission that exhibits variability

N III and He II emission (for element name followed by roman numeral see spectral line)

NIV λ4058Å is stronger than the NIII λ4634Å, λ4640Å, & λ4642Å lines[63]

SiIV λ4089Å & λ4116Å are emission in addition to the NIII line[63]

Weak emission lines of He

Displays strong HeII absorption accompanied by weak NIII emissions[64]

WR stars with emission lines due to hydrogen.[38]

WR stars with hydrogen emissions seen on both absorption and emission.[38]

He wk
Weak He lines

Spectra with interstellar absorption features

Enhanced metal features

Broad (“nebulous”) absorption due to spinning

Very broad absorption features due to spinning very fast

A nebula’s spectrum mixed in

Unspecified peculiarity, peculiar star.

Peculiar spectrum, similar to the spectra of novae

Red & blue shifts line present

Narrowly “sharp” absorption lines

Very narrow lines

Shell star features

Variable spectral feature (also “var”)

Weak lines (also “wl” & “wk”)

d Del
Type A and F giants with weak calcium H and K lines, as in prototype Delta Delphini

d Sct
Type A and F stars with spectra similar to that of short-period variable Delta Scuti

If spectrum shows enhanced metal features

Abnormally strong Barium

Abnormally strong Calcium

Abnormally strong Chromium

Abnormally strong Europium

Abnormally strong Helium

Abnormally strong Mercury

Abnormally strong Manganese

Abnormally strong Silicon

Abnormally strong Strontium

Abnormally strong Technetium

Spectral peculiarities for white dwarfs

Uncertain assigned classification

Magnetic white dwarf with detectable polarization

Emission lines present

Magnetic white dwarf without detectable polarization


Spectral peculiarities exist

For example, Epsilon Ursae Majoris is listed as spectral type A0pCr, indicating general classification A0 with strong emission lines of the element chromium. There are several common classes of chemically peculiar stars, where the spectral lines of a number of elements appear abnormally strong.

[edit]Photometric classification

Stars can also be classified using photometric data from any photometric system. For example, we can calibrate color index diagrams of U−B and B−V in the UBV system according to spectral and luminosity classes. Nevertheless, this calibration is not straightforward, because many effects are superimposed in such diagrams: interstellar reddening, color changes due to metallicity, and the blending of light from binary and multiple stars.

Photometric systems with more colors and narrower passbands allow a star’s class, and hence physical parameters, to be determined more precisely. The most accurate determination comes of course from spectral measurements, but there is not always enough time to get qualitative spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio.

[edit]See also

Star portal

Astronomy portal


  1. ^ a b c d e f g These proportions are fractions of stars brighter than absolute magnitude 16; lowering this limit will render earlier types even rarer while generally adding only to the M class.
  2. ^ This rises to 78.6% if we include all stars. (See the above note.)


  1. ^ Analyse spectrale de la lumière de quelques étoiles, et nouvelles observations sur les taches solaires, P. Secchi,Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 63 (July–December 1866), pp. 364–368.
  2. ^ Nouvelles recherches sur l’analyse spectrale de la lumière des étoiles, P. Secchi, Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 63 (July–December 1866), pp. 621–628.
  3. ^ pp. 60, 134, The Analysis of Starlight: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Astronomical Spectroscopy, J. B. Hearnshaw, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-521-25548-1.
  4. ^ pp. 62–63, Hearnshaw 1986.
  5. ^ p. 60, Hearnshaw 1986.
  6. ^ pp. 62–63, Stars and Their Spectra: An Introduction to the Spectral Sequence, James B. Kaler, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0521585708.
  7. ^ a b c d Tables VII, VIII, Empirical bolometric corrections for the main-sequence, G. M. H. J. Habets and J. R. W. Heinze,Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 46 (November 1981), pp. 193–237, Bibcode: 1981A&AS…46..193H. Luminosities are derived from Mbol figures, using Mbol(☉)=4.75.
  8. ^ a b The Guinness book of astronomy facts & feats, Patrick Moore, 1992, 0-900424-76-1
  9. ^ “The Colour of Stars”. Australia Telescope Outreach and Education. 2004-12-21. Retrieved 2007-09-26. — Explains the reason for the difference in color perception.
  10. ^ What color are the stars?, Mitchell Charity. Accessed online March 19, 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h LeDrew, G.; The Real Starry Sky, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 95, No. 1 (whole No. 686, February 2001), pp. 32–33. Note: Table 2 has an error and so this article will use 824 as the assumed correct total of main sequence stars
  12. ^ a b The Draper Catalogue of stellar spectra photographed with the 8-inch Bache telescope as a part of the Henry Draper memorial, Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 27 (1890), Bibcode: 1890AnHar..27….1P. See in particular pp. 1–4.
  13. ^ a b pp. 106–108, Hearnshaw 1986.
  14. ^ p. 60–63, Hearnshaw 1986; pp. 623–625, Secchi 1866.
  15. ^ pp. 111–112, Hearnshaw 1986.
  16. ^ Spectra of bright stars photographed with the 11-inch Draper Telescope as part of the Henry Draper Memorial, Antonia C. Maury and Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 28, part 1 (1897), pp. 1–128,Bibcode: 1897AnHar..28….1M; see in particular Table I.
  17. ^ Spectra of bright southern stars photographed with the 13-inch Boyden telescope as part of the Henry Draper Memorial, Annie J. Cannon and Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 28, part 2 (1901), pp. 129–263,Bibcode: 1901AnHar..28..129C; see in particular pp. 139–143.
  18. ^ pp. 117–119, Hearnshaw 1986.
  19. ^ Classification of 1,688 southern stars by means of their spectra, Annie Jump Cannon and Edward C. Pickering, Annals of Harvard College Observatory 56, #5 (1912), pp. 115–164, Bibcode: 1912AnHar..56..115C.
  20. ^ pp. 121–122, Hearnshaw 1986.
  21. ^ Saha, M. N.; On a Physical Theory of Stellar Spectra, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Volume 99, Issue 697 (May 1921), pp. 135–153
  22. ^ Charity, Mitchell. “What color are the stars?”. Retrieved 2006-05-13.
  23. ^ Morgan, William Wilson; Keenan, Philip Childs; Kellman, Edith (1943), “An atlas of stellar spectra, with an outline of spectral classification”, Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago press
  24. ^ Phillip C. Keenan, William Wilson Morgan; Keenan, P C (1973). “Spectral Classification”. Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Annual Reviews) 11: 29–50. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.11.090173.000333.
  25. ^ An atlas of stellar spectra, with an outline of spectral classification, W. W. Morgan, P. C. Keenan and E. Kellman, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1943.
  26. ^ Revised MK Spectral Atlas for Stars Earlier than the Sun, W. W. Morgan, H. A. Abt, and J. W. Tapscott, Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago and Kitt Peak National Observatory, 1978.
  27. ^ A New Spectral Classification System for the Earliest O Stars: Definition of Type O2, Nolan R. Walborn et al., The Astronomical Journal 123, #5 (May 2002), pp. 2754–2771, doi:10.1086/339831, Bibcode: 2002AJ….123.2754W.
  28. ^ “SIMBAD Object query : CCDM J02319+8915″. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Physical Properties of Wolf-Rayet Stars, Crowther, Paul A., 2007
  30. ^ Outstanding Issues in Our Understanding of L, T, and Y Dwarfs, J. D. Kirkpatrick, April 2007, arXiv:0704.1522. Accessed on line September 18, 2007.
  31. ^ a b Kirkpatrick et al., J. Davy; Reid, I. Neill; Liebert, James; Cutri, Roc M.; Nelson, Brant; Beichman, Charles A.; Dahn, Conard C.; Monet, David G. et al. (July 10, 1999). “Dwarfs Cooler than M: the Definition of Spectral Type L Using Discovery from the 2-µ ALL-SKY Survey (2MASS)”. The Astrophysical Journal (The University of Chicago Press) 519 (2): 802–833.doi:10.1086/307414. ISSN: 0004-637X.
  32. ^ a b Kirkpatrick, J. Davy (2005). “New Spectral Types L and T”. Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Annual Reviews) 43 (1): 195–246. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.42.053102.134017. ISSN: 0066-4146.
  33. ^ The minimum Jeans mass, brown dwarf companion IMF, and predictions for detection of Y-type dwarfs, B. Zuckerman and I. Song, Astronomy and Astrophysics 493, #3 (January 2009), pp. 1149–1154, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810038,Bibcode: 2009A&A…493.1149Z.
  34. ^ a b c d The Physical Properties of Four ~600 K T Dwarfs, S. K. Leggett et al., The Astrophysical Journal 695, #2 (April 2009), pp. 1517–1526, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/1517, Bibcode: 2009ApJ…695.1517L.
  35. ^ CFBDS J005910.90-011401.3: reaching the T-Y brown dwarf transition?, P. Delorme et al., Astronomy and Astrophysics 482, #3 (May 2008), pp. 961–971, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20079317, Bibcode: 2008A&A…482..961D.
  36. ^ Exploring the substellar temperature regime down to ~550K, Ben Burningham et al., Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 391, #1 (November 2008), pp. 320–333, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13885.x,Bibcode: 2008MNRAS.391..320B; see the abstract.
  37. ^ Bouigue, R. 1954, Annales d’Astrophysique, Vol. 17, p.104
  38. ^ Keenan, P. C. 1954 Astrophysical Journal, vol. 120, p.484
  39. ^ A Determination of the Local Density of White Dwarf Stars, J. B. Holberg, Terry D. Oswalt and E. M. Sion, The Astrophysical Journal 571, #1 (May 2002), pp. 512–518.
  40. ^ a b c d A proposed new white dwarf spectral classification system, E. M. Sion, J. L. Greenstein, J. D. Landstreet, J. Liebert, H. L. Shipman, and G. A. Wegner, The Astrophysical Journal 269, #1 (June 1, 1983), pp. 253–257.
  41. ^ A Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs, George P. McCook and Edward M. Sion, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 121, #1 (March 1999), pp. 1–130.
  42. ^ Physics of white dwarf stars, D. Koester and G. Chanmugam, Reports on Progress in Physics 53 (1990), pp. 837–915.
  43. ^ White dwarfs, Gilles Fontaine and François Wesemael, in Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, ed. Paul Murdin, Bristol and Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing and London, New York and Tokyo: Nature Publishing Group, 2001.ISBN 0333750888.
  44. ^ a b Mapping the Instability Domains of GW Vir Stars in the Effective Temperature-Surface Gravity Diagram, Quirion, P.-O., Fontaine, G., Brassard, P., Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 171 (2007), pp. 219–248.
  45. ^ §1, Detection of non-radial g-mode pulsations in the newly discovered PG 1159 star HE 1429–1209, T. Nagel and K. Werner, Astronomy and Astrophysics 426 (2004), pp. L45–L48.
  46. ^ The Extent and Cause of the Pre-White Dwarf Instability Strip, M. S. O’Brien, Astrophysical Journal 532, #2 (April 2000), pp. 1078–1088.
  47. ^ a b Pismis 24-1: The Stellar Upper Mass Limit Preserved, J. Maíz Apellániz et al. 2006

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Wednesday, September 22, 2010

George Soros: time to expose this diseased and dangerous WWII Nazi collaborator once again.

Soros’s Anti-Human-Rights Agenda
Republicans and conservatives must stop leaving the important field
of human rights to anti-American relativists.

This article by Anne Bayefsky appears today on National Review Online.

George Soros’s enormous gift of $100 million to the non-governmental organization Human Rights Watch is a serious shot across the bow for Republicans and conservatives. Billionaire Sheldon Adelson once said he would become “the Right’s answer to George Soros,” but he has not. Although “human rights” is the most powerful political currency of our time, no one on the right has stepped up to the plate, and Soros has the playing field to himself.
The significance of his gift can be understood only by appreciating the web of connections associated with this human-rights organization and its resulting influence.
Thirty years ago, the undisputed leader among international human-rights NGOs was Amnesty International. Founded in order to shine a spotlight on individual prisoners of conscience and victims of torture, Amnesty had a focused purpose and succeeded in pressuring governments and liberating real people.
But corrupt governments in developing countries, Communist regimes, and the despotic rulers of Arab and Islamic states pushed back. Under the guise of protecting their sovereignty and natural resources from the ravages of Western imperialism, they commandeered the United Nations, disputed its foundational human-rights framework, and rolled out new and improved “human rights,” such as the right to development, the right of peoples to “international solidarity,” and the right to be free of “the adverse effects of toxic wastes.” No matter that the beneficiaries of such rights were essentially governments and not individuals, or that the rights of women and minorities were then trampled for the sake of maintaining a united front against the West.
Amnesty International jumped on the bandwagon. It expanded its original mandate to include rights violations which it says result from globalization, “business,” and a wide gambit of social issues. Amnesty’s leaders, who bear the title of secretary general, harbored an anti-Western bias and a penchant for conceiving of developing countries as sympathetic underdogs whose inability to institute the rule of law was permanently someone else’s fault. In 2005, Secretary General Irene Khan, from Bangladesh, likened Guantanamo Bay to the Soviet Gulag. In 2010, after the head of Amnesty’s gender unit criticized Amnesty for its links to a major supporter of the Taliban, Amnesty reacted by suspending and then severing its relationship with the employee, not by severing its links to the Taliban devotee.
Arab and Muslim states were masters at this form of political gamesmanship. Anxious to rid themselves of the presence of a Jewish and democratic state uncomfortably close to them, and worried about the threat that universal human-rights norms posed to their legitimacy, they recast their extremism in terms of human rights. Though one-fifth of Israel’s people are Arabs, and they have more democratic rights than they would in any Arab state, these states accused Israel of apartheid. Arab and Muslim states, meanwhile, rendered themselves Judenrein, outlawed public displays of Christianity, and turned non-Muslims into second-class citizens in the name of protecting cultural rights, religious identity, and “national particularities.” To complete the metamorphosis, the Organization of the Islamic Conference seized effective power at the U.N.’s lead human-rights body, the Human Rights Council.
As human rights were being rewritten, the U.S.-based Human Rights Watch wrongly believed it had only two options. It could find itself defending the governments of the United States, Israel, and other allegedly colonialist-imperialist regimes — a tack that seemed to be at odds with the mandate of a human-rights NGO, for which governments are supposedly the adversaries by definition. Or it could join the party, trash Israel and America, and prove its bona fides on the world stage.
As Robert Bernstein, the founder of Human Rights Watch and its active chairman for 20 years until 1998, complained in the New York Times last October, Human Rights Watch chose the latter. Bernstein lamented the fact that the organization had jettisoned the crucial distinction between open democratic societies and closed societies, between societies that are willing to acknowledge and correct abuses and ones that deny and ignore them. Distancing itself from its American roots and embracing the timeworn strategy of scapegoating Jews, the organization began to rival the made-over Amnesty.
Human Rights Watch defended the U.N.’s “anti-racism” Durban Declaration despite its blatant discrimination against Israel and cast its lot with those who have painted the defenders of Jewish self-determination as racists. HRW supported the U.N.’s Goldstone report, a modern-day blood libel that claims Israel “deliberately” aimed to murder Palestinian civilians under the guise of defending its own people against Hamas terror. HRW championed the U.N. Human Rights Council and strongly advocated U.S. membership, in the full knowledge that the council has adopted more resolutions and decisions condemning Israel than all the other 191 U.N. member states combined.
Last year, representatives of Human Rights Watch unashamedly traveled to one of the world’s worst human-rights abusers, Saudi Arabia, to raise money by casting the organization as an antidote to what they labeled “pro-Israel pressure groups.” Since HRW had, as Bernstein put it, itself produced “far more condemnations of Israel . . . than of any other country in the region,” he rightly concluded that it had turned its back on its founding mission and significantly diminished its moral force.
Why, then, did George Soros deem it worthy of the largest gift he has ever made?
Because Soros has recognized what Republicans ignore at their peril — namely, the power of human-rights claims, legitimate or not.
Soros, logged as one of President Obama’s frequent White House guests, appreciates that a human-rights mantra, particularly when amplified with the U.N.’s global megaphone, is a formidable tool for manipulating public policy. A tool, mind you, and not a principle.
President Obama has styled himself a champion of the victims of human-rights violations. But he is the president who went to Egypt and spoke in support of Muslim women who want to cover their bodies while saying nothing in defense of those who want the freedom to do otherwise. He is the president who has let Iranian dissidents die in vain. The president who keeps mumbling about reset buttons while Russian human-rights defenders are systematically eliminated.
The U.N.’s Human Rights Council — which, in its earlier incarnation, was once presided over by Eleanor Roosevelt — opened its current session this week in Geneva with Libya taking a seat as a full-fledged voting member. Next week the General Assembly, which once adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, will again permit a call for the destruction of Israel to be made from its podium, as Mahmoud Ahmadinejad delivers his annual diatribe about Jewish global domination.
And outside the General Assembly Hall, the only NGO allowed to speak at microphones reserved for states is Human Rights Watch — which has specialized in delivering congratulatory messages to the U.N.
So Soros’s acquisition of Human Rights Watch, coupled with his legendary support of the Democratic party and the United Nations, creates the perfect storm. He has brought together the unelected, unaccountable NGO claiming to represent “civil society,” the Democratic party and its sitting president, and the world’s chief global organization, each supportive of the others in a plethora of financial and personal interrelationships, and all sharing common goals: diminishing American power and mothballing the idea of unadulterated universal values.
Soros makes no attempt to hide his agenda. As he wrote in The Bubble of American Supremacy: “People have different views and . . . nobody is in possession of the ultimate truth . . . [P]eople are supposed to decide for themselves what they mean by freedom and democracy. . . . What goes on within individual states can be of vital interest to the rest of the world, but the principle of sovereignty militates against interfering in their internal affairs.” The same speech has been made by China and Cuba and thugs the world over.
Soros’s view is the antithesis of human-rights protection. It directly contradicts the vision of common, inviolable rights and freedoms, which the visionaries who founded America, the United Nations, and Human Rights Watch understood. It is high time to launch an equally well-endowed human-rights organization not beholden to the rapacious relativism and anti-Americanism of George Soros.

…. And speaking about the devil…:

Print Edition

Photo by: Associated Press

Soros revealed to be major J-Street donor

By GIL SHEFLER 25/09/2010

Amid accusations of mischaracterization of ties, J-Street website reveals George Soros has donated money to organization.

Billionaire George Soros known for his support of liberal causes and occasional criticism of Israel is a major J-Street donor, it emerged Friday.
Tax forms obtained by the Washington Times’ Eli Lake revealed that over the past three years the Hungarian-born Holocaust survivor and finance guru has given $750,000 to the organization.
J Street’s outrageous new initiative
J Street to campaign for US initiative in peace process
The revelation was followed by accusations that the advocacy group which sees itself as a leftwing alternative to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee had mislead the public about its relationship with the controversial philanthropist.
For years J-Street had repeatedly denied having any connections with Soros.
Under a section called “myths and facts” on J-Street’s Web site the organization posted a statement which seemingly implies it never received funding from Soros.
“George Soros did not found J Street. In fact, George Soros very publicly stated his decision not to be engaged in J Street when it was launched – precisely out of fear that his involvement would be used against the organization,” the J-Street statement read. “J Street’s Executive Director has stated many times that he would in fact be very pleased to have funding from Mr. Soros and the offer remains open to him to be a funder should he wish to support the effort.”
Earlier this year in an interview with Moment magazine Ben Ami denied receiving funds from Soros.
“We got tagged as having his support, without the benefit of actually getting funded!” he was quoted as saying.
J-Street spokesperson Amy Spitalnick told the The Jerusalem Post on Saturday that Ben Ami’s quote in Moment magazine was taken out of context and referred to the initial stages of the creation of J-Street.
“We never denied that Soros gave us any money,” she wrote in an Email. “c4 donors are supposed to remain private by law (to protect their privacy) and the IRS illegally released the Schedule B part of our 990 that lists them. No c4 discloses its donors.”
She emphasized that donations from Soros made up about 7 percent of J-Street’s annual budget.
“The most important thing to do is put this in the context of the $11.2 million the J Street family of organizations has raised from over 10,000 donors in the last 2.5 years,” Spitalnick added.
Soros has often been criticized by Jewish organizations for his comments on Israel. For instance, in 2003 he gave a speech in which he said Israel and US policies fed anti-Semitism.
He recently pledged $100 million to Human Rights Watch, an organization which has been accused by its founder Richard Bernstein as being biased against Israel. At the same time he gave $1 million to World Ort, a Jewish educational organization.
The Washington Times report also revealed that one of J-Street’s major donors was a Hong Kong-based businesswoman named Consolacion Esdicul.
According to the tax returns, Esdicul gave $811,697 over a three year timeframe.
Asked if J-Street had conducted a background check on Esdicul, Spitalnick said she was not at liberty to divulge the process by which it examines whether to accept money from donors.
She added that funds from Esdicul were solicited by Bill Benter, a supporter of J-Street’s from Pittsburgh.

Contributed by C.

You want evil??? In another life, George Soros was the CEO of Soylent Corporation. In this life, he thinks he’s a messiah… After himself, he follows Alinsky, Cloward and Piven. His “church” is a bank. And his “god” (besides himself) is Mammon.

What is the NWO Theme Cognition and Behaviour

By nature, we all display intelligent behaviour. We have no trouble in recognising the people around us, walking, reading the newspaper, driving a car and now and then pausing to count our change, listen to the radio, make a phone call and so on. The question is how we do it. A large part of the explanation is that we are familiar with our environment and with ourselves and able to process this knowledge. The theme of Cognition and Behaviour has to do with the study of knowledge, knowledge processes and the way in which our brains represent and process knowledge.

Cognition and Behaviour

Cognition is not confined to people and animals; it is also a characteristic of artificial and virtual systems. Over the last fifty years, cognition has become amenable to conceptual and experimental analysis and there has been an impressive growth in the relevant disciplines. Multidisciplinary cooperation and the use of new techniques are likely to offer still more interesting new insights. Research on this theme will primarily aim to clarify fundamental laws of information and information processing and seek to explain how knowledge is acquired and used in personal, social, cultural and digital contexts.

Other promising fields of inquiry are behaviour and evolution, language acquisition, animal behaviour, knowledge retrieval, and cognitive disorders. High-level research on cognitive and behavioural processes is being conducted at various places in the Netherlands. In 1997, the Foresight Steering Committee (OCV) published a report on cognitive studies in the Netherlands. By launching Cognition and Behaviour as a major research programme in 2001, NWO is fulfilling one of its recommendations. Another – the establishment of a facility equipped with modern brain-scan technology specifically for use in fundamental research on cognition – has already been fulfilled under NWO’s major equipment investment programme (NWO-Large). The added value of creating a separate NWO research theme in this area is that it will bring together all the disciplines most closely involved (including the neuro-sciences, linguistics, psychology/education, artificial intelligence and – via the evolutionary point of view – economics, soci ology, politics and ethology) at a time when a number of lines of research are converging to produce a common conceptual and methodological framework requiring close reciprocal communication and collaboration.

The potential applications of the results of research on this theme are many and various. Greater insight into cognitive processes and the way the human brain functions can be combined with ICT expertise to produce a marked impro- vement in interaction and collaboration between people and computers. Greater knowledge of neuro-biological and psychological processes will expand diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities for dealing with psychiatric and neuro-degenerative diseases involving the disturbance of cognitive processes (such as Alzheimer’s). In our rapidly ageing society, this is a matter of crucial importance. A better understanding of processes of knowledge acquisition and information processing will create the prospect of more effective methods of education. An improved grasp of the factors underlying behaviour will offer a firmer basis on which to influence and control negative behaviour. Finally, application of the evolutionary point of view in social science research can lead to improved ways of dealing with problems resulting from the decline in social solidarity and political commitment.

Cultural HeritageEthical and Social Aspects of Research and InnovationsShifts in GovernanceCognition and BehaviourFundamentals of Life ProcessesSystem EarthDigitalisation and InformationNano-SciencesEmerging Technologies

Graphic designer Rhonald Blommestijn (Amersfoort) was inspired by the nine NWO Themes. Navigate to the different thematic subjects by clicking the emblems.

The Elites…Who are these Supposedly Superior all knowing ruler of  the world Super Humans and what makes them Elite over the Rest of Humanity??? The simple answer is there mostly Stolen from others fraudulent  Fiat currency $$$Money$$$ and really that is all . If you look at George W Bush’s axis of Evil you will find out that all countries on it are countries who have not had there governments right to print there own money for there countries people stolen by these Elite Crooks yet.  What we all call a Central Bank ie Federal Reserve is just the Elites global counterfeiting scheme bank privately owned by the elites.They created it to rob and plunder every country on planet earth.They are created to profit the Elites and them alone and everyone else goes in to unending Debt to these elite CRIMINALS for really nothing, nothing at all but for the elites greed and power hunger. There fiat paper money is worthless and the only thing that gives it any real value at all is that we have blindly and through deception accepted it as our nation’s currencies. “Interest”which they tack on everything is a word Bankers created long ago to get around by deception, the always by maxim of law illegal implementation of USERY which is the real word for Interest. And slowly they made it legal to there cause and there cause only over the past centuries.Try starting your own bank and charging interest on your own paper money and see what happens to you. But Usery no matter what you call it or wrap it up in, is and always has been illegal and a crime against Humanity as it creates perpetual debt that can never be totally repaid ever.This is what makes them Elites and Better than You and I or so they believe.Really they are the worst cabal of criminals interbreed to ever walk this planet and if there total global agenda(New World Order) comes to full fruition it will be a living hell on earth for the common man – slaves. They want this whole planet to themselves and death for 95% of the rest of us. The other 5% will be there slaves for ever serving there every as gods on earth demands and needs.

Mankind need to be  awoken to who all these supposedly superior elites are.  To begin at the bottom of there  pyramid of power  we have firstly:

The Illuminati,The Committee of 300 Families,Round Table,Bilderbergs,Presidents,Politician and top of all secret societies. These are the richest of the rich and not your average run of the mill Millionaires and are all blood related swomehow to each other and to the to the 13 main bloodlines


Did you know all 43 U.S. presidents have carried European royal bloodlines into office? 34 have been genetic descendants from just one person, Charlemagne, the brutal eighth century King of the Franks. 19 of them directly descended from King Edward III of England. In fact, the presidential candidate with the most royal genes has won every single American election.
“This information comes from Burke’s Peerage, which is the Bible of aristocratic genealogy, based in London. Every presidential election in America, since and including George Washington in 1789 to Bill Clinton, has been won by the candidate with the most British and French royal genes. Of the 42 presidents to Clinton, 33 have beeen related to two people: Alfred the Great, King of England, and Charlemagne, the most famous monarch of France. So it goes on: 19 of them are related to England’s Edward III, who has 2000 blood connections to Prince Charles. The same goes with the banking families in America. George Bush and Barbara Bush are from the same bloodline – the Pierce bloodline, which changed its name from Percy, when it crossed the Atlantic. Percy is one of the aristocratic families of Britain, to this day. They were involved in the Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliament at the time of Guy Fawkes”
-Researcher/Author David Icke, “Alice in Wonderland and the World Trade Center” If America declared its Independence from the European monarchies in 1776, how is it possible that every single president has descended from European monarchs? If presidents are democratically elected as we are told, what are the odds that we would always choose members of British and French royal bloodlines to lead us?
“The Americas have always been owned and governed by the same royal families of Britain and Europe that conventional history states as being among those defeated during the wars of so-called ‘Independence.’”
-Michael Tsarion, “Astrotheology and Sidereal Mythology”


The Black Nobility – 13 Illuminaty Bloodlines The Blue Bloods. These are mostly the big banking families Rothschild, Rockefeller,Warburgs The European Royalties and the global Top Super Billionaires


Now above these is the top echelon of the Elite who have been trying since the very beginnings to rule the world they have changed forms over the years from Sumeria,Egyptians,Ancient Greece,to finally evolve into the Roman Empire and then into the Holy Roman Empire  and from there the blodlines spread out as the European Royalties but always subservient to the EMPIRE. Meanwhile at the top of the empire was CEASAR who evolved over time into the Pope or vicar of Christ the Living God on Earth.The Vatican ruled the world during the whole period of the Dark Ages.This supposed Roman Empire what we call today Roman Catholics is said to have killed from between 50 and 70 millions in the effort to wipe out any who did not bow to there ways during the Inquisition. It is an historical fact the Roman Catholic Church supplanted all civil authority of the European Governments for exactly 1,260 years. After this time the Vatican became as the Wizard of OZ and has ruled ever since from behind the cover of the curtain of world Religion. They have however always been trying to Rule the whole world outright With the Pope as the Living God On Earth and ultimate Total Ruler The NEW WORLD ORDER HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE


The King of the World on his Throne –  God incarnate –  The Pope or CEASAR

Secrets of The
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society

Their Connection to Freemasonry and the New World Order

Better Known as The Jehovah’s Witnesses

By Robert Howard

See an early edition of the Watchtower
with this Masonic crown and cross on its cover. earlyWTcover.jpg

Photo coutesy of Star Trek .com

Notice the surrounding wreath. Yes Gene Rodenberry creator of Star Trek was a mason. Yes the United Nations is made up of the same people who want to bring about a New World Order.

Notice the pyramid in the above picture. The same was erected over Russell’s grave.

To Use There Own Words.

“It is not a form of religious persecution to say and to show that another religion is false. for an informed person to expose publicly a certain religion on being false, thus allowing persons to see the difference between false religion and true religion.”
(Watchtower 11/15/63, p. 688:)

More will be added to this list as it is gathered. Please check back often.



The following information is excerpts from reliable sources throughout the web. Most of these articles quote from the Watchtowers own printed material, which at one time the Watchtower ordered to be turned in by its members. To fully understand these excerpts one must read the material from which they came. It has been proven that The Watchtower Society has been involved in Enochian magick since its founding by Charles Taze Russell. Russell himself has been linked to a Satanic bloodline and was operating with key figures whose agenda has been a New World order. We all know how important the bloodline was to Christ through David. So is the bloodline to Satan to bring about the Anti-Christ New World Order. Russell was part of this bloodline. To understand the Satanic Bloodlines, start here.  The Satanic Bloodlines

To bring about a new world order one would need to infiltrate all matters of government, religion, school systems, police enforcement, etc., etc. The following list is only a partial list. Groups Promoting A Globalist, Anti-American Agenda

You would then need a strong-arm force such as the United Nations to enforce this agenda worldwide.

“No one will enter the New World Order unless he or she will make a pledge to worship Lucifer. No one will enter the New Age unless he will take a LUCIFERIAN Initiation.” (David Spangler, Director of Planetary Initiative, United Nations)

I hate to say this more than you can imagine, but through research and direction of the Holy Spirit, I have come to the conclusion that it is the United States who will help bring about this new world order. Our history is not what we have been taught. Our true history has been hidden by these key figures of power, the Satanic Elite. Satan’s right hand men. Rewriting U.S. History Even the late American Professor Revilo P. Oliver, a confirmed atheist, was forced to conclude: “The question of precisely what fires the will of the wealthy supranational elites seeking to manipulate and control world events, has not escaped the attention of serious students of conspiracies and cover-ups. A theory that a conspiracy has been working consciously for many centuries is not very plausible unless one attributes to them a religious unity. That is tantamount to regarding them as Satanists engaged in the worship and service of supernatural evil. The directors of the conspiracy must see or otherwise directly perceive manifestations, which convince them of the existence and power of Lucifer. And since subtle conspirators must be very shrewd men, not likely to be deceived by auto-suggestion, hypnosis, or drugs, we should have to conclude that they probably are in contact with a force of pure evil.” Prof. Revilo P. Oliver, (Conspiracy or Degeneracy? USA)

You may be familiar with the term of the Illuminati. The enlightened ones. Some of these are the people who founded this country. The United States. A large portion of men who wrote our constitution. Almost every one of the Presidents have been involved with this group at some level, or have been lead by the power behind them. The group mostly responsible for the United States part of the New World Order has infiltrated the Freemasons. Yes they hide it very well through good deeds and much secrecy. But it is a large portion of the Freemasons who are responsible under the direction of Satan himself for the state of affairs here in the U.S. As I said earlier, almost every President has been involved in Freemasonry. Start here. U.S. Presidents and The Masonic Power Structure

Now we come to Russell’s part. Russell was a freemason. It has been recorded in his own material, his admittance to being a Freemason.” I am very glad to have this particular opportunity of saying a word about some of the things in which we agree with our Masonic friends, because we are speaking in a building dedicated to Masonry, and we also are Masons. I am a Freemason.” Charles Taze Russell. (The Temple of God-Pastor Russell page 120)

The Rothschild’s had long had a plan to create a personal fiefdom for themselves and the Illuminati in Palestine and that plan involved manipulating Jewish people to settle the area as their “homeland.” Charles Taze Russell, of the Illuminati-reptilian Russell bloodline, was the man who founded the Watchtower Society, better known as the Jehovah’s Witnesses. He was a Satanist, a pedophile according to his wife, and most certainly Illuminati. His new “religion (mind-control cult) was funded by the Rothschild’s and he was a friend of theirs, just like the founders of the Mormons who were also Rothschild-funded through Kuhn, Loeb, and Co. Russell and the Mormon founders were all Freemasons. In 1880, Charles Taze Russell, this friend of the Rothschild’s, predicted that the Jews would return to their homeland. It was about the only prediction Russell ever got right. Why? Because he knew that was the plan. He wrote to the Rothschild’s praising their efforts to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. WAS HITLER A ROTHSCHILD?

No Jesus was the foundation stone; there were no stones chiseled out before he came; none could be accepted before that. He did the great work of founding this great order to which we belong, the order of free and Accepted Masonry. (The Temple of God-Pastor Russell page 121)

You know that in these orders of Masonry, as they progress from one step to another; they learn more and more, and there are Masons in the thirty-second degree that know a great many things that Masons on the fourteenth or sixteenth plane that would not know. (The Temple of God-Pastor Russell page 123)

Albert Pike addressing the 23 Supreme Councils of the world on July 14, 1889:- “To you, Sovereign Grand Instructors General, we say this, that you may repeat it to the Brethren of the 32nd, 31st and 30th degrees: ‘the Masonic Religion should be,  by all of us initiates of the high degrees,  maintained in the purity of the LUCIFERIAN Doctrine. . .”

Mat 21:42] Jesus said to them, “Did you never read in the scriptures: ‘The stone that the builders (aka Freemasons) rejected has become the cornerstone; by the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes’?
[Mat 21:43] Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people that will produce its fruit.

A thousand years during which these Knights Templars are to scatter blessings to all the families of the Earth. We may not wear our white feathers now but we will all have white raiment by and by. “They shall walk with Him in white for they are worthy.” Now the question arises, How can we become members of this order? Would you like to become one of these Knights Templar on a heavenly plane. (The Temple of God-Pastor Russell page 122) see also: SATANIC SOURCES CLAIM KNIGHTS TEMPLAR TO BE SATANIC! THIS IS MORE PROOF THAT FREEMASONRY IS ALSO SATANIC

All our historians, at least nearly all of them, agree that Freemasonry owes very much to certain occult societies or groups that flourished — often in secrecy — during the late Middle Ages, and even into the after-Reformation times. Chief among these were the Rosicrucian’s and the Knights Templar. (H. L. Haywood, The Great Teachings of the Lodge (Richmond, Virginia: Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Company, 1971), page 94.) C.T. Russell’s View of Masonry and Symbolism External Link| mason1.gif

Many articles have proved that Freemasonry is involved with Satanism. Start here. FREEMASONRY PROVEN TO WORSHIP SATAN * FORMER ILLUMINIST WITCH REVEALS WITCHCRAFT TIE TO FREEMASONRY * THE MASONIC NEW WORLD ORDER *Freemasonry Exposed * Communion With the Gods The Pagan Altar of Freemasonry

Who controls the Freemasons? The Jesuits!! Who Controls the Jesuits? Lucifer!! The Black Pope

The Jesuits have met and enforced their Protocols. The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion

Russell was buried with a pyramid site marker or headstone if you will, with Masonic symbols engraved on it.

This is a picture of the Masonic crown on Russell's tombstone. Click On Picture To Visit This Site!

The above picture was taken from a Masons site in Texas. They have since removed the picture after this article.

The above crown with the cross is very much a Masonic symbol. A close up of the plaque below reads “Watchtower Bible and Tract Society”.

Russell’s Instructions for his funeral

I desire to be buried in the plot of ground owned by our Society, in the Rosemont United Cemetery, and all the details of arrangements respecting the funeral service I leave in the care of my sister, Mrs. M. M. Land, and her daughters, Alice and May, or such of them as may survive me, with the assistance and advice and cooperation of the brethren, as they may request the same. Instead of an ordinary funeral discourse, I request that they arrange to have a number of the brethren, accustomed to public speaking, make a few remarks each, that the service be very simple and inexpensive and that it be conducted in the Bible House Chapel or any other place that may be considered equally appropriate or more so. (fromWatchtower Reprints, 12/1/16) for those wishing to visit the gravesite: The area is the North Hills area of Pittsburgh. It is in the “Rosemont United Cemeteries at Allegheny, in the Bethel Family plot, according to his request.” (Jehovah’s Witnesses In The Divine Purpose, 1959, p. 62) Charles T. Russell Gravesite External Link

Owned by our society, in the Bethel Family plot. Look at picture #2 for the society who owns this Bethel family plot. External Links










So I ask you to entertain a question. If Russell wasn’t a Mason then why would the Watchtower allow a Masonic erected pyramid to remain at his grave site. It wouldn’t be the fact that Russell is buried next to  the Greater Pittsburgh Masonic Center would it?

Update: The above crown and cross is the Masons York Rite Knights Templar emblem. See below.

The Crown and cross emblem on the left from this Masonic Drawing clearly indicates the emblem is the York Rite of Masonry Knights Templar. To see the full picture click here.

Some might mistake it for a Christian symbol, but Masonic author Ray Denslow reveals its true meaning:

“The Cross and Crown may be said to be confined almost exclusively to the historical degrees in Masonry as exemplified in the various orders of knighthood of York and Scottish rites. In Gaul we find the cross to have been a solar symbol when it had equal arms and angles; to the Phoenicians it was an instrument of sacrifice to their God, Baal; and to the Egyptians, the crux ansata was his symbol of eternal life.” (Ray V. Denslow, Masonic Portraits,Transactions of this Missouri Lodge of Research, vol. #29, p.7—emphasis in the original) External Link

Now that we have established that Russell was a York Rite Knights Templar, same as 32 or 33rd degree Freemason. Lets look at Enochian Magic. What is Enochian Magic? Have you ever heard of Aleister Crowley? He was one of the most evil men besides Hitler to walk this Earth. In his book “Confessions.” Crowley claimed that he had been initiated as a 33-Degree Mason in the Ancient and Accepted Rite of Masonry (A&AR). He probably did this in Mexico, where he went after the break-up with the Golden Dawn. To learn a bit more about Crowley start here. Aleister Crowley. See also illuminati_faq.htm The Order Of The Golden Dawn Golden Dawn – Ubermen von der Golden Dawn – Hitler

There are books on the subject available to anyone who wants to learn this Enochian magic. Learn the laws of Enochian Magick, how to use the Watchtowers and the six forces of Magick, learn Enochian Yoga and travel in the Body of Light.

The Enochian Magick of Dr. John Dee: The Most Powerful System of Magick in its Original, Unexpurgated Form
Geoffrey James

The Enochian Magick of Dr. John Dee: The Most Powerful System of Magick in its Original, Unexpurgated Form
Order# K367
ISBN# 1-56718-367-0
6’x9″, illus., appendices
Price: 14.95

You may have heard people speak of it in hushed tones: Enochian magick! Some say it is dangerous. Others say it is the most powerful magick known. Now you can find out the truth when you read The Enochian Magick of Dr. John Dee by Geoffrey James (previously published as The Enochian Evocation of Dr. John Dee).
This system was received by Dr. John Dee, astrologer to Queen Elizabeth I of England, and his assistant, Edward Kelly. Together, through a series of evocations, they discovered a system of magick so potent that some people fear to use it. Now you can learn the entire Enochian system as never before.
Previously, people went to secondary sources such as the Golden Dawn or Aleister Crowley for information on the Enochian system. Here, for the first time, are the diaries of Dr. Dee, which reveal the entire system so you can use it for a wide variety of magical purposes.
Presented here is the definitive version of the forty-eight angelic keys according to Dee himself. Revealed are the names of the sixteen good angels who are most skilled and powerful in medicine and in the curing of diseases, as well as the sixteen angels of the four elements. Every step of the method by which Dee and Kelly worked their evocations is fully explained so you can recreate their experiments and tap into some of the most powerful magick available.

The Watchtowers. It was believed that angels ruled a certain compass direction and they lived in the ends of the earth (more like the ends of the universe).  These angels are to record every event that occurs in the world.

WATCHTOWERS, GUARDIANS OF:  1) A term used to describe the Elementals who are Energy Forms, Raiths or Spirits of the 4 Elements.  2) Originally used in the Enochian Tradition of Ceremonial Magick but whose usage is now widespread. 3) Those Entities connected to the Elements & Directions & certain attributes as follows:

North      Air         thought & intellect                 Male         yellow

East        Earth     stable, solid, dependable      Female     green…

South      Fire       change, passion, willpower   Male        red…..

West       Water   emotions & purification          Female    blue….

Center     Spirit     intuitiveness                          unisexed soul

They are both visible & physical and invisible & spiritual. They are invoked during ritual as protectors of our Circle of Power & sometimes as advisors. Some ‘set’ these Guardians, during rituals in a more complex exercise than simply invoking the Elements. External Link

See also: The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn ® / Golden Dawn Enochian Magic External Link

Now lets look at a bit of history of Enochian Magic. The Golden Dawn history. This secret society made great impact on the European magic of the XX century with the publishing of its secret material by its former members. According to a story that circulated among the members of the society, it is based on a coded manuscript that Win Westcot, one of the founders, freemason and occultist found in an antique store. Then Westcot contacted Samuel Lidel McGregor Mathers, who was a respectable magician and Egyptologist in that time, and they together decoded the manuscript which consisted of four complicated rituals. In the manuscript they found an address of a certain person called Mrs. Spriengel from Germany who was responsible for a secret magic order, supposedly from the tradition of the Rosicrucian’s. From Mrs. Spriengel they received a letter of approval for founding the secret magic order Golden Dawn with the first lodge Isis-Urania in London. The founders and the heads of the society were Mathers, Westcot, and Woodman, another English occultist and freemason. Early Medieval magic

Learn Aumism: the doctrines of the Golden Age. Its Modern day founder is a freemason, Rosicrucian, Martinist Lodges, Knights of the Holy Grail, occultist and so on. Aumism – Universal Religion – The Doctrine of the Golden Age

OK we have proved that Enochian magick is a reality. We see that Russell was involved with Freemasonry and used Freemasonry symbols on his earlier magazines. We also learn that the Freemasons were involved in the occult and The Golden Dawn order, which used Enochian Magic. The Freemason is heavy into the Pyramids and the worship of Isis and Osiris. The ancient Egyptians, for example, constantly refer to a remote Golden Age they called Zep Tepi, ‘The First Time’ of Osiris, (Both of these terms are older terms for NEW WORLD ORDER) which they believed had long predated the Pyramid Age. The Sphinx: Guardian of the  Treasure of the gods External link

We have also learned those three phrases of terminology that are popular with Enochian Magic, and the Freemasons are “Millennial Dawn”, “Golden Age” and “Watchtower.” Russell named his organization Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. His earlier magazine was called The Golden Age. Before the name of Jehovah’s Witnesses was established the followers of Russell’s teachings were known as Russellites and Millennial Dawnist. Not a chance this is coincidence.

It is the restoration of that corrupt “Golden Age” of incarnate demons which the Egyptian mystery religion represented and continues to represent. It is an ancient violent and immoral world which developed before the Flood which New Age spirit guides are seeking to re-establish, but which will be swept away by the War of Armageddon. The term “Golden Age” is a very misleading one, as is the term “spirituality” when used in conjunction with Adam Weishaupt whose “spirituality” was referred to as “horrifying.” The Illuminati’s fundamental principles pervert the noble meaning of spirituality, and are working for the establishment of a “horrifying” “Golden Age.” New Age Army Expose, Psychic Warrior Subversion Exposed

Now keep all of this in mind when reading the Watchtowers false predictions, and their constant change of doctrines. Oh yes and a little FYI. (For Your Information). The WT Society performs a secret ritual every year, which is their primary ritual. This ritual is actually the ancient Gnostic (Satanic) ritual of saying no to the body of Christ. Of course the lower rank and files JW’s do not know this. This ancient Satanic ritual is now secretly practiced under the disguise of the Memorial Supper – where the elements of communion are passed and no one partakes of the elements. (When I say “no one” I mean that in a qualified sense-only a small group is allowed to partake. The actual figures of how many partake of the elements is a totally fictitious figure according to my sources, which is created at Bethel headquarters in Brooklyn. The_Russell_Bloodline

In their main textbooks for indoctrinating new converts, “You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth,” and “Knowledge that Leads to Everlasting Life”, the Watchtower Society subtly presents circular reasoning and cleverly formulated arguments garnished with half-truths to begin the process of thought control on unsuspecting individuals sincerely interested in learning about the Bible.

Here is a bit of Watchtower History. At the end of each excerpt will be the link from which it came.

Biblical Test for a Prophet

The test for a prophet is found in Deuteronomy 18:20-22. This scripture teaches that a prophet must be tested by checking his prophecies. Also. Jesus said, “Beware of false prophets which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. “This is not telling us to examine a prophet’s good works. Many false prophets have led moral lives. The fruit of a fig tree is its figs. The fruit of a prophet is his prophecies. One false prophecy (even if some true prophecies are given) and that person is a false prophet. It does not matter how sincere he or his followers are. It does not matter how often his followers pray or what feelings they seem to receive in answer to their prayers. He is a false prophet.

Yes their prediction’s unknown to most starts back this far.

1776 “And this long persecution, in which many were purified and made white and tried,’ and in which the Mother of Harlots was ‘drunk with the blood of the saints and the martyrs of Jesus’ (Rev. 17:6) ended as we have already shown, practically in 1776.” {BATT 584} [Also see 1799]

1816 Jehovah’s Witnesses trace their origins to the nineteenth century Adventist movement in America. That movement began with William Miller, a Baptist lay preacher whom, in the year 1816, began proclaiming that Christ would return in 1843. His predictions of the Second Coming or Second Advent captured the imagination of thousands in Baptist and other mainline churches. Perhaps as many as 50,000 followers put their trust in Miller’s chronological calculations and prepared to welcome the Lord, while, as the appointed time approached, others watched nervously from a distance. Recalculations moved the promised second advent from March 1843 to March, 1844, and then to October of that year. Alas, that date too passed uneventfully. The Branch Davidians who died at Waco, Texas, under the leadership of David Koresh also trace their roots to the same Millerite source through a different line of descent. A Short History of the Watchtower Organization

1872 Charles Taze Russell (One of The Satanic_bloodlines who founded the International Bible Students Association. Forerunner to the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Before they became known as the Jehovah’s Witnesses, they were called Russellites, Millennial Dawnists, and International Bible Students. Russell was a Knights Templar Mason of York Rite, in Allegheny Pa. Confirmed Mason. Also Russell had a secret Rosicrucian membership with the Quakertown, PA group of Rosicrucian’s, as revealed by the pyramid he ordered erected over his grave site. His use of the Winged-Sun-Disk. Russell owned a cemetery in Pittsburgh. Leading Satanists try to own cemeteries for several reasons. First, it facilitates the disposal of human sacrifices, which are buried in pieces below the fresh holes dug for someone else’s burial. When the casket is placed in the hole, it would be rare for anyone to dig below the casket level ever again. Second, magic power is associated with cemeteries. The spiritual power of the dead is pulled up by making a circle of light over them, and then within the circle a naked Satanist lays. Third, specific bones are sought such as the skulls and left hands. Left hands are preserved in order to hold candles for certain ceremonies. Confirmed Mason. The_Russell_Bloodline

Full view of Watchtower assembly hall used for years in New York, still in use.

Winged sun god Ra on outside of Queens, New York Assembly Hall

Chrysler uses this symbol to.

What is this winged disk? One explanation is: ( Holy Order of The Winged Disk, an old magickal organization dedicated to hermetic, qabalistic, gnostic, rosicrucian, and alchemical practices. The Winged Disk recognizes that there is a seed of truth in every tradition. The International Academy of Hermetic Knowledge is an independent home study program offering the techniques of western magick, spiritual practice, and special guidance not available in any books. Phaedron is named as its director. He implements the Order’s philosophy of approaching the subject in a thorough, safe, and realistic manner. As an Adept, he receives sincere seekers, teaches privately, counsels spiritually, and holds small group classes in ritual magick and related esoteric methods. (“Teachings of the Winged Disk” by Phaedron Info/Order book)

John Russell – Pastor C. T. Russell’s stepmother was executor of his will. His mother was the one chosen to dance with famous Mason and Illuminatus Lafayette when he was in Philadelphia. 1. (Nevin, Adelaide Mellier. The Social Mirror A Character Sketch of the Women of Pittsburgh) 2. (Vicinity during the first Century of the County’s existence. Society of today. Pittsburgh, PA: T.A. Nevin Publisher, 1888, p. 19. b. The Pittsburgh Directory) 3. (1878-79 showing Elizabeth the widow of John, and c. John Russell in the 1850 Census, and John Russell’s Will.)

Things Russell Would Currently be Disfellowshipped (excommunicated) For: Anti-organizational teachings, celebrating birthdays, Christmas and holiday observance, military involvement tolerated, not draining blood from food, considering self to be the “faithful and discreet slave,” selling “Miracle Wheat,” dabbling in the occult and signing his own books. Watchtower Presidential Era Summaries External Link

Charles Taze Russell died Halloween night, or was he silenced? River Phoenix died Halloween night also. Or was he Satanically ritually murdered? “Who Killed River Phoenix?” | Halloween Deaths: Satanic Ritual Murders or Natural Causes?

1874 The Lord became present in October, 1874″ {TKIC 1923 Ed 235} [many other references in HOTW, TIAH 170, OLOR 27, HIS2 133]

1874-8 “Our Lord’s presence as Bridegroom and Reaper was recognized during the first three and a half years, from A.D. 1874 to A.D. 1878.” {TIAH 1913 Ed 239}

1876 January when he was 23 years old, Russell received a copy of The Herald of the Morning, an Adventist magazine published by Nelson H. Barbour of Rochester, New York. One of the distinguishing features of Barbour’s group at that time was their belief that Christ returned invisibly in 1874, and this concept presented in The Herald captured Russell’s attention. It meant that this Adventist splinter group had not remained defeated, as others had, when Christ failed to appear in 1874 as Adventist leaders had predicted; somehow this small group had managed to hold onto the date by affirming that the Lord had indeed returned at the appointed time, only invisibly. Wealthy Russell paid Barbour’s way to Philadelphia and met with him to discuss both beliefs and finances. The upshot was that Russell became the magazine’s financial backer and was added to the masthead as an Assistant Editor. He contributed articles for publication as well as monetary gifts, and Russell’s small study group similarly became affiliated with Barbour’s. Russell and Barbour believed and taught that Christ’s invisible return in 1874 would be followed soon afterward, in the spring of 1878 to be exact, by the Rapture-the bodily snatching away of believers to heaven. The Witnesses do not believe in rapture in modern day doctrines, but that only a 144.000 will go to heaven. A Short History of the Watchtower Organization External Link

1878 When this expected Rapture failed to occur on time in 1878, The Herald’s editor, Mr. Barbour, came up with “new light” on this and other doctrines. (Sound familiar) Russell, however, rejected some of the new ideas and persuaded other members to oppose them. Finally, Russell quit the staff of the Adventist magazine and started his own. He called it Zion’s watchtower and Herald of Christ’s Presence and published its first issue with the date July 1879. In the beginning it had the same mailing list as The Herald of the Morning and considerable space was devoted to refuting the latter on points of disagreement, Russell having taken with him a copy of that magazine’s mailing list when he resigned as assistant editor. At this point Charles Russell no longer wanted to consider himself an Adventist, nor a Millerite. But, he continued to view Miller and Barbour as instruments chosen by God to lead His people in the past. The formation of a distinct denomination around Russell was a gradual development. His immediate break was, not with Adventism, but with the person and policies of N. H. Barbour. A Short History of the Watchtower Organization External Link

1891 For 62 years, 1891 to 1953, the WTS taught that God resided on the star Alcyone in the Pleiades constellation and that from this star he governed the universe! This belief was taught in 1891 in Volume 3 of Studies in the Scriptures and was based on passages in the Bible. The WTS also taught that the Great Pyramid of Egypt provided additional proof of God’s throne in the Pleiades! (The Golden Age 1924 September 10 pp. 793-794) Astrology and the Watchtower Society  *Jehovah: Ancient Astronaut?

1902 July 15, While it is true that the white race exhibits some qualities of superiority over any other, we are to remember that there are wide differences in the same Caucasian (Semitic and Aryan) family; and also we should remember that some of the qualities which have given this branch of the human family its preeminence in the world are not such as can be pointed to as in all respects admirable….The secret of the greater intelligence and aptitude of the Caucasian undoubtedly in great measure is to be attributed to the commingling of blood amongst its various branches; and this was evidently forced in large measure by circumstances under divine control. (Zion’s Watch Tower, July 15, 1902, p.215-216) Blacks and the Watchtower * The Population Control Agenda

1904 8th of April. Aleister Crowley claimed that, in Cairo at 12 noon exactly and for the following two days at the exact same time—he actually heard a voice in his ear, dictating the words of the text (as if through some transmitter in his brain), and that he transcribed them faithfully. It was not “inspired,” then, so much as received. The voice itself claimed to be that of Aiwass, or Aiwaz,  “the minister of Hoor-paar-kraat,” or otherwise, Horus, the god of force and fire, child of Isis and Osiris, and self-appointed conquering lord of the New Aeon, officially announced through his chosen scribe, “the prince-priest the Beast.”  This much of Crowley’s controversial life and claims is more or less confirmed. It is, as promised, to be found, there in the writings themselves—the proof as it were is in the pudding.  Anyone who has read the work, and suffered the resulting conflictive feelings of admiration and disgust, will not doubt that there is something about the “little red book”  that puts it in a class all its own. The whole apparatus of ceremonial magick (as conceived and adapted by the Golden Dawn and its offshoots, many of which were directly influenced by Crowley) that formed the true inner protocol of Nazism (originally spawned by the Thule Society) is dedicated—in theory—to the one single end and purpose of: contact with preterhuman or extraterrestrial forces.

1906 This testimony was given by Mrs. Russell on direct examination on Thursday, April 26, 1906 from a suit for a separation brought by Martha (sic) F. Russell against Charles Taze Russell, her husband, popularly known as Pastor Russell Then he said, “I am like a jellyfish. I float around here and there. I touch this one and that one, and if she responds I take her to me, and if not, I float on to others”; and she wrote that out so that I could remember it for sure when I would speak to him about it. And he confessed that he said those things. Founder of Jehovah’s witnesses: CHARLES TAZE RUSSELL- CHILD MOLESTER!

1906 Two of the key early Watchtower Society leaders were Bundy’s. These were Walter H. Bundy, who went with Charles Taze Russell to Great Britain on his May 29-31, 1909 trip, and Edwin Bundy who worked at the Bethel Headquarters at the turn of the century and traveled around the U.S. for the Watchtower Society from 1906 to 1910. The_Bundy_bloodline

1914 The supposed end of the “Gentile Times”, Jesus would come to judge the earth and annihilate the wicked. A Short History of Jehovah’s Witnesses

1914 Russell’s prediction for Armageddon fails.

1914 The Watchtower Society started transferring all of the doctrines about 1874 to 1914. They explained that Christ’s kingdom had been set up invisibly in 1914, and that although secular governments were still in place, their rule was no longer valid. Based on the Society’s writings, Jehovah’s Witnesses looked forward to momentous events in the year 1918.

1915 Russell’s prediction for Armageddon fails.

1916 Joseph Franklin Rutherford, assumes control of the Watchtower and Bible Tract Society. (Jehovah’s Witnesses) In Rutherford’s (The Finished Mystery), published in 1917, they said that Armageddon would really break loose in 1918 with the destruction of “Christendom” and all the church members and by 1920 all kingdoms of the earth would pass away. In 1918 the “little flock” would pass beyond the veil and 1921 would be the last year to make it to heaven and would see the death of all in the “great multitude” class. The Finished Mystery claimed, as did other Watchtower material in 1917, that they were directed and supervised by the spirit of the dead “Pastor” Russell and others of the deceased “anointed” class. This is necromancy, or communicating with the dead, which the modern day Watchtower Bible and Tract Society has called spiritism and demonism. (But yet they still use and teach his doctrines, and their Bible inspired by demons) Was Rutherford a Spirit Medium? In relating to friends he could be despotic; in dealing with enemies, ruthless. He was moody and sometimes blunt to the point of rudeness with an explosive temper that could occasionally excite him to physical violence. He also had a streak of self-righteousness, which caused him to regard anyone who opposed him as of the Devil. But most curious was the fact that while in some ways he was a Puritan of Puritans, in others he was thoroughly dissolute. He used vulgar language, suffered from alcoholism, and was once publicly accused by one of his closest associates of attending a nude burlesque show with two fellow elders.” (Apocalypse Delayed, University of Toronto Press, 1985, p. 47-48)Jehovah’s Organization or Joe’s Organization?

“Even though a teetotaler, Moyle can hardly be charged with being overly critical of the drinking habits of his brethren at Bethel, and he was quite accurate in his assessment of the judge’s self-righteous, choleric actions and breakfast-table tirades. Furthermore, he was simply eager to correct what to him were serious examples of unchristian conduct and to stress that Rutherford had an immediate responsibility to remedy the conditions which had caused his resignation and protest. But Rutherford, who sometimes had difficulty in distinguishing his own position from that of Jehovah or Christ Jesus, regarded Moyle’s letter as nothing short of apostasy itself.” (Apocalypse Delayed, page 81 (soft-cover)

Rutherford was cited for contempt of court on at least three occasions.  Proof of this is found in Morgan County Book 13, page 251 for August 8, 1894 and Cooper County Book 2, page 376 on May 15,1895.   His worst known impropriety in law during the Missouri years was recorded in Permanent File #5113 of the Cooper County Circuit Court dated February 4, 1896 and involved a case heard by Judge Dorsey W. Shackleford.  Rutherford was representing the National Cash Register Company against David Nicholson of Boonville.
After Nicholson had levied a writ of attachment on a cash register machine that had been used at the saloon of Charley Merstetter, a deputy constable named Wright went to seize the machine but Rutherford met him at the saloon, held papers before Wright and told him that if Wright would go to see William Muir Williams the attorney representing Nicholson and who later became a state supreme court judge, then Williams would confirm that Rutherford held possession of the machine.  Wright left the machine to speak with attorney Williams and upon returning found that machine gone.  Rutherford then lied that the machine had been sent on to Sedalia, Missouri, for deputy Wright found it “concealed” in a second office of Rutherford beneath some papers.

Secrets of the Watchtower


The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society (WTBTS) has inserted numerous changes into a proper translation of the Bible in an effort to validate the non-Christian doctrines of the Jehovah’s Witnesses (JW’s). Consequently, they claim that their New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is superior to all others.

Example: Exodus 3:14

“I am” changed to “I shall prove to be.”

The revision clouds the connection between God’s self-proclaimed title and Jesus’ proclamation of being the same in John 8:58, as the JW rejects the deity of Jesus. Misleading Revisions in the New World Translation

They have added words to Scripture, which changes the meaning of the texts to agree with their theology. Notice the Watchtower’s rendering of Colossians 1:16,17, where the word “other” has been added four times to the text, completely changing its meaning. When Paul wrote those passages that the Son created all things, it is obvious that the Son was not himself created. The Watchtower, however, believes that the Son is also a created being and has therefore added “other” – not found in the Greek Biblical text at all – to make it appear that the Son is also a creature. As mentioned before, the Translation Committee has added the word “a” to John 1:1 to make the Son a creature rather than God Himself. Take note also of the same deceitfulness displayed in Philippians 2:9 where the word “other” is again added, when it is not found or even suggested in the original Greek. The Worlds Most Dangerous Book!!

Dr. Charles L. Feinberg of La Mirada, California: “I can assure you that the rendering which the Jehovah’s Witnesses give John 1:1 is not held by any reputable Greek scholar.”

Letter by Dr. Julius Mantey – Misquoted by the Watchtower Society

Letter by Dr. Barclay – Misquoted by the Watchtower Society

Board of Directors after Russell’s Death J.A. Bohnet, R.J. Martin, Giovanni DeCecca, F.H. Robinson, C.J. Woodworth, A.H.MacMillan, J.F.Rutherford, WE. VanAmburg. To see a photo follow the link.

1918 * Note: the term “evil slave” was foisted upon the Dawn and kindred groups by that most evil of evil slaves “Judge” Joseph F. Rutherford in his jealous rampage to hold back the mass defections that were taking place when he barged his way into the Watch Tower Society boardroom and seized power in 1918. Meet the \Evil\ Slave The Watchtower Society in general and ‘Judge’ Rutherford in particular) would love for you to believe that these groups are dead, nothing could be further from the truth.  Some of the founders of the Dawn Bible Students (and other groups) were originally on the board of directors of the original Watchtower Society and were actually named by Charles Taze Russell as his successors before “Judge” Rutherford strong-armed them out.  They have an active website here. Dawn Bible Students Association. Publishers of The Dawn Magazine, A Herald of Christ’s Presence. Note: I wouldn’t listen to anything this group has to say either.

1918 Rutherford’s Armageddon prediction fails.

1918 According to Thelemic legend, in 1918 Aleister Crowley came into contact with a interdimensional entity named Lam, who by the way is a dead ringer for the popular conception of the ‘alien grey ‘ depicted on the cover of Whitley Strieber’s Communion. From this purported encounter, some have inferred that the industrious Mr. Crowley intentionally opened a portal of entry–through the practice of a magick ritual, The Amalantrah Working–which allowed the likes of Lam and other ‘alien greys’ a passageway onto the Earth plane. Furthermore, this portal may have been further enlarged by Parsons and Hubbard in 1946 with the commencement of the Babalon Working, thus facilitating a monumental paradigm shift in human consciousness. Sex and Rockets: The Occult World of Jack Parsons

1919 C. J. Woodworth was a major individual during the Rutherford period of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. He wrote the commentary on Revelation in the 1917 book The Finished Mystery. Rutherford made him editor of The Golden Age magazine (later called Consolation) from its inaugural edition in 1919 to 1946. “I came directly under the influence of evil spirits, so much so that for three days I was as completely under demonical control as was Mrs. Eddy when she wrote “Science and Health.” (Thirteenth Souvenir Convention Report, p. 274. C. J. Woodworth:The Demon Possessed Editor of The Golden Age

1921 Feb. 2, The Golden Age even pointed out that apparently “honest” demons, speaking through mediums or Ouija Boards, were saying that in discovering Radium, mankind was getting close to the “secret” of life. The fact that “lying spirits” as they called them said this didn’t raise any red flags because, they said, “even liars will sometimes tell the truth.” (C.J. Woodworth, “Radium–Earths Most Valuable Substance”, The Golden Age, Feb. 2, 1921, p. 260.) The Watchtower Society and Medical Quackery

1922 This was proved in a court of law. The founders of both “faiths”, the Mormons and JW’s were of the Illuminati bloodline. Charles Taze Russell, who founded the Watchtower Society (JW’s), was of the Illuminati Russell bloodline, which also founded the infamous Skull and Bones Society at Yale University. Charles Taze Russell was a Satanist, a pedophile according to his wife, and a friend of the Rothschild’s. Indeed it was the Rothschild’s who funded the Jehovah’s Witness operation into being, along with other Illuminati bankers, through “contributions” by organizations like the Rothschild-controlled B’nai B’rith. One of the key people involved in this was Frank Goldman who later became President of B’nai B’rith. Why would an organization set up (in theory) to help Jewish people and promote the Jewish faith, be funding into existence the Jehovah’s Witnesses? I think the name Rothschild answers the question. Russell was also a high degree Freemason and Knights Templar. He promoted Zionism, another Rothschild creation, on behalf of his friends and backers. WAS HITLER A ROTHSCHILD?

1923 Johannes Greber. In 1923, Greber, a Roman Catholic priest, became interested in communication with spirit beings. These spirits often spoke through his wife, a spirit medium, and told him the Bible was full of errors. The Bible clearly forbids all contact with demons professing to bring messages from God. Knowing this, the Society has even attempted to hinder research about Greber by informing inquirers writing them in 1981, that they do not know where his new Testament can be obtained.3 Yet, we have a copy of an official Watchtower letter sent to the Greber Foundation dated December 20, 1980 thanking them for sending their New Testament and a book entitled COMMUNICATION WITH THE SPIRIT WORLD OF GOD. The Watchtower Society first began quoting Greber’s translation on John 1:1 in 1962. To show the depths of their deception and that they knew what they were doing, we find that six years earlier, in the 1956 Watchtower, page 111, the Society mentions Greber and warns readers against his demon-inspired translation! WHO IS JOHANNES GREBER?

1924 July 30. Russell recommended his followers read the book, Angels and Women. He personally supervised its editing and said it was beneficial because it throws light on certain Biblical subjects. The problem with Angels and Women is it was dictated by a “fallen angel” (demon) to a woman spirit medium. (Angels and Women. A revision of the unique novel Seola. By Mrs. J.G.Smith. Pub. By A.B.ABAC Company New York) angels2.gif Second Watchtower president Joseph Rutherford concurred with Russell’s advise, because he advertised it in his magazine, Golden Age (Enochian Magick term) recommending it and offering a discount to Golden Age readers. angels1.gif

1925 Rutherford’s Armageddon prediction fails.

1925 When nothing supernatural happened in 1925, the Watchtower Society lost three quarters of its members. A Short History of Jehovah’s Witnesses

1929 July 24, It is generally believed that the curse which Noah pronounced upon Canaan was the origin of the black race. Certain it is that when Noah said, “Cursed be Canaan, a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren,” he pictured the future of the Colored race. They have been and are a race of servants, but now in the dawn of the twentieth century, we are all coming to see this matter of service in its true light and to find that the only real joy in life is in serving others; not bossing them. There is no servant in the world as good as a good Colored servant, and the joy that he gets from rendering faithful service is one of the purest joys there is in the world. (The Golden Age, July 24, 1929, p. 702) Blacks and the Watchtower

1929 The Society built a mansion (“Beth Sarim”) to house the resurrected prophets, who were expected to arrive soon. The new definition of “generation” promised momentous events during the 1940’s.

1930 The Watchtower Society, which claimed to be creationists at this time, and taught that all humans descended from Adam and Eve; making all races brothers; would seem to eschew any eugenics thinking. Creationists in general were then openly opposed to eugenics, and many atheistic evolutionists were generally supportive. Yet, the fact that the Watchtower delved into eugenics and at one time evidently supported the movement is a striking commentary on both their scientific and scriptural naiveté. For example, an article published in The Golden Age authored by a Mr. MacArthur, the secretary of The American Eugenics Society, was written at the Watchtower’s request. The Watchtower expected that this article would meet “with hearty approval by many of our readers.” It begins by noting that many social problems exist; and in spite of laudatory efforts to alleviate these, “we do not seem to be making very marked progress.” The solution, the author concludes, is not because we are at the end of the system of things, an answer one might expect from a Watchtower publication, but because “modern science has put into our hands [the] means of preventing much of this suffering. The study of human heredity reveals the possibility of… eugenics, the science which deals with the conscious direction of human existence” The author concludes that we can take a lesson from domestic animals and the fact that “blood tells.” All we have to do is identify the “families cursed with a hereditary of shiftlessness, lack of foresight, and indifference to the rights of others” and then do something (such as forced sterilization) to prevent these families from producing a “horde of inferior human beings” (Anonymous. 1930. “Sterilization of the Unfit.” The Golden Age, November 12, p. 116) The Watchtower, Quack Science and Homicide * The Population Control Agenda

1930 False Prophet: The Society again explains how “…to know whether one is a true or a false prophet…. If he is a true prophet, his message will come to pass exactly as prophesied. If he is a false prophet, his prophecy will fail to come to pass” (Watch Tower, May 15, 1930, p. 154). External Link

1931 Feb. 4, In addition to diseases, vaccinations were responsible for the spread of “demonism” and sexual immorality! (The Golden Age, Feb. 4, 1931, p. 293.) The Watchtower Society and Medical Quackery

1934 September 26. The Journal of the American Medical Association is the vilest sheet that passes the United States mail…. Nothing new and useful in therapeutics escapes its unqualified condemnation. Its attacks are generally ad homonym. Its editorial columns are largely devoted to character assassination…. Its editor [Morris Fishbein] is of the type of Jew that crucified Jesus Christ. (The Golden Age, September 26, 1934, p. 807)

1935 The Seventh Day Adventist Church expelled a Bulgarian immigrant named Victor Houteff, who had begun teaching his own views on certain passages of the Revelation or Apocalypse, the last book of the Bible. Houteff set up shop on the property at Waco. After first referring to his tiny new sect as The Shepherd’s Rod, Houteff and his people in 1942 incorporated and renamed themselves Davidian Seventh Day Adventists. Houteff died in 1955, and in 1961 his wife Florence officially disbanded the sect, but a few followers under the leadership of west Texas businessman Benjamin Roden took over the real estate. Roden died in 1978, leaving behind his wife Lois and his son George to lead the group. Then, in 1987, David Koresh took over the leadership position, and the tragedy that followed is public knowledge. A Short History of the Watchtower Organization

1939 – 1945 The present government of Germany has declared emphatically against Big Business oppressors and in opposition to the wrongful religious influence in the political affairs of the nation. Such is exactly our position: Instead of being against the principles advocated by the government of Germany, we stand squarely for such principles and point out that Jehovah God through Christ Jesus will bring about the full realization of these principles. Joseph Franklin Rutherford (Watchtower and Bible Tract Society) Sleeping with the Enemy: Watchtower Style

Furthermore, the “Erklärung” clearly states that Jehovah’s Witnesses supported the aims of the Third Reich.

1939 – 1945 I had the privilege of traveling with Brother Albert Wandres from Wiesbaden to Berlin…But we were shocked when we arrived at the Tennis Hall (the Watchtower’s Magdeburg Headquarters) the next morning…When we entered, we found the Hall bedecked with Swastika flags! When the meeting started, it was preluded by a song which we had not sung for years…the notes were (taken from) the melody of ‘Deutschland, Deutschland, uber alles’! These notes were the melody for the German National Anthem! Ibid. [Konrad Franke's Testimony] p. 50 (Penton reported that Franke died as a Witness in good standing. See the Watchtower, 11/1/83, p.31) Sleeping with the Enemy: Watchtower Style

1939-1962 Felix Frankfurter, Associate Justice Supreme Court of the U.S. Unknown Mason Status. Nominated by Mason President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Felix Franfurter was a well-known friend of Joseph Kennedy, (John F. Kennedy’s father), and Charles Taze Russell, founder of the Watchtower and Bible Tract Society, known as the Jehovah’s Witnesses. A well known case for Felix was West Virginia State Board of Education vs. Barnette (1943), (Joseph Rutherford is in charge of the Witnesses at this time) which the court declared unconstitutional a state requirement that school children, including Jehovah’s Witnesses, salute the U.S. flag.

Things Rutherford would currently be Disfellowshipped for: Signing his own books, beer parties at Bethel, aggravating everyone in sight. Watchtower Presidential Era Summaries External Link

1942 Nathan Knorr assumes control of The Watchtower And Bible Tract Society. “I was just one of many “new-boys” who had arrived to work. I soon learned that the only reason Knorr would know anyone by name was if they were in trouble. Knorr was a cold businessman with little personality and little regard for other people’s problems. He had little patience and ruled with an iron fist. Most Bethel staff members were terrified of him.” FREDERICK WILLIAM FRANZ

1942 The Watchtower completely reverse’s their stand on Eugenics. Partly because it became clear that, determining who should be sterilized or prevented from interbreeding was very difficult (Consolation, Oct. 28, 1942:12). They even admitted that the Nazi techniques were “very much like the breeding and raising of livestock” (p. 12) and likely were appalled at this degradation of humans. When the Nazis began to sterilize women who had every imaginable problem; even color blindness. The Watchtower finally realized how anti-Biblical the philosophy advocated by many eugenicists was. They then realized that “demons, not men,” pursued policies that they themselves once approved of! (Consolation, Oct. 28, 1942:13). The Watchtower, Quack Science and Homicide

1945 When nothing supernatural had happened by 1945, the Society extended the meaning of “generation” to 80 years (the maximum lifespan of a typical man, as explained in Psalms 90:10). “Beth Sarim” was eventually sold.

1952 November 15, How do Watchtower leaders feel about ex-members who expose the Society? “We are not living today among theocratic nations where such members of our fleshly family relationship could be exterminated for apostasy from God and his theocratic organization . . . “Being limited by the laws of the worldly nation in which we live and also by the laws of God through Jesus Christ, we can take action against apostates only to a certain extent, that is, consistent with both sets of laws. The law of the land and God’s law through Christ forbid us to kill apostates . . .” The Watchtower November 15, 1952 page 703

1953-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th. President of the United States (R) Unknown Mason Status. Was also a member of the Anti-American organization known as the Council of Foreign Relations (CFR) Was also a member of the all-male ultra-exclusive Bohemian Club to which every Republican President since Herbert Hoover has belonged. Secret Societies Bohemian Club Also grew up as a Jehovah’s Witness.  Vice President Richard M. Nixon 1953-1961. Unknown Mason status. 1953-1961 President Eisenhower’s Special Advisor for Cold War Strategy was Nelson Rockefeller. Confirmed Illuminati. * (The Old Boys- The American Elite & The Origins of the CIA by Burton Hersh. On page 41) U.S. Presidents And the Masonic Power Structure

1953 The doctrine about God residing on the star Alcyone and Pleiades was discarded. Astrology and the Watchtower Society

1954 January 15, The Watchtower (page 38). In an article entitled “Do You Respect Plagiarists?” The Watchtower accuses a New York minister of the Churches of Christ named Antonio Ochoa of plagiarizing articles in The Watchtower and Awake! And published them in the Churches of Christ paper Gospel Broadcast. “WHAT do you think of a man that lifts articles from one magazine and has them published in another magazine? What do you think when he attaches his name as author of the stolen articles? What do you think of him when he continues to do it after he has been caught and has promised to quit? And does the fact that he claims to be a minister of religion shock you still more? (January 15, 1954 The Watchtower (page 38). Are they guilty of this crime also? Similar Styles? External Link

1965 N. H. Knorr, the third President of the Watchtower, had wanted to print a Bible dictionary, later known and published as the Aid To Bible Understanding. Originally Raymond Franz, the nephew of Fred Franz (fourth WT president) was assigned to accumulate data for this work. Later, it was necessary to add four more men to this project, making a committee of five. Two of these, Ray Franz and Lyman Swingle, later became members of the Governing Body. Edward Dunlap, registrar for the Gilead School, also researched material for this project. In his book Crisis of Conscience (p. 20-27) Raymond Franz tells of the research he undertook regarding the dating system, which is based upon the cornerstone of 1914 as being the end of the “Gentiles Times,” a period supposedly running for 2520 years since 607 BC. Franz tells of how he sent his personal secretary (Charles Ploeger) to visit the New York City libraries to try and substantiate this date for the destruction of Jerusalem. No such evidence was forthcoming. Instead, the date 587-586 BC was reinforced. Later, in 1977, a Swedish Witness elder sent a great deal of documentation based upon the cuneiform tablets (over 10,000) found in the Mesopotamian area that dated back to the time of ancient Babylon, which tablets substantiated, not 607 BC, but 20 years later as the destruction of Jerusalem. As Mr. Franz states in his book, “Much of the time and space (under the Aid book heading of `Chronology’) was spent in trying to weaken the credibility of the archeological and historical evidence that would make erroneous our 607 BC date and give a different starting point for our calculations and therefore an ending date different from 1914.” Franz and his secretary even took a trip to Brown University in Rhode Island to interview Prof. Abraham Sachs, a specialist in ancient cuneiform texts, in an attempt to find a weakness or flaw in the historical evidence. Not one possibility existed of such evidence being erroneous. Yet, Franz felt obligated to write the article in the Aid book without revealing all of the facts, as the rest of the Governing Body refused to reconsider the matter. Watchtower: The Critical Years

1966 Although 1914 plus 80 equals 1994, in 1966 the Watchtower Society decided that the year 1975 was “significant”, because they had calculated that it marked the end of six thousand years since the creation of Adam and Eve. Watchtower publications strongly hinted that “the end” would come in 1975.

1975 Armageddon prediction fails.

1975 When nothing supernatural happened in 1975, the Watchtower Society lost many members. It explained that the time between Adam’s creation and Eve’s creation was not known, so the 1975 date was only speculative.

Mid-70’s, Some members of the Watchtower began to question their dating system, notably their “Gentile Times” calculations. The trouble began when a handful of men were commissioned to write the book Aid To Bible Understanding, a dictionary of Bible terms for the Witnesses. In researching their chronological dating system for the “last days,” historical research proved without a doubt that their foundational date of 1914 (supposedly the invisible return of Christ) was nothing more than the start of World War I. This date had been arrived at through a series of unrelated calculations, counting 2520 years from the destruction of Jerusalem in 607 BC to the year AD 1914. But the clock-stopper was this: According to all historical records, Jerusalem was destroyed in 587-586 BC, a full 20 years later than the Witness date. Neither was there found any basis in the Bible for a 2520-year “Gentile Times.” Russell’s dates and concepts had been relied upon with inaccurate history as a foundation. A shock wave within the organization was inevitable. No matter how tight the security, sooner or later it would leak out. The-‘trickle’ began in the ’70s, and the “dam” broke in 1980. Watchtower: The Critical Years

1975 “Jehovah’s Witnesses have nothing in common with other religious groups and can never seek any affiliation with them.” {AWAKE Nov 22 1975} [In 1980, the State of California informed Jimmy Swaggart Ministries that tax was due for religious books and tapes sold in the state since 1974. The case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court. On June 22, 1989, the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society filed an ‘amicus curiae’ (friend of the court) brief on behalf of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries (No. 88-1374 in the Supreme Court of the United States, October Term, 1988). Comprehensive List of False Dates Set by the Watchtower * Jehovah’s Witnesses and Jimmy Swaggart

1977 Fred Franz, assumes control of The Watchtower and Bible Tract Society. (Jehovah’s Witnesses) who later perjured himself under oath in Scotland in a court trial, by saying he could read Hebrew, and then failing a simple Hebrew test. What New Converts don’t know about their own Organization
Later, I became a part of a group that met with Franz on Wednesday nights, listening to him pontificate. We would discuss the “daily text,” a scripture passage. I will never forget his voice as he stretched out the syllables, “Brooother Blizaaaaard, what comment do you have on this text.” I would try my best to interpret it. Once, I asked the wrong question and drew a violent response. Jehovah’s Witnesses are taught that Jehovah God himself deals directly only with a group known as “the remnant” and that other Jehovah’s Witnesses must deal with Him through the Watchtower Society. The arrangement puzzled me. I asked: “Brother Franz, since the Watchtower Society in Brooklyn is the only outlet for God to speak through, by way of the printed materials and so forth, how would someone of the ‘remnant’ get information from God to other Witnesses? I mean … how would an older sister, say, way out in the country, for example, give Spiritual food from Jehovah to others?” Franz’s face turned red and he replied: “How? … How? … By supporting what is printed in the Watchtower, that’s how!” With that, he went to his room. End of discussion. I believe Franz’s reaction was demonic.

Note: Natheer Salih was supposedly Fred Franz’s bodyguard and helper, but all communications to WT President Fred Franz had to go through 6’2″ Natheer Salih, who would supposedly ask Franz and then would come back with an answer. Apparently Salih may be from an Iraqi Jewish bloodline. He wears big rings and has expensive tastes. Salih was the channel through whom the Illuminati could pass their decisions for the WT onto the Governing Body and Bethel staff. Illuminati control the Jehovah’s Witnesses. The Russell Bloodline

Cecil Rhodes set up the Rhodes Scholarships to recruit and bring top men from several nations to Oxford to be initiated into the Illuminati and to learn about how to bring in a One-World-Government, So the initial selection into the Rhodes program–1st degree of the Illuminati.- is equivalent to the initiation into the Skull & Bones. the astor bloodline    Fred Franz was was in line for the Rhodes Scholarship.

Things Franz would currently be Disfellowshipped for: Listening to secret motivational cassette tapes that he never let out of his sight. Otherwise, he was too smart to be dis-fellowshipped. Besides, he invented dis-fellowshipping. Watchtower Presidential Era Summaries External Link

What you can get Disfellowshipped for:

1.No longer claiming to be called a brother/sister.
2. Independent study and discussion of the Bible that brings Watchtower doctrine into question.
3. Possession of literature written by former members.
4. Having lunch with a former member, even if the former member professes to be a Christian and was not Disfellowshipped for fornication, greed, idolatry, reviling, drunkenness, or extortion.
5. Attending a service of any other church or religious organization.
6. Authorizing a blood transfusion, even to save the life of a child.
7. Numerous other actions not mentioned in scripture, but deemed by the congregation elders to be “unclean conduct,” or “conduct unbecoming” of a Jehovah’s Witness. “Conduct” in this case covers a broad range of actions not clearly defined by the Society, leaving discernment about what is not acceptable to the discretion of the congregation’s elders. As a result, standards by which people may be Disfellowshipped are inconsistent throughout this religion which claims “unity” to be one of their identifying characteristics. SHUNNING

What they haven’t Disfellowshipped for:

1. Promiscuity became a problem once women were admitted to Bethel. But “heterosexual offenses have never been the serious problem that homosexual ones have been,” Penton states. “In fact, [former Watch Tower leader Nathan Knorr], who seems to have had a fixation on sexual sins, kept the matter of homosexuality and masturbation so constantly before workers at the Watch Tower headquarters that one is forced to wonder if he did not have homosexual tendencies himself.” If so, it might explain why he seemed to protect Percy Chapman, the alleged one-time lover of GB member Leo Greenlees. In 1959, under hint of homosexual scandal, Knorr went to Canada to replace Chapman, who was the Canadian Branch overseer.
2. According to Larry D., a gay Toronto former JW, “Percy … was totally anti-marriage and he made sure that none of the “Bethel boys” even contemplated the subject ….” Larry described the Bethel boys of the 1950s. “They were all young and handsome, hand-picked by Percy Chapman; there was even an elite group known as ‘Percy’s boys’ who would accompany him to expensive restaurants and bars … at the time, Bethel was on Irwin Avenue in the center of the gay district of Toronto. There was even a Kingdom Hall above ‘The Parkside,’ one of Toronto’s few gay bars in the fifties and sixties.”
3. Regardless of his dubious relationship with Chapman, Greenlees became Treasurer of WTB&TS and one of the Governing Body. According to Larry, “He managed to escape the witch hunt at Brooklyn Bethel in the early seventies when dozens of Bethel boys were Disfellowshipped after learning of their midnight trysts in the sauna in Brooklyn Bethel.” Jehovah’s Witnesses speak out: Part 2

1979 [Of those living at the time of Armageddon, only Jehovah's Witnesses will be saved] {WT Feb 15 1979 30}Comprehensive List of False Dates Set by the Watchtower

1980 The Society suggested that the Witnesses and the publishing staff had been overly enthusiastic about the “possibility” of Armageddon in 1975. This failed to lure back thousands who had left, but regular door-to-door preaching restored the rapid growth the Witnesses had enjoyed since the “significance” of 1975 had been announced.

1983 Feb. 1st. Pg. 17 of a Watchtower magazine, The Society is caught using subliminal pictures in its artwork portraying the Egyptian god Zeus. JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES AND THE TOWER OF DARKNESS

Here is a demon hidden in Christ’s hair. You can live forever on paradise on Earth. Pg. 17. JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES AND THE TOWER OF DARKNESS

Demonic image at democratic debate

Parents would be surprised what is slipped into cartoons. In Disney’s “The Little Mermaid” the castles are male sexual organs. In one cartoon Mighty Mouse is shown without comment clearly snorting cocaine. (Since Russell and Disney are connected through The Disney_bloodline and both were Freemasons. I thought it appropriate to mention The Watchtower and Disney’s connections at an attempt of mind manipulation through hidden images.) Walt Disney Studios Chairman Joe Roth is in charge of Walt Disney as well as subsidiaries Touchtone, Miramax, and Hollywood Pictures, which were all created to camouflage the Disney production of adult films. Roth oversaw Disney’s subsidiary Hollywood Pictures’ Evita film. Evita has as its main start “Material Girl” Madonna. Madonna is in reality a mind-controlled slave who has appeared in numerous underground porn/& ritual porn movies. This author (of the Disney Bloodline) has an underground catalog from a porn business that has recently changed its location of business. The catalog offered a film of Madonna performing an actual blood sacrifice.

Found on a French Christian web site dedicated to Jehovah’s Witnesses a new subliminal picture in their new book about the ‘Prophetie of Isaia’ on page 34 in the French version.

See the eagle and the skull?

1988 The constellations of the Zodiac are presently considered by the The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, known as the Jehovah’s Witnesses as being of pagan origin. (Insight on the Scriptures Volume 2 (1988) p. 1240) The same was regarded in 1914 as of Divine origin with each of the 12 Zodiacal signs having numerous correspondences with the Bible. Astrology and the Watchtower Society.

1989 June 22, the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society filed an ‘amicus curiae’ (friend of the court) brief on behalf of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries (No. 88-1374 in the Supreme Court of the United States, October Term, 1988). Comprehensive List of False Dates Set by the Watchtower // Jehovah’s Witnesses and Jimmy Swaggart

1992 Milton G. Henschel assumes control of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. (Upgraded from vice to President at the death of Fred Franz.)

1994 Arrives (1914 plus 80 years), nothing supernatural happened. The Society had not ascribed any special significance to 1994, but the “generation” issue was becoming awkward. The ranks of the Society’s special members (the 144,000 who were “anointed”, based on an interpretation of Revelation) were dying out. The claim that Jesus had appointed the Watchtower Society special status in 1918 was becoming hard to defend.

1995 The Watchtower Society decided that “generation” did not mean a physical generation (i.e. 80 years) but meant, “age”, as in “era”. This extended the “end times” indefinitely, although when the last of the 144,000 special members die out, the Society will have to be run by regular members.

1996 Friday, 30th August . Religion, censorship and the Internet form a potent combination that is at the heart of a David and Goliath struggle which broke out this week. In the Goliath corner is the huge multi-national corporation, the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Inc with sales of over a billion dollars a year through their vast door-to-door distribution system by gullible Jehovah’s Witnesses, and on the other side, the Watchtower Observer, a Website run as a personal crusade by Norwegian small business-man, Kent Steinhaug. The content of Kent’s site contains similar information listed at this site. Last year, a campaign by Internet-enabled Jehovah’s Witnesses, attempted to close down the site. Nano, the Norwegian Internet provider, stood by its crusader; and likewise unmoved was the other focus of the campaign, the famous anonymous electronic mail site in Finland. This year, it is corporate lawyers sending paper threats, rather than sect members making email strikes. The focus of this attack is a secret book, “Pay Attention to Yourselves and the Needs of the Flock” published by the Watchtower Society, and distributed only amongst the sect’s senior ministers (“elders”), with strict instructions not to reveal its contents to ordinary members. “Pay Attention to Yourselves and the Needs of the Flock”

1997 “Of course a Christian’s first priorities are spiritual matters, such as reading the Bible daily and getting well acquainted with priceless Scriptural truths discussed in the Watchtower and Awake! magazines and other publications of the The Watchtower Society. Everlasting benefits come, not from surfing the Internet, but from using your time to take in knowledge of the only true God and of his Son, Jesus Christ, and to apply it zealously” (July 22, 1997, p. 13). Page 13 of course.

E.W. Bullinger writes:

“As to the significance of thirteen, all are aware that it has come down to us as a number of ill-omen. Many superstitions cluster around it, and various explanations are current concerning them.

“Unfortunately, those who go backwards to find a reason seldom go back far enough. The popular explanations do not, so far as we are aware, go further back than the Apostles. But we must go back to the first occurrence of the number thirteen in order to discover the key to its significance. It occurs first in Gen. xiv. 4, where we read ‘Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and the thirteenth year they REBELLED.’

“Hence every occurrence of the number thirteen, and likewise of every multiple of it, stamps that with which it stands in connection with rebellion, apostasy, defection, corruption, disintegration,  revolution, or some kindred idea.” (Bullinger, E.W.Number in Scripture, Kregel Publications, (c)1967, p. 205).

1997 In a bold move aimed at suppressing dissident Jehovah’s Witnesses; the Watchtower Society’s New York headquarters has filed charges with the police against ex-members Kent Steinhaug and Jan Haugland of Norway. Steinhaug reported for questioning to the police station in Skien, his home town, on the morning of March 4, 1997 Watchtower Takes Legal Action Against Ex-Members

1998 March. Representatives of the Jehovah’s Witness organization made a formal legal agreement with the government of Bulgaria that the JW’s would be able to choose their own stance on the blood issue without any disfellowshipping from the Watchtower and then reneges on Human rights blood agreement. January-March 1999 – pages 2-3

1998 May. The French government hit the Watchtower Society’s branch with a bill for 300 million francs back taxes, penalties and interest (roughly $50 million). This was followed in June by a lien on the Society’s properties in France. Why? Because the French government classifies the organization as a “dangerous cult” rather than a recognized religion. As a punitive measure, officials imposed a 60% tax on moneys received. October-December 1998 – page 2

1998 September 10-12, Official Watchtower representatives share the speaker’s platform with Moonies, New Agers, occult groups, vampire sects, and others at the CESNUR conference (the Center for Studies on New Religions) in Torino, Italy.October-December 1998 – page 5

Another part of a puzzle that was solved was how by way of common genealogy the Watchtower Organization and David Koresh have a lot more in common than most would care to think. Both groups have the same parent and that “parent” was William Miller. Unfortunately the Watchtower in an attempt to distance itself from William Miller only mentions him in its Proclaimers book only a scant 3 times. KORESH AND THE WATCHTOWER SOCIETY

“The men of Sodom WILL be resurrected” — WT, p. 8, July, 1879.
“The men of Sodom will NOT be resurrected” — WT, p. 338, June 1, 1952.
“The men of Sodom WILL be resurrected” — WT, p. 479, August 1, 1965.
“The men of Sodom will NOT be resurrected” — WT, p. 31, June 1, 1988.

If this isn’t enough to make you run, what will?

Photo courtesy of David Icke's website symbolism archives.

Jehovah Witnesses Watchtower Symbols
From Bruno – France. From David Icke’s symbols archive.

Photo courtesy of David Icke's website symbolism archives.

Jehovah Witnesses Watchtower Symbols
From Bruno – France. From David Icke’s symbols archive.

Photo courtesy of David Icke's website symbolism archives.

Jehovah Witnesses Watchtower Symbols
From Bruno – France. From David Icke’s symbols archive.

Photo courtesy of David Icke's website symbolism archives.

Jehovah Witnesses Watchtower Symbols
From Bruno – France. From David Icke’s symbolism archives

The Below seals are from Seals of The Watchtower

Let’s take a look on the official seals of the Company Watchtower. We have a representation of it to the right. That to the left was created by Charles Taze Russell in 1884. That of right-hand side was adopted in 1956 with president Nathan Knorr ruling the Watchtower Society, and replaced the precedent definitively.

Click for larger view

Original Seals (above)

Replaced Masonic Seals Below

Click on Masonic seals for larger view.

The above seals are 100% Masonic. All one needs to do is research the Masons and you will see this symbolism on everything they touch.

In Conclusion.

Let’s apply the Watchtower history to Moses, or Noah, and Lot. If Moses told his people every year that God was going to deliver them from bondage and Moses got them all the way to the Red Sea only to have Pharaoh slaughter them. How many of Gods people would listen to Moses each and every time God didn’t come through with his promise. None. How about Noah. What if Noah built an ark every time God told him he was going to flood the Earth and then God didn’t deliver? Let’s apply the Watchtower history to Lot. What if Lot told Sodom and Gomorra every year that God was going to destroy them and it didn’t come about year after year. These men would have told God to take a hike. I will not be your fool anymore, as each JW should tell WTBS to do. But God did deliver each and every time he gave these men his word. The bible is full of God coming through to his promise. So what does all this mean? Simple. God has nothing to do with the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. He has not come through for them one time in over 200 years of false predictions. This means God didn’t tell the Watchtower that the battle of Armageddon was going to happen each and every wrong forecast foretold by WTBS. The WTBS instead, have made fools out of the JW’s. God does not make fools, or false prophets out of his followers. He didn’t Moses, or Noah, or Lot, did he. Nor does God appreciate the WTBS trying to make a fool out of him, which is exactly what the WTBS has tried to do. The WTBS is not Gods chosen organization. The WTBS instead have made any and all teachings out of the JW’s mouth’s false doctrines and invalid. Dead and void.

If it doesn’t come true as it was predicted, then it wasn’t from God . Its that simple.

to know whether one is a true or a false prophet…. If he is a true prophet, his message will come to pass exactly as prophesied. If he is a false prophet, his prophecy will fail to come to pass” (Watch Tower, May 15, 1930, p. 154).

The W Files: Over 800 links exposing the Watchtower world wide.

Back To Pt: 1

Copyright © 1999-2001 by Robert Howard. All rights reserved.

see also: JW Secret Book


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